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EN 479
Lecture Goals
• Advantages and disadvantages of concrete
• Design Process
• Limit states
• Design Philosophy
• Loading

Advantages of Concrete

• Economy
– Thinner floor systems Reduced Building Height
Lower wind loads (< A)
Saving in Cladding
– Materials widely available
• Suitability of material for architectural and
structural function
Advantages of Concrete

• Suitability of material for architectural and
structural function
– Concrete place in plastic condition - desired
shape & texture can be obtained with forms and
finishing techniques
– Designer can choose shape and size
Advantages of Concrete
• Fire Resistance
– Concrete building have 1-3 hour fire rating with
no fire proofing (steel and timber require
fireproofing to obtain this rating)
• Rigidity
– Greater stiffness & mass reduces oscillations
(wind), floor vibrations (walking)
Advantages of Concrete
• Low Maintenance
• Availability of Materials
– Sand, gravel, cement, H
0 & concrete mixing
facilities widely available
– Reinforcement - easy to transport as compared
to structural steel
Disadvantages of Concrete

• Low tensile strength -
~ 0.1 f
cracking if not properly

Disadvantages of Concrete

• Forms and Shoring (additional steps)
– Construction of forms
– Removal of forms
– Prepping (or shoring) the new concrete to
support weight until strength is adequate.
– Labor/Materials cost not required for other
types of materials
Disadvantages of Concrete

• Strength per unit volume is relatively low.
– f
~ (5-10% of steel)
– greater volume required
– long spans typical built with steel
Disadvantages of Concrete

• Time-dependent volume changes
– Concrete & steel undergo similar expansion and
– Concrete undergoes drying shrinkage, which
may cause deflections and cracking.
– Creep of concrete under sustained loads causes
an increase in deflection with time.
Design Process

• Phase 1: Definition of clients’ needs and
– Functional requirements
– Aesthetic requirements
– Budgetary requirements
Design Process
• Phase 2: Development of project concept
– Develop possible layouts
– Approximate analysis preliminary members
sizes/cost for each arrangement
– Selection most desirable structural system
• Appropriateness
• Economy
• Maintainability
Design Process
• Phase 3: Design of individual system

– Structural analysis (based on preliminary
• Moments
• Shear forces
• Axial forces
Design Process
• Phase 3: Design of individual system(cont.)

– Member design
• Proportion members to resist forces
– aesthetics
– constructability
– maintainability
• Prepare construction days and specifications.
Limit States and Design
Limit State: Condition what a structure or
structural element is no longer
acceptable for its intended use.
Major groups for RC structural limit states
– Ultimate
– Serviceability
– Special
Ultimate Limit State
Ultimate limit state
– structural collapse of all or part of the structure
( very low probability of occurrence) and loss
of life can occur.
Ultimate Limit States
• Loss of equilibrium of a part or all of a structure
as a rigid body (tipping, sliding of structure).
• Rupture of critical components causing partial or
complete collapse. (flexural, shear failure).
• Progressive collapse
– Minor local failure overloads causing adjacent
members to failure entire structure collapses.
– Structural integrity is provided by tying the structure
together with correct detailing of reinforcement
provides alternative load paths in case of localized
Ultimate Limit States
• Formation of a plastic mechanism - yielding of
reinforced forms plastic hinges at enough sections
to make structure unstable.
• Instability cased by deformations of structure
causing buckling of members.
• Fatigue - members can fracture under repeated
stress cycles of service loads (may cause collapse).
Serviceability Limit States
• Functional use of structure is disrupted, but
collapse is not expected
• More often tolerated than an ultimate limit state
since less danger of loss of life.
– Excessive deflections for normal service caused by
possible effects
• malfunction of machinery
• visually unacceptable
• damage of nonstructural elements
• changes in force distributions
• ponding on roofs collapse of roof

