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 The first known dams were constructed about 8,000
years ago in Mesopotamia.
 Dams built in Jordan and Egypt 1100BC
 Dujiang Irrigation Project in China
300BC - 800,000 hectares
 Large Dams in the world (> 15 m high)
 In 1949 some 5,000 Existed.
 By 2000, there were 45,000.

What is a Dam?
 A barrier built across a water course to
hold back or control water flow
 Classified as one of three types
1. Storage
2. Diversion
3. Detention
 Created in times when
there is a surplus supply
of water to collect and
hold until such time that
it is needed
 Example: many small
dams impound water in
the spring for use in the
dry summer months
 Also may be an improved
habitat for fish or used
for hydroelectricity.
 Commonly constructed
type of dam that is built to
provide sufficient water
pressure for pushing water
into ditches, canals, or
other types of water
 Normally shorter than
storage dams and used to
divert water for irrigation
or from a stream to a
 Mostly built to lessen
effects of floods or trap
 Also called “overflow” dams
 Designed to carry water which flow over
their crests
 Must be made of materials that DO NOT
 May sometimes be combined with “side”
materials that can erode such as dirt
 Irrigation.
 Electrical Energy.
 Municipal Water Supply.
 Supplement Navigation.
 Flood Control.
 Electrical Energy.
 Recreation.

Dam Uses
Direct Water Usage:

 Private / Domestic - Household purposes, Drinking water and landscape
 Commercial - Restaurants, hotels, golf courses, etc.
 Irrigation – Crop use. Water needs at the scale that large dams provide
most often feed industrial farming practices.
 Livestock – Use for animal raising as well as other on-farm needs
 Industrial – Cooling water (power generation, refineries, chemical plants),
processing water (manufacturing; pulp and paper, food, high tech, etc.)
 Mining – hydraulic mining, various processes, settling ponds
 General public supply – Firefighting, public parks, municipal office

Dam Uses
Indirect Uses:

 Hydroelectric Power – Power generation is one of the most common
purposes for the construction of large dams. It is promoted as a totally
“clean” form of electricity.

 Flood Control – Dams even out the peaks and lows of a rivers natural
flow cycle by calming seasonal flooding, then storing that water for
gradual release year round.

 Transportation – Dam locks are used to move ships past large dams.
This in conjunction with flood control make transportation feasible on
rivers that were traditionally wild.
Important Terms and Concepts
 Types:
 Gravity Concrete Dam
 Buttresses
 Concrete Arch Dam
 Earthfill Dam
 Core of large rocks
 Clay cutoff walls
 Stone surface (rip rap)
 Storage (pools):
 Dead Pool (not PC...)
 Inactive Pool
 Conservation Pool
 active or joint-use
 Flood Pool
 Surcharge Pool
 Freeboard

 Other Terms:
 Face: Exposed surface of dam
 Abutments: sides of dam
 Appurtenances: pipes, gates, etc.
 Dam Crest: Top of dam
 Toe: base of dam
 Parapet wall: along top
 Spillway: for emergency releases
 Outlet Gate: Adjustable spillway
 Firm Yield: dependable capacity
 Powerhouse: location of
 Headrace: Canal leading up to
 Tailrace: Canal leading away
from powerhouse

Structure of Dam
(inside dam)
water level
Max. level
Free board
Sluice way
Down stream
 Heel: contact with the ground on the upstream side

 Toe: contact on the downstream side

 Abutment: Sides of the valley on which the structure of the dam rest

 Galleries: small rooms like structure left within the dam for checking

 Diversion tunnel: Tunnels are constructed for diverting water before
the construction of dam. This helps in keeping the river bed dry.

