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SHAFAAT AYUB (4567

)
Training?
Training helps to
bridge the gap
Existing
• Skills
• Knowledge
• Attitudes
Required
• Skills
• Knowledge
• Attitudes
Upgrading & Acquisition
•knowledge
•Skill
•Competencies
•Etc

prepared by SHAFAAT AYUB
Training Need Analysis (TNA)
TNA is a tool to
identify the gap
Existing
• Skills
• Knowledge
• Attitudes
Required
• Skills
• Knowledge
• Attitudes
prepared by SHAFAAT AYUB
TNA (Step 1): Future performance
Existing
performance
Future
performance

What are the goals for the future
performance of our
organization?

• profit
• growth
• customer base
• new products
• ?
• ?
Prepared by SHAFAAT AYUB
ORGANIZATIONAL
ANALYSIS
JOB ANALYSIS
PERSON
ANANLYSIS
 Organizational goals and objectives, mission statements, strategic plans.
 Staffing inventory, succession planning, long and short term staffing needs.
 Skills inventory: both currently available and short and long term needs, organizational
climate indices: labor/management relationships, grievances, turnover rates, absenteeism,
suggestions, productivity, accidents, short term sickness, observations of employee
behavior, attitude surveys, customer complaints.
 Analysis of efficiency indices: costs of labor, costs of materials, quality of products,
equipment utilization, production rates, costs of distribution, waste, down time, late
deliveries, repairs.
 Changes in equipment, technology or automation.
 Annual report.
 Plans for reorganization or job restructuring.
 Audit exceptions; reward systems.
 Planning systems.
 Delegation and control systems.
 Employee attitudes and satisfaction.
prepared by SHAFAAT AYUB
prepared by SHAFAAT AYUB
 Job description
A narrative statement of the major activities involved in performing the job and
the conditions under which these activities are performed. If an accurate job
description is not available or is out of date, one should be prepared using job
analysis techniques.
prepared by SHAFAAT AYUB
 KSA analysis (job specification)

A more detailed list of specified tasks for each job including Knowledge, Skills, Attitudes
and Abilities required of incumbents.

prepared by SHAFAAT AYUB
 • Job inventory questionnaire-- Evaluate tasks in terms of importance
and time spent performing.

prepared by SHAFAAT AYUB
 • Ask questions about the job-- Of the incumbents, of the
supervisor, of upper management.
 • Analysis of operating problems-- Down time, waste,
repairs, late deliveries, quality control.

prepared by SHAFAAT AYUB
prepared by SHAFAAT AYUB
 Performance evaluation
Identifies weaknesses and areas of improvement.

prepared by SHAFAAT AYUB
 Performance problems
Productivity, absenteeism or tardiness, accidents, grievances, waste,
product quality, down time, repairs, equipment utilization, customer
complaints.

prepared by SHAFAAT AYUB
 Interviews
Talk to manager, supervisor and employee. Ask employee
about what he/she believes he/she needs to learn.

prepared by SHAFAAT AYUB
 Questionnaires Written form of the interview, tests, must
measure job-related qualities such as job knowledge and
skills.
prepared by SHAFAAT AYUB
 Attitude Survey
Masures morale, motivation, satisfaction.


prepared by SHAFAAT AYUB
 Checklists or training progress charts Up-to-
date listing of current skills.

prepared by SHAFAAT AYUB
Presented to:
Sir Col.Raza Kamal
Presented by:
Muhammad Sajid
REG NO : 4693
 A lecture is the method
learners often most
commonly associate with
college and secondary
education.

 Use of handouts, visual
aids, question/answer, or
posters to support the
lecture.

