Compendium Review Major Topic One: Nervous Function

Table of Contents Part 1 • The Organization of the Nervous System • The Central Nervous System: Brain & Spinal Cord • The Limbic System & Mental Functions • The Peripheral Nervous System • Nervous System Diseases • Drug and Alcohol Effects Part 2 • Sensory Receptors and Occurrence • Proprioceptors and Cutaneous Receptors • Taste and Smell • Vision • Hearing • Equilibrium

• Sensory Receptors and Occurrence
• Proprioceptors and Cutaneous Receptors
• Taste and Smell • Vision • Hearing • Equilibrium

“The cranial nerves (I–XII) and their areas of innervation”

Picture & Verbiage from http://www.britannica.com/eb/art-46720

Sensory Receptors and Occurrence
Exteroceptors and interoceptors are dendrites, known as sensory receptors, that detect stimuli within the PNS. Exteroceptors identify stimuli that is outside the body such as smell or hearing, while interoceptors identify stimuli inside the body such as blood pressure rising. A receptor reacts to stimuli by sending nerve impulses to the brain where the sensation is perceived. The brain receives messages from nerves in different areas depending on the origin of the impulse. Once a sensory receptor has detected stimuli, they decode it and then send the signal. This process is known as integration. If a particular stimuli becomes constant, sensory receptors may adapt and responses may lessen. This is known as sensory adaptation.

Types of Sensory Receptors
Chemoreceptors: React to chemical substances such as taste, smell, and blood pH. Naked dendrites known as nociceptors (pain receptor) are responsible for responding to tissue damage. Photoreceptors: React to light, both rod cells and cone cells are found in our eyes. Mechanoreceptors: React to pressures such as sound waves, motion and balance, and touch. The sensory organ they are found in is the ear. Thermoreceptors: React to temperature changes (warmth and cold receptors).
Pic from Human Biology Pg 275

• Sensory Receptors and Occurrence • Taste and Smell • Vision • Hearing • Equilibrium
1. Impulse to spinal cord by sensory nerve 2. Impulse from spinal cord by motor nerve

• Proprioceptors and Cutaneous Receptors

Muscle Spindle Muscle Fiber

Quadriceps Muscle

Tendon

Pic from Human Biology Pg 276

Proprioceptors & Cutaneous Receptors
• The bodies posture, balance, and reflexes are controlled by a type of mechanoreceptor (sensory receptor) known as proprioceptors. They help inform the brain about the position of limbs from joints and skeleton muscles. • In the dermis layer of the skin are sensory receptors known as cutaneous receptors which allow the skin to feel temperature, touch, pressure, and pain. The specific cutaneous receptors which are responsible for touch are Meissner corpuscles, Krause end bulbs, and Merkel disks. The specific cutaneous receptors which are responsible for pressure are Pacinian corpuscles and Ruffini endings.

When tissue is damaged it releases chemicals which are recognized by nociceptors (pain receptors).

Pic from Human Biology Pg 277

• Sensory Receptors and Occurrence • Proprioceptors and Cutaneous Receptors • Taste and Smell • Vision • Hearing • Equilibrium

Types of Papillae
Fungiform papillae - slightly mushroom shaped if looked at in section. These are present mostly at the apex (tip) of the tongue, as well as at the sides. Innervated by facial nerve. Filiform papillae - these are thin, long papillae "V"-shaped cones that don't contain taste buds but are the most numerous. These papillae are mechanical and not involved in gustation. Characterized increased keratinization. Foliate papillae - these are ridges and grooves towards the posterior part of the tongue found on lateral margins. Innervated by facial nerve (anterior papillae) and glossopharyngeal nerve (posterior papillae). Circumvallate papillae - There are only about 3-14 of these papillae on most people, and they are present at the back of the oral part of the tongue. They are arranged in a circular-shaped row just in front of the sulcus terminals of the tongue. They are associated with ducts of Von Ebner's glands. Innervated by the glossopharyngeal nerve.
Papillae picture & verbiage from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taste_buds