 Spillways: It is the arrangement near the top to release the excess
water of the reservoir to downstream side

 Sluice way: An opening in the dam near the ground level, which is
used to clear the silt accumulation in the reservoir side.
 Gravity Dams:
 These dams are heavy
and massive wall-like
structures of concrete in
which the whole weight
acts vertically
As the entire load is transmitted on the small area of foundation, such
dams are constructed where rocks are competent and stable.
Gravity Dams
 Gravity Dams use their triangular shape and the sheer
weight of their rock and concrete structure to hold back
the water in the reservoir.
Buttress Dam
 Buttress Dam – Is a
gravity dam reinforced
by structural supports
 Buttress - a support that
transmits a force from a
roof or wall to another
supporting structure
This type of structure can be considered even if the foundation
rocks are little weaker
Buttress Dams
 Buttress Dams use multiple reinforced columns to
support a dam that has a relatively thin structure.
Because of this, these dams often use half as much
concrete as gravity dams
 These type of dams are concrete
or masonry dams which are
curved or convex upstream in

 This shape helps to transmit the
major part of the water load to
the abutments

 Arch dams are built across
narrow, deep river gorges,
but now in recent years they
have been considered even
for little wider valleys.
Arch Dams
Arch Dams
Arch dams can only be built where the walls of a canyon
are of unquestionable stability. They must also be
impervious to seepage around the dam, as this could be
a source of dam failure in the future. Because of these
factors, Arch dams can only be built in very limited
Arch dams use less materials than gravity dams, but are
more expensive to construct due to the extensive
amount of expertise required to build one.

Earth Dams:
 They are trapezoidal in
 Earth dams are constructed
where the foundation or the
underlying material or rocks
are weak to support the
masonry dam or where the
suitable competent rocks are
at greater depth.
 Earthen dams are relatively
smaller in height and broad
at the base
 They are mainly built with
clay, sand and gravel, hence
they are also known as Earth
fill dam or Rock fill dam
Composite Dams
Composite dams are combinations of one or
more dam types. Most often a large section of
a dam will be either an embankment or gravity
dam, with the section responsible for power
generation being a buttress or arch.
The Bloemhof Dam on the Orange River of
South Africa is an excellent example of a
gravity/buttress dam.
Gravity Dam
Buttress Dam
 Large amounts of soil, sand, stone and aggregate and
concrete are need for dam construction.
 If available, these materials will be collected as near to
the site of the dam as possible.
 The extraction of these materials requires large
amounts of fossil fuels to operate the machinery.
 Air and water pollution result from the dust and mud
that is created from this process
Materials continued: Concrete
 Concrete is the primary ingredient in any large scale dam.
 Concrete is basically a mixture of two components: aggregates
and paste. The paste is usually composed of Portland cement
and water, and it binds together the fine and coarse aggregates.
 A typical mix is about 10 to 15% cement, 60 to 75% sand/
aggregate, 10 to 20% water and 5 to 8% air.
 Producing one ton of cement results in the emission of
approximately one ton of CO
, created by fuel combustion and
the calcination of raw materials
 Inundated Lands.
 Displaced People.
 Changes in River Regime.
 Changes of Habitat.
 Dam Safety Concerns.
 Predicted Benefits not Achieved.
Physical Impacts of Large Dams
 The physical impacts of large scale dams fall into
several categories
 Upstream
 On-site
 Downstream
 Global Scale
Physical Impacts: Upstream
Loss of Land
 Destruction of peoples property in the reservoir zone. Loss of possible
agricultural, range or forest lands.
Stagnant Water Table:
 Water from unnatural reservoirs seeps down into the water table. This excess
water can overload the natural watertable, slowing down its flow, so that it
ultimately may go stale. This can be damaging to surrounding flora, and has
the potential to harm the well water of surrounding peoples.
Habitat Destruction :
 The area that is covered by the reservoir is destroyed, killing whatever habitat
existed there beforehand.
 Habitat destruction also happens far upstream from a dam. Migratory fish
can no longer travel upstream past large dams in order to reach their
spawning grounds.

Physical Impacts: On-site
 Change in Water Characteristics
 Temperature – Large reservoir of water heat up as more water is exposed
to the sun for longer periods of time. Aquatic life that is sensitive to
temperature cannot adjust to this change in their aquatic climate.
 Salinity – The rise in a rivers salinity due an unnatural reservoir is due to
increased evaporation rates.
 Sediment Load – Sediments that wash down the river settle into large
reservoirs. In rivers that have high sediment loads this usually determines
the life
 Nutrient content – Natural nutrients build up in reservoirs, causing
 O
content – each of these elements results in a lower oxygen content,
further harming aquatic life.

