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CHEMICAL ENGINEER

University of Valladolid
Ana Celina Gondim Santos
Sara Pérez Nieto
(Group B - 22)

Valladolid, 20 de Octubre de 2011
Chemical Engineering Laboratory II
CHILLING ADSORPTION
1. INTRODUCTION

2. ADSORPTION REFRIGERATOR

3. RESEARCHS

4. APLICATIONS

5. CONCLUSIONS
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1. INTRODUCTION
Cooling adsorption systems


Advantages:

● environmentally friendly refrigerants
● can recover waste heat at low temperature levels
● low operation costs

Evaluation of an Adsorption cooling system:

● coefficient of performance (COP)
● specific cooling power (SCP)
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Oil crisis (1970)
Ecological problems (1990)
2. ADSORPTION REFRIGERATOR
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2.1 System configuration and operation










Figure 1. General basis system layout of the adsorption chiller.
ADSORBENT
ADSORBATE
Adsorbent cooling:
adsorption process +
refrigerant evaporation
Adsorbent heating:
desorption process +
refrigerant condensation
2. ADSORPTION REFRIGERATOR
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2.1 System configuration and operation










Figure 2. Photograph of the silica gel-water adsorption chiller.
2. ADSORPTION REFRIGERATOR
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2.1 System configuration and operation










Figure 3. The adsorption icemaker
during ice production.
Figure 4. Solar-powered icemaker
without valves.
2. ADSORPTION REFRIGERATOR
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2.2 Parameters of work

Parameters that influence in the performance of
the system:
● Temperature of cooling water
● Adsorption temperature
● Heating source temperature
● Desorption temperature
● Cycle time









to get more cooling.
load control tool
T↑ and madsorbed ↓ (Pconst)
T↑ and P↑ (madsorbed-const)

2. ADSORPTION REFRIGERATOR
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2.3 Key issues for the development of adsorption
systems

● The hight cost of production is a drawback for
adsorption systems.

● To become more commercially attractive, it is
necessary to make a cost and size reduction:

● Increasing the SCP throught enhancement of the
internal and external heat transfer of the adsorber;
● Increasing the COP throught the improvement of the
heat management.






2. ADSORPTION REFRIGERATOR
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2.3 Key issues for the development of adsorption
systems

The main technologies to enhance the external
heat transfer are related to:

● extended surfaces: to increase of the heat
exchange area;
● coated adsorbers: to increase the wall heat transfer
coefficient;
● heat pipe technology: to have a high heat flux density
and less intermediate elements.






2. ADSORPTION REFRIGERATOR
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2.3 Key issues for the development of adsorption
systems

The main technologies to enhance the internal
heat transfer are related to:

● consolidated adsorbents: because consolidated
adsorbents have lower mass transfer properties than
granular adsorbents, which could lead to very low
adsorption rates.






3. RESEARCHS
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3.1 Researches tendency

● Increase in adsorption cooling systems
performance → compete with electric compression
machines.

● R&D develop performing


● Harmonization of the adsorbent with the
thermodynamic cycle.





Adsorbents

Components

Sistems

3. RESEARCHS
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3.1 Researches tendency


Investigation in adsorbing materials:

● silica gel/water
● zeolite/water
● activated carbon
● activated carbon fibres/ammonia
● Methanol
● R134a




3. RESEARCHS
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3.1 Researches tendency


Adsorption refrigeration systems modelling:

● Many modelling techniques;
● Simulate the adsorption refrigeration systems;
● Simulation techniques:

● lumped-parameter ;
● lumped analytical ;
● dynamic ;
● distributed .




3. RESEARCHS
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3.1 Researches tendency


Simulation constant values:

● Overall heat transfer coefficient for adsorbent
beds;
● Evaporator;
● Condenser.


3. RESEARCHS
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3.1 Researches tendency


Researches about adsorption cooling:



● evaluation of adsorption and physical-chemical
properties of the working-pairs;
● development of predictive models of their behaviour in
different working conditions.
● study of the different kinds of cycles.



Divided into some specifics ways to improve adsorption
cooling systems.
3. RESEARCHS
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3.1 Researches tendency





Figura 5. Design drawing and a frontal view of the
adsorption chiler test facility.
3. RESEARCHS
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3.2 Read Researches


Development and test of two heat regenerative
adsorption systems:

● ice making and air conditioning;
● activated carbon-methanol adsorption pair;
● cycle time was short → good heat transfer.


3. RESEARCHS
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3.2 Read Researches


Synthesis and characterization of a new composite
sorbent:

● Improve the adsorbent;
● Make the isobars of ads-/desorption steeper;
● Increase the mass of water exchanged at the same
boundary conditions;
● Improve the hydrothermal stability.


3. RESEARCHS
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3.2 Read Researches


Testing of the lab scale adsorption chiller:

● Study the influence of the cycle time;
● Study the relative duration of the isobaric steps;
● Relative duration of the isobaric steps on the
performance of an adsorption cooling system.


3. RESEARCHS
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3.2 Read Researches

Design and performance prediction of a new
generation adsorption chiller:
(Mathematical model)

● Describe the heat and mass transfer process

● Adsorbent bed
● the composite adsorbent
● the metal of the tube
● the working fluids

● Condenser
● cooling water
● the metal of the tube
● refrigerant


3. RESEARCHS
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3.2 Read Researches

Optimization the operation strategy :

● Different temperatures of hot water inlet, cooling water
inlet and chilling water inlet → different COP and cooling
capacity;

● Conventional chiller;


● Composite adsorbent





higher cooling capacity
COP slightly higher
4 . APLICATIONS
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● Jiagsu Province, China

● cool a grain depot during hot summers ;
● silica-gel adsorption chiller driven by a low
temperature heat source .

● Shanghai Research Institute of Building Science

● chillers being used in the air conditioning system of a
“green” building.





4 . APLICATIONS
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Figure 6. (a) Shanghai „„Green‟‟ Building; (b) equipment room.
(a) (b)
4 . APLICATIONS
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● European project Climasol

● examples of buildings that already use solar-powered
sorption air conditioners

● System located in the cosmetic company
● adsorption chillers powered by hot water in the
summer

● Chinese policy for energy exploitation
● small power adsorption chillers
● suitable for combined cooling, heating and power
systems or heating and power system



5 . CONCLUSIONS
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We tried to synthesize the four articles, taking the best that
each had. It was observed that:

• Adsorption cooling systems are becoming increasingly
considered for applications where cooling is required and
low grade heat is available.
• Adsorption refrigerating machines consist essentially of an
evaporator, a condenser, valves, and an adsorber-reactor
containing a porous medium as adsorbent.
• Some parameters influence in the performance of the system
and there are drawbacks in these systems that don‟t make
them so commercially attractive.
• Researches about adsorption cooling are divided into some
specifics ways to improve adsorption cooling systems.
• Looking for real application for the cooling adsorption, some
buildings and grain depot were found in Asia and Europe.

Thank you!
26/27
CHEMICAL ENGINEER
University of Valladolid
Ana Celina Gondim Santos
Sara Pérez Nieto
(Group B - 22)

Valladolid, 20 de Octubre de 2011
Chemical Engineering Laboratory II
CHILLING ADSORPTION