Pic from Human Biology Pg 278

Taste

• Classified as chemoreceptors, taste and smell (olfactory) receptors react to molecules in the air and food. Chemoreceptors attach to certain molecules and react differently. Direct stimuli is detected by taste cells, whereas distant stimuli is detected by olfactory cells. • The little bumps on our tongues are known as papillae, and contain about 3,000 taste buds (sweet, sour, salty, bitter, and umami). When we eat or drink something, our taste buds open and allow molecules to attach to receptor proteins. Sensory nerve fibers send messages to the brain which processes the information in the gustatory cortex (taste) and interpret it.

Smell
• In the roof of the nasal cavity is the olfactory epithelium which contains millions of olfactory cells. Similar to neurons, these cells end in olfactory cilia where receptor proteins attach to odor molecules. Certain neurons in the olfactory bulb are aroused by certain odor molecules.

Pic from Human Biology Pg 279

• Sensory Receptors and Occurrence • Proprioceptors and Cutaneous Receptors • Taste and Smell

• Vision

• Hearing • Equilibrium

Pic from Human Biology Pg 280

Vision
The eyeball has 3 layers: the sclera (outer), the choroid (middle), and the retina (posterior compartment). 1. Sclera: Supports eyeball, fibrous and white colored, contains cornea (clear collagen fibers) which is responsible for refracting light. Behind the cornea is the pupil, a hole which admits light. 2. Choroid: responsible for absorbing any stray rays that have not been absorbed by photoreceptors. Dark layer which is constant with the ciliary body (keeps lens in place, controls lens shape, found behind iris) and iris (controls light entrance and pupil size). Attached to the ciliary body is the lens which refracts light and helps with focus. The anterior compartment (in front of lens) is filled with aqueous humor, a clear fluid; the posterior compartment is filled with vitreous humor, a clear gel. 3. Retina: Located next to posterior compartment, contains rod cells and cone cells. Rod cells only see black-and-white and are sensitive to light rays. Cone cells see color and command bright light. Between the retina and the posterior compartment is the fovea centralis, an area of compacted cone cells which helps sharpen vision. The optic nerve is formed from sensory fibers off the retina and takes impulses to the brain.

Pic from Human Biology Pg 280

Images are focused on the retina by assistance from the cornea, lens, and humors. Visual accommodation occurs when looking at an object up close. The lens will round to help with the focusing of the image on the retina. The ciliary muscle is responsible for giving the lens its shape. When looking at an object in the distance, the lens will flatten through the relaxation of the ciliary muscle.
Pic from Human Biology Pg 280

Vision
Rod cells and cone cells are photoreceptors in the eyes. Both rods and cones consist of an inner and outer segment connected to each other with synaptic endings located at the bottom of the inner segments below the nuclei's. Rhodopsin is the deep purple visual pigment in rod cells which is structured of opsin (protein molecule) and retinal (vitamin A derivative/light sensitive). Depending on their pigment, cone cells, which provide color vision, come in three colors: blue, green, and red. Although the pigments are structured with the same protein molecule and retinal as rod cones, the three pigmented cone cells have different structures to their protein molecules which allows them to absorb light differently. Rod Cells are great for night time vision and peripheral vision while cone cells are utilized for color vision.

Pic from Human Biology Pg 282

Vision
The retina has 3 layers: rod & cone cell layer, bipolar layer, and the ganglion cell layer. 1. Rod & Cone Cell Layer: Closest to choroid, sensitive to light, synapse with bipolar layer, integration occurs as they transmit signals to next layer. 2. Bipolar Layer: Middle layer, each bipolar cell is utilized by several rod cells, they are bipolar because they can be utilized by rod or cone cells (not both), integration occurs as they transmit signals to next layer. 3. Ganglion Cell Layer: Send nerve impulses to visual cortex via optic nerve, more integration occurs in visual cortex.