Physical Impacts: On-site
 Dust, Noise pollution from Construction
 Water Pollution
 Industrial and residential pollutants, as well as agricultural runnoff
(including high nitrate loads, fertilizers and pesticides). On lake sources
such as boats and jet skis add oil and other chemical pollutants to waste
 These chemicals build up to toxic levels in reservoirs, especially during
dry seasons when little water leaves.
 Habitat Destruction
 Loss of local ecosystem covered by the reservoir.
 Damage caused by improved access to humans: roads, transmission lines,
increased migration

Physical Impacts: On-site
 Exotic species introduction
 Aggressive, non-native species of fish are often introduced to
reservoirs for farming and sport fishing.
 Disease
 Vector borne diseases increase in tropical areas due to the
creation of large areas of still water. This encourages
mosquito breeding, the main vector for the transmission of
malaria and dengue.
 Schistostomaiasis is a water borne disease that comes from
snails that breed on the upstream side of dams.

On-Site Impacts:
Reservoir-Induced Seismicity
 There is a correlation between the creation of a large reservoir, and an
increase in seismic activity in an area
 The physical weight of unnatural reservoirs can cause seismic activity.
While not the direct cause of earthquakes, the weight of reservoirs can
act as a trigger for seismic activity.
 Although not much direct research is available on the subject, the
proposed explanation is that “when the pressure of the water in the
rocks increases, it acts to lubricate faults which are already under
tectonic strain, but have been prevented from slipping by the friction of
the rock surfaces”.
 As of now, it is not accurately possible to predict which large dams will
produce RIS or how much activity will be produced. Earthquakes that
are produced as the result of dams are not usually major, but they still
pose a major threat to dam stability and the safety of people living
Physical Impacts: Downstream
 Flow Reduction:
 The downstream impacts of the net flow reduction due to extraction
upstream can be extensive. They include habitat destruction far
downstream at the mouth of the river, natural water table reduction.
 Change in water characteristics:
 The changes in water characteristics that are mentioned above
continues in the water that is discharged downstream. The
cumulative effect of many dams on a single river magnifies each of
these factors.

Physical Impacts: Downstream
Change in natural flood patterns:
 Natural floods inundate downstream regions with nutrient
rich sediments. Traditional farming systems in countries like
Egypt (the Nile) and Bangladesh (the Ganges) were
dependant upon seasonal floods to wash nutrient rich
sediment upon the lower shores of the river.
 They also seasonally clear out blocked waterways, which
prevents larger floods from causing massive damage.


 When dams are constructed in populated areas, many people are
forced to relocate.
 Established communities are dispersed and often destroyed. The
communities that are forced to absorb the influx of displaced
people are strained to their maximum capacity.
 The mass majority of people that are displaced by dam construction
are poor.
 The cost of moving is often placed upon the people being uprooted.
This is extremely hard for poor, marginalized people to accomplish,
and often leaves them poorer than before. This is especially true for
small agricultural communities that, now forced into the urban
settlements and its subsequent infrastructure, have no viable job
skills in order to provide a living wage for themselves.
 Because of limits to space and resources, people are
often forced to move long distances from their original
homes. This, coupled with the hard transition into
urban areas, often destroys traditional cultures.
 Because of limits to space and resources, people are
often forced to move long distances from their original
homes. This, coupled with the hard transition into
urban areas, often destroys traditional cultures.