 One-way communication.
INFORMATIONAL METHODS
 Audio-visual
instruction includes:
 Video Includes DVDs
 Films
 PowerPoint
 Audiotapes and videotapes.
 More effective than live lectures.
e.g. Open heart surgery, visual
tour of a factory


 It has been used for
improving:
 Communication skills
 Interviewing skills
 Customer-service skills
 Illustrating how
procedures should be
followed
Advantages
 Learn at own pace
 Feedback about learning
performance
 Fewer trainers needed
 Consistent materials
 Multiple sites easier
 Fits employee shifts and
schedules
Disadvantages
 Trainees must be motivated to
learn on their own
 Higher development time
 Limited interaction
 Training methods that
require the trainee to be
actively involved in learning
 These methods include:
 On-the-job training (OJT)
 Apprenticeship Training
 Computer-Based Training
 Distance and Internet-Based
Training
 Simulations
 Case studies
 Business games
 Role plays
 Behavior modeling
 The-job training (OJT) refers to new or
inexperienced employees learning
through observing peers or managers
performing the job and trying to imitate
their behavior

 OJT includes:
 Apprenticeships
 Self-directed learning programs
 Work-study training method with both on-
the-job and classroom training
 To qualify as a registered apprenticeship
program under state or federal regulations:
 144 hours of classroom instruction
 2000 hours (or one year) of OJT experience
 Can be sponsored by companies or unions

 Computer-based Programmed Instruction (CPI)



 Computer-Managed Instruction (CMI)



Distance and Internet-
Based Training




Distance training includes:
 Teletraining
With teletraining, a trainer in a central location
teaches groups of employees at remote location
via television hookups.

 Videoconferencing
Videoconferencing allows people in one location to
communicate live via a combination of audio and
visual equipment with people in another city or
country, or with groups in several cities.





 Trainees are required to:

 analyze and critique actions taken
 indicate the appropriate actions
 suggest what might have been done differently


 Require trainees to gather information, analyze it, and
make decisions

 Primarily used for management skill development

 Games mimic the competitive nature of business
 Successful role play requires that instructors:
 Ensure that group members are comfortable with
each other.
 Select and prepare the role players by introducing
a specific situation.
 To help participants prepare, ask them to describe
potential characters.
 Realize that volunteers make better role players
• An approach that demonstrates desired
behavior and gives trainees the chance to
practice and role-play those behaviors and
receive feedback.

• Involves four basic components:
• Learning points
• Model
• Practice and role play
• Feedback and reinforcement

THE EFFECTIVENESS OF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR
PRESENTER
ANUM SOHAIL
4723
ASSESSING THE COST AND BENEFITS OF TRAINING
COST THAT SHOULD BE MEASURED:

1. One-time cost
2. Cost associated with training sessions
3. Cost associated with trainees
BENEFITS OF THE TRAINING PROGRAM:


1. Dollar pay back
2. Duration of the training impact


RETURN ON INVESTMENT (ROI):

FORMULA:

ROI (%)= Net program benefits x 100
Program costs
It measures the economic contribution
of the program according to how
effective it was in identifying and
modifying behaviour.Utility analysis
are based on subjective estimations
DESIGNS FOR EVALUATING TRAINING
PRIMARY QUESTIONS FOR EVALUATION OF
TRAINING:

1. Whether or not a change has occurred in the criteria
(learning,behaviour,organizational results)?

2. Whether or not change can be attributed to the
training program
STRATEGIES FOR ANSWERING THESE QUESTIONS
1. Comparison of trainees performance before
and after participation in training

2. Comparison of the trainees group with the
other non- trained groups
One-Shot Post test-Only Design

TRAINING



One-Group Pretest-Post test Design


MEASURE
MEASURES
TRAINING MEASURE
GROUP 1:R:TRAINING
GROUP2:R:NO TRAINING

Pretest-Posttest Control Group Design

GROUP1:R:MEASURE

GROUP2:R:MEASURE
MEASUR
E
MEASUR
E
TRAININ
G
MEASUR
E
NO
TRAINING
MEASURE
GROUP1:R:MEASURE
TRAINING


GROUP2:R:MEASURE
MEASUR
E
MEASUR
E
MEASUR
E
MEASUR
E
MEASUR
E
MEASUR
E
MEASURE
NO TRAINING MEASUR
E
MEASUR
E
MEASUR
E
prepared by SHAFAAT AYUB
prepared by SHAFAAT AYUB