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Data and Information

Data – any representation, such as a figure or a letter, to
which meaning can be ascribed.
Information – Any organized signal

Data Transmission

Defined as the movement of information over some physical
medium, using some physical representation appropriate
to the medium.
Data Communications

Controlling, checking and handling of the movement of
information in a communications-based computer system.

The encoding of data so that it requires less disk space for
storage and transmission.


The science of converting computer data and messages to
something incomprehensible by means of a key, so that it
can be reconverted only by an authorized recipient holding
the matching key.

Data Transmission:
1. Serial Transmission – Bits are transmitted one after
another. (serial-by-bit)
2. Parallel Transmission – Bits are transmitted all at once.
Modes of Transmission:
1. Simplex
2. Half-Duplex
3. Full-Duplex
4. Point-to-point
5. Multi-drop
I. Bus
II. Ring
III. Hub
IV. Wireless

Data Communications Circuit:

1. DTE (Data Terminal Equipment) – a computer
transmit and receive equipment.
2. DCE (Data Communication Equipment) – an
equipment that interfaces the DTE to the network.

Transmission Methods:

1. Asynchronous – a character-framed transmission
2. Synchronous – a message-framed transmission
3. Isochronous – a synchronous data transmitted without a
clocking source
4. Pleisiochronous – a synchronous transmission of varying
levels of bandwidth

1. Network Synchronization – required so that station sharing a
network can transmit and receive in an orderly fashion
2. Frame Synchronization – required to keep track of the individual
channels in a TDM system
3. Codeword and node synchronization – required to keep tracks of
block of bits in a bit stream.
4. Symbol Synchronization – required in order that symbols, which
may be hidden in a noisy waveform, are sampled at the optimum time
5. Carrier Synchronization – required in order to demodulate a carrier
modulated wave in the most efficient manner.
Transmission Codes:
1. Binary Digit (bit) – defined as the amount of information
derived from the knowledge of two equiprobables’ and can be
represented mathematically by a 1 or 0 or electrically by two
deferring conditions +v or –v, on or off.
2. Alpha numeric characters are being coded into binary notations.
BCD (Binary Coded Decimal) – a 4-bit code used to
represent decimal numbers in terms of binary notation. To
represent alpha information an additional 2 bits is being
added. (6 bits represents BCD with alphanumeric
EBCDIC (Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange
Code) – an extension of BCD code that uses 8 bits instead
of six.
International Alphabet No. 5 (ASCII) – a 7-bit code
developed by ANSI, CCITT and ISO.
Telegraph Codes (IA 2) – the International Alphabet No. 2
is a 5-bit code used in telegraphy. Also known as the
Baudot Code
UNICODE (Universal Code) – An attempt to standardize
longer and more complex coding scemes used to
accommodate more complex languages such as Japanese
and Chinese. Supports 65,536 (216) characters.
Efficiency of Codes
The efficiency of a two-condition code can be expressed by
the formula:
E = --------------------
Where: E = the efficiency of the code
N = the number of characters or symbols required
M = the number of bits in the code
Data Transmission Rates

1. Modulation Rate – Rate at which changes in the condition
of the circuit can be made in a given time
2. Data Signaling Rate – Rate at which information can be
3. Data (Information) Transfer Rate – Rate at which actual
data arrives after transmission