 Sedimentation in dams reservoir is one of the main
problems facing too many dams worldwide. According to
the report published by International Committee of Large
Dams (ICOLD), over 40,000 large dams exists in the world
with a total storage capacity of 7,000 billion m3, operated
for different purposes such as water supply, hydroelectric
power generation and flood control. On the other hand, an
average rate of 0.5 to %1 of their storage capacity is lost
each year due to sedimentation. In order to compensate
this reduction, between 300 and 400 large dams are
required to be constructed each year
Figure 7.3 Principal parts of a dam.
Figure 7.4 Basic dam designs. Note the rip-rap placed on the upstream face
of the earthen embankment dam to prevent erosion from waves.
Figure 7.5 Classification of principle storage zones in a cross section of a
multipurpose reservoir.
Figure 7.10 Hydroelectric turbines at Grand Coulee Dam.
Figure 7.7 The dramatic concrete arch design of Hoover Dam securely
holds the impounded waters of Lake Mead.
Figure 7.9 Grand Coulee Dam is a gravity concrete dam.
Benefit - Cost Study
 Costs
 Land Purchase
 Dam Construction
 Dam Operation
 Power lines
 Irrigation systems
 Navigation aids
 Environmental impacts
 Benefits
 Cheaper electricity
 Fewer floods
 More irrigation water
 More recreation
 Easier navigation
 Increased property
Benefit - Cost Analysis
 Benefit - Cost Ratio:
 Ratio of Benefits to Costs: r = B / C
 r > 1 means more benefits than costs
 Net Value:
 Benefits minus costs: NV = B - C
 NV > 0 means more benefits than costs
 Rate of Return:
 Discount rate that makes B(rr) = C
 rr > market rate is a good investment
Figure 7.15 Chickamauga Lock and Dam, located on the Tennessee River
near Chattanooga, Tennessee, is a major lock in the TVA navigation system.
Role of Dams

 Cowlitz Falls Dam,
Lewis River,

 Power Generation
Role of Dams
 Kariba Dam Zimbabwe
 General Purpose
 Water Supply
 Energy Generation
 Large Area Inundated
 Change in Fish
Role of Dams
 Holland’s Dams Hold
Back the Sea

 Flood Control

 Great Environmental
Change Accepted as
Role of Dams
 Three Gorges Dam
 Energy Generation
 Enhancing Navigation
 Flood Control
 1,000,000 People
 Folsom Dam
 Energy Generation
 Flood Control
 Gate Collapse in 1995
 Spillway Capacity
Three Gorges Dam, China -
Yangtze River

Dam Overview
 Purpose
 Flood prevention
 Power generation
 Cost: $24.7 billion
 Expected
Completion: 2009
 Height: 175 m
 Reservoir
 Area: 1080 km

 Volume: 39.3 bcm
 Power Capacity:
Aswan Dam, Egypt - Nile River satellite_images.html
Dam Overview
 Purpose
 Flood prevention
 Power generation
 Cost: $1 billion
 Completed: 1970
 Height: 111 m
 Reservoir
 Area: 6000 km

 Volume: 169 bcm
 Power Capacity:
21,000 MW
Small Scale Impacts
 Archeology
 Twin temples of Pharoah Ramses II relocated by

UNESCO Courier, Dec. 1964.
Tarbela Dam - Indus River, Pakistan water-dams.html
Dam Overview
 Purpose
 Part of Indus Basin
Irrigation System
 Irrigation
 Power generation
 Cost: $1.85 billion
 Height: 148 m
 Reservoir
 Area: 259 km
 Volume: 11.5 bcm
 Power Capacity: 3478
Small Scale Impacts
 Resettlement
 120 villages submerged
 96,000 people
 Replacement land in Punjab or Sindh, or cash
compensation for home
 Widespread dissatisfaction