Pic from Human Biology Pg 283

Vision

Pic from Human Biology Pg 284

The nerve impulse carried by the optic nerve are taken from the optic chiasma (X-shape of optic nerves) through the right and left optic tracts to the thalamus where the nerve impulses are delivered to the visual cortex in the occipital lobe. The combined data allows us to see the entire visual section.

Some abnormalities of the eyes may be color blindness due to flawed cones or a deficiency in cones. People who are nearsighted can see objects up close better than objects at a distance due to elongated eyeballs, whereas people who are farsighted can see objects at a distance better than they can see objects up close due to shortened eyeballs. Astigmatism can cause blurry vision due to an unevenness in the lens or cornea. This can be treated with LASIK surgery.

• Sensory Receptors and Occurrence • Proprioceptors and Cutaneous Receptors • Taste and Smell • Vision

• Hearing

• Equilibrium

Pic from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ear

The outer ear is known as the pinna which houses the entrance, or auditory canal, to the tympanic membrane. Sweat glands in the auditory canal secrete ear wax to protect against foreign objects entering. The tympanic membrane, or ear drum, enters the middle of the ear and stops at a bone with two small openings known as the oval and round windows. The boney wall consists of three bones, the malleus (sticks to tympanic membrane), the incus , and the stapes (touches the oval window), all of which amplify sound waves. All three are known as the ossicles. Inside the ear is the auditory tube which helps equalize pressure. The inner ear is filled with fluid and contains the semicircular canal (contains equilibrium mechanoreceptors), the vestibule (contains equilibrium mechanoreceptors), and the cochlea (contains hearing mechanoreceptors).

Hearing
The sensory receptors in the ear contain hair cells with very long microvilli (stereocilia) that are responsive to stimulation.

Pic from Human Biology Pg 286

Hearing
Sound waves travel through the auditory canal where it vibrates the tympanic membrane and the malleus transfers the pressure to the incus. It is then transferred to the stapes where it is magnified approximately 20 times. The pressure is then passed to the fluid in the cochlea after the stapes hits the oval windows membrane. Inside the cochlear canal is the spiral organ, which consists of hair cells and a gel substance known as the tectorial membrane. The cochlea has two canals, the vestibular and the tympanic. Once the pressure is transferred from the oval windows membrane, the pressure moves across the basilar membrane to the tympanic canal. Stereocilia on the hair cells in the membrane bend when the basilar membrane vibrates. The cochlear nerve is where the impulses begin and are transmitted to the brain as sound.
Pic from Human Biology Pg 287

• Sensory Receptors and Occurrence • Proprioceptors and Cutaneous Receptors • Taste and Smell • Vision • Hearing • Equilibrium

Balance Skills Developed

Pic from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Equilibrioception

Equilibrium
Equilibrium is a physiological sense for balance; it helps us with standing and walking. There are many factors which aid in equilibrioception: the vestibular nerve takes impulses to the brain stem and cerebellum, proprioceptors (sensory receptors) help inform the brain about the position of limbs from joints and skeleton muscles, semicircular canal hair cells (mechanoreceptors) help detect angular/rotational movements in the head, and utricle (membranous sac in inner ear) and saccule (membranous sac in inner ear) hair cells help detect horizontal/vertical movements.
Pic from Human Biology Pg 290

Works Cited
"cranial nerve." Online Art. 2008. Encyclopedia Britannica Online. 30 Mar. 2008 <http://www.britannica.com/eb/art-46720>. "Ear." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 1 Apr 2008, 02:16 UTC. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 1 Apr 2008 <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ear&oldid=203198294>. "Equilibrioception." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 24 Mar 2008, 03:55 UTC. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 1 Apr 2008 <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Equilibrioception&oldid=200458187>. Mader, Sylvia S. Human Biology. New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc, 2008. Pages 273-293. "Taste bud." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 1 Apr 2008, 00:21 UTC. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 1 Apr 2008 <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Taste_bud&oldid=202429441>.

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