Terbela Dam (Key Facts)
Dam Type: Earth and Rockfill
Height: 485 ft. (above riverbed)
Reservoir Area: 95 sq. miles
Gross Storage
11.62 MAF
Live Storage
9.7 MAF
Main Spillway
6.5 million cusecs
Year of Completion: 1977
Geology & Bedrock:
Alluvium under Main Dam and
Limestone, Phyllite and Schist under
the Abutment
Power Generation: 3,478 MW
Mangla Dam (Key Facts)
Dam Type: Earthfill
Height: 380 ft. (above riverbed
Length: 10,300 feet
Lake Area: 97.7 sq. miles
Catchment Area: 12,870 Sq miles
Gross Storage Capacity: 5.88 MAF
Live Storage Capacity: 5.34 MAF
Main Spillway Capacity: 1.01 million cusecs
Year of Completion: 1967
Hydropower Generation:
1,000 MW from 10 units of 100
MW each
No. of people to be
displaced by raising of
The ideal condition for a dam site is that it
should be built up over a uniform formation,
but the engineer is not always lucky enough,
to have such a situation and he may have to
face a number of difficulties, especially
regarding the structural features of the
underlying rocks. The following structural
features of the underlying rocks should be
We know that the bedded rocks are stronger in
compression, and can bear greater stresses when applied
normal to the bedding planes, than the stresses applied
along the bedding planes. Thus the desired conditions are
that the resultant thrust (resultant of vertical force due to
the weight of the dam and the horizontal force due to the
thrust of the impounded water) should be perpendicular to
the bedding planes. Thus the beds dipping gently upstream
offer best resistance to the resultant thrust and also obstruct
the leakage of water than those dipping downstream.
 The folded rocks always under considerable strain,
and the same is released whenever any kind of
excavation is done through them or they are
disturbed by some external force or stress. It is
therefore desirable that a highly folded rock should
always be avoided.
 If the engineer is compelled to adopt such a site,
he should see that the foundations of his dam
should rest on the upstream limbs of the fold, if the
fold in it, is anticlinal in nature
But if the fold is synclinal in nature, the
foundations of the dam should rest on the
downstream limbs of the fold. In no case the
foundations of a dam should rest on the axis
of the fold. It has also been observed that the
danger of leakage is always more beneath
the strata to the case of a synclinal fold.
 It is always desirable to avoid risk by rejecting a site- on a
fault, as the movement along the existing fault plane is
much easier than along any other plane. Even a slight
disturbance may damage the structure constructed on a
 If the engineer is compelled by the circumstances to adopt
such a situation, then he should see that the site has the
fewest disadvantages or no serious defects. It is advisable
in such cases to place the foundations of a dam upstream of
the fault and not downstream of it,
The engineer should also investigate, as
thoroughly as possible, the nature, extent
and age of the fault. It may be noted that the
different zones of a small fault can be
improved effectively by grouting; whereas in
the case of wider zones all the weak material
should be removed and refilled with rich
cement concrete. This should only be done
if there is no possibility of movement along
the fault plane.
 A joint is always the weakest point in a structure.
 Similarly, if the site, under consideration for a dam is jointed, the
engineer is expected to face much of troubles, before the
construction of dam, during the construction of dam and even
after the construction of' the dam. The presence of joints in
underlying rocks at the dam site will cause the water to leak
through them. With the passage of time, this leakage may even
endanger the structure. Such a condition will change from bad to
worse, if a part of the underlying rocks is of limestone formation,
as the joints of such a formation are enlarged by the solution of
 If the joints, met with, are local in character, or the area affected
is small, grouting will improve the site and may be relied upon.
But if the underlying rocks are heavily jointed, the site should be
straightaway rejected.
 The chief function of a reservoir is to store a predetermined
quantity of water that may be used for water supply or
irrigation purposes, at a later stage.
 The selection of site for a reservoir depends upon so many
factors, e.g. if the reservoir has to serve the purpose of
storing water for water supply of a town, the site should be
as near to the town as possible. An ideal site for this
purpose should be free from harmful organic and inorganic
materials and the capacity of the reservoir should be
sufficient to ensure regular and adequate supply to the
residents of the town.
 If the reservoir has to serve the purposes of storing water for
the generation of power or irrigation purposes, the detailed
geological survey of the site is of utmost importance.
 Leakage from a reservoir is always a source of trouble, which
an engineer has to face. Leakage may take place because of
the defects in the structural arrangement of the underlying
strata e.g. faults or excessive fissures. As it 1s seldom possible
that a reservoir can be emptied completely, or even partially,
when once it has been placed under active service.
 Thus, it is most essential to conduct geological investigations
of the reservoir site. All the sources of leakage should be
discovered and suitable steps should be taken to stop the
same, as discussed below:-
 Natural sealing material, such as clay or silt content of
the streams, feeding the reservoir, should be employed to
block-up the openings in the reservoir, through which
leakage takes place.
 When the exact location of the weak area is shown, it can
be improved by grouting. This is only possible if the area
affected is small and local in character.
 When the fault or fissures; met with, are large they can be
improved by removing loose material and refilling the
same with cement concrete; though this operation may
prove costly.

Streams flowing into a reservoir, bring considerable amount
of sediments, which are carried in suspension by the water.
These sediments are deposited in the reservoir. Thus the
storage capacity of the reservoir goes of decreasing
gradually. It is a general trouble, which is being, faced
allover the world by the engineers engaged on the
maintenance of reservoirs. It still requires a careful
attention and a satisfactory solution. The reservoir of
Austin in Texas (U.S.A.) was silted up 95% in a period of 12
years after it was built. The only possible remedies to stop
or minimize the silting up of the reservoirs are:-
 Making provisions for washing out the silt
through passages of the dam.
 Constructing weirs across mouths of the
feeding streams
 Providing a good cover of vegetation on
the catchments area.

A tunnel may be defined as an underground
route or pass constructed in order:
 To avoid the excessive cost of maintenance
of an open cut of more than 20 meters height,
subjected to landslides etc.
 To connect two terminals, by the shortest
rout separated by a mountain.
 To avoid expensive acquisition of valuable
land properties, on the ground.
 To avoid holding up of traffic, for long
periods, in cities.
 For conducting water for the generation of
power. Such tunnel is called a hydropower
 Most of the tunnels are constructed to connect two
terminals, separated by a mountain. It is always advisable
to drive a tunnel than to make an open cut of more than 20
meters depth.
 If the tunnel is to be constructed either to meet the
requirements of rapid transportation, to avoid expensive
acquisition of valuable properties or to avoid holding up of
traffic in big cities, there is not much of freedom for the
choice of alignment for an engineer, because the geology of
the area is always dominated by other factors such as
location of the connecting roads, built up properties, water
and sewer pipes etc. In such cases, the engineer should
study the geological features of the area in details and plan
his work accordingly.
 If a tunnel 1s to be constructed for the conduction of water
to generate power, no separate geological investigations a
required as such a tunnel is always a part of the dam.
 The ideal geological conditions are that the rocks should be
homogeneous in character, which can be easily excavated.
Moreover, the rocks should not contain any kind of water
bearing strata and at the same time the rocks should not be
affected, in any way, when exposed to air.
 The desired conditions for the construction of a tunnel are
that the rocks should stand even after the tunnel is driven
through, and at the same time the work should not be
rendered expensive due to unforeseen problems. It is
therefore absolutely essential to study the geological
features of the rocks,
Before the excavation is undertaken. It may be noted that if an
exact idea of the structural features and the nature of the rocks
through which the tunnel has to be driven, is determined
beforehand, it is then possible to predict the conditions and
difficulties that are likely to be faced during construction.
Necessary steps should be taken to overcome such difficulties. It
has been observed that carefully planned drilling, along the.'
centre line of the proposed tunnel, gives a fairly reliable data
regarding the underground geological features of the rocks. But
this is not always practicable as the tunnel may be driven,
sometimes at great depths. In such cases drills along the centre
line is impracticable if not impossible. However, in such cases
accurate correlation of the strata with the surface conditions
should be done or the geological features can be estimated from
the indications of the adjacent land.
The Geological study of site
selection for tunneling
1. Feasibility satge
 Available geological literature/unpublished
reports etc.
 Study of available aerial photographs and/or
satellite imageries.
 Surface geological mapping
 Trenching, bore wells
The Geological study of site
selection for tunneling
2. Detailed Investigation Stage
 Detailed geological map of the selected
 Interpretation of borehole logging.
 Insitu testing / geophysical surveys.
 Laboratory testing of Rocks.

The Geological study of site
selection for tunneling
3. Geotechnical reports.
General geology, including detailed section
of tunnel.
Engineering Geology:
i. Regional structure features of the area
ii. Interpretations of major lineaments.
iii. Preparation of strike-frequency diagrams
iv. Interpretation of subsurface data.
 Rocks may be divided into the following two
main groups, for the tunneling operations:-
 (a). Unconsolidated rocks.
 (b). Consolidated rocks.
(a) Unconsolidated rocks
 Those include loose sediments like gravel, sand, clay and
highly un-composed rocks. Such rocks do not possess
cohesive power and always have low crushing strengths.
Tunnels driven through such rocks always require heavy
lining, depending upon the type of the rocks and
importance of the tunnel. It has been experienced that the
tunneling is always difficult and complicated in
unconsolidated rocks as such rocks do not stand in their
original position after excavation.
 It also requires heavy shuttering even before the lining is
started. Moreover, water is generally present in such rocks,
which worsens the situation and offers many complications
during excavation and lining.
(b) Consolidated rocks
 These include granite, basalt, gabbros, diorite, gneiss,
schist, sandstone etc. Tunnels driven through such rocks
require no or little lining. It has been experienced that
tunneling in consolidated rocks is always easier as there is
no possibility of the roof to fall and water to be encountered.
Consolidated rocks are thus considered to be the best type
of rocks for the tunneling operations, but are expensive at
the same time.
 A tunnel required for the conduction of water is called a
pressure tunnel or hydropower tunnel. In such a tunnel, the
engineer should give a proper consideration to the
following points, in detail:-
(b) Consolidated rocks
 He must ensure that the rocks, surrounding the
water, are impervious.
 He should see that some means are adopted to
withstand the pressure, set up by the unbalanced
head of water, passing through the tunnel.
 He should study the abrasive effects of silt and
gravel, carried in suspension or rolled along the
base of the tunnel, while designing the lining of
the tunnel
 It has been observed that the structural
features of the rocks through which the
tunnel is driven, always play a major role in
the proper planning, execution and
successful working of the tunnel.
The following structural features of the
rocks should be analyzed:-

 (a) Dip and strike.
 (b) Folds.
 (c) Faults.
 (d) Joints.
(a) Dip and strike
 The relationship of the dip and strike, of the rock
with the centre line of a tunnel, is always a most
important factor for the proper planning of the
 In general the following two cases are studied:
(i) When the centre line of the tunnel is at, right
angle to the strike.
(ii) When the centre line of the tunnel is parallel to
(a) Dip and strike
(i) When the Centre line of tunnel is at right
angles to o the strike:
In this case there is no symmetrical pressure,
from the site. The tunnel can be driven easily
and can work quite smoothly, even with a little
lining, which may be required only to withstand
the downward pressure of the roof.
(a) Dip and strike
(ii) When the Centre line of the tunnel is parallel to
the strike:
In this case there is a considerable unsymmetrical pressure
from the sides. As the blocks always tend to slide down into
the tunnel along the bedding planes, thus the
unsymmetrical pressure may result in sliding down the
rocks. In such cases heavy lining has to be provided for the
stability of the tunnel. In both the cases there is a likelihood
of interference of water that may come into the tunnel,
through the bedding planes.
(b) Folds
As already mentioned, .the folded rocks are always
under a considerable strain; and the same is
released, whenever any kind of excavation is done
through them or the folds are disturbed by some
external stress. This may result in movement of
rocks or bulging out of the walls. It is therefore
advisable that a highly folded site should be
avoided as far as possible for the construction of a
tunnel. Sometimes, if the engineer is compelled by
the circumstances, to adopt such a site, then he
should study the' following two cases:
(b) Folds
1 When the tunnel is driven through an
anticlinal fold:
In this case the blocks and fragments tend to fall
from the roof into the tunnel as the anticlinal
formations are always highly fractured. This
happens during the excavation of the tunnel and
necessitates heavy lining.
(b) Folds
2 When the tunnel is driven through a synclinal
In this case there is every likelihood of interference of
water that may come through the bedding planes. It has
also been observed that rocks, below the floor of the
tunnel, may subside under heavy traffic, creating a
number of complications. It is therefore advisable to
avoid a synclinal fold for the construction of a tunnel.
(c). Faults
As already mentioned, it is always advisable
to avoid" risk by rejecting a site on a fault
for the construction of a tunnel, because
movement along the existing fault plane is
much easier than any other plane. Even a
slight disturbance may damage the structure
constructed on a fault.
Lot of grouting is required to hold the rocks in
their original position. Sometimes, when the
grouting does not seem to be sufficiently safe,
heavy lining has to be provided. It is therefore
advisable that a rock, which is heavily jointed,
should preferably be avoided for a tunnel to be
driven through. It may be noted that if the tunnel
is required for the conduction of water, a badly or
heavily jointed rock may permit a considerable
leakage of water.