Serviceability Limit States
– Excessive crack width leakage corrosion of
reinforcement gradual deterioration of structure.
– Undesirable vibrations
• vertical floors/ bridges
• lateral/torsional tall buildings
• Change in the loading
Special Limit States
Damage/failure caused by abnormal conditions or
– Extreme earthquakes damage/collapse
– Floods damage/collapse
– Effects of fire,explosions, or vehicular
– Effects of corrosion, deterioration
– Long-term physical or chemical instability
Limit States Design
• Identify all potential modes of failure.
• Determine acceptable safety levels for normal
structures building codes load
• Consider the significant limits states.
– Members are designed for ultimate limit states
– Serviceability is checked.
Exceptions may include
• water tanks (crack width)
• monorails (deflection)
ACI Building Codes
Whenever two different materials , such as steel and
concrete, acting together, it is understandable that the
analysis for strength of a reinforced concrete member
has to be partial empirical although rational. These
semi-rational principles and methods are being
constant revised and improved as a result of theoretical
and experimental research accumulate. The American
Concrete Institute (ACI), serves as clearing house for
these changes, issues building code requirements.
Design Philosophy
Two philosophies of design have long prevalent.
• Working stress method focuses on conditions
at service loads.
• Strength of design method focusing on
conditions at loads greater than the service
loads when failure may be imminent.
The strength design method is deemed conceptually
more realistic to establish structural safety.
Strength Design Method
In the strength method, the service loads are
increased sufficiently by factors to obtain the load at
which failure is considered to be “imminent”. This
load is called the factored load or factored service

strength required to
strength provided
carry factored loads
¸ ¸
Strength Design Method
Strength provide is computed in accordance with rules
and assumptions of behavior prescribed by the building
code and the strength required is obtained by
performing a structural analysis using factored loads.
The “strength provided” has commonly referred to as
“ultimate strength”. However, it is a code defined
value for strength and not necessarily “ultimate”. The
ACI Code uses a conservative definition of strength.
Safety Provisions
Structures and structural members must always be
designed to carry some reserve load above what is
expected under normal use.
There are three main reasons why some sort of
safety factor are necessary in structural design.
[1] Variability in resistance.
[2] Variability in loading.
[3] Consequences of failure.
Variability in resistance
• Variability of the strengths of concrete and
• Differences between the as-built dimensions
and those found in structural drawings.
• Effects of simplification made in the
derivation of the members resistance.
Variability in Resistance

Comparison of measured
and computed failure
moments based on all data
for reinforced concrete
beams with f
> 2000 psi.
Variability in loading
Frequency distribution of
sustained component of
live loads in offices.
Consequences of Failure
• Potential loss of life.
• Cost of clearing the debris and replacement of the
structure and its contents.
• Cost to society.
• Type of failure warning of failure, existence of
alternative load paths.
A number of subjective factors must be considered in
determining an acceptable level of safety.
Margin of Safety
The distributions of the
resistance and the
loading are used to get
a probability of failure
of the structure.
Margin of Safety
The term
Y = R - S
is called the safety margin.
The probability of failure is
defined as:

and the safety index is
| =
| | 0 of obability Pr < = Y P
Cities in the U.S. generally base their
building code on one of the three model
– Uniform Building Code
– Basic Building Code (BOCA)
– Standard Building Code
– ACI Code
These codes have been consolidated in the
2000 International Building Code.

Loadings in these codes are mainly based on
ASCE Minimum Design Loads for Buildings
and Other Structures (ASCE 7-95) – has been
updated to ASCE 7-98.

Dead Loading
• Weight of all permanent construction
• Constant magnitude and fixed location

Dead Loads
- Weight of the Structure
(Walls, Floors, Roofs, Ceilings, Stairways)
- Fixed Service Equipment
(HVAC, Piping Weights, Cable Tray, Etc.)

Can Be Uncertain….
- pavement thickness
- earth fill over underground structure
Live Loads
Loads produced by use and occupancy of the structure

Maximum loads likely to be produced by the intended use

Not less than the minimum uniformly distributed load
given by Code.

See Table 2-1 from ASCE 7-95
Stairs and exitways: 100 psf
Storage warehouses: 125 psf (light)
250 psf (heavy)

Minimum concentrated loads are also given in the codes
Live Loads
Live Loads
ASCE 7-95 allows reduced live loads for members
with influence area (A
) of 400 sq. ft. or more:

where L
> 0.50 L
for members
supporting one floor
> 0.40 L


+ =
25 . 0
Live Loads

determined by raising member to be designed by a
unit amount. Portion of loaded area that is raised = A

Beam: A
= 2 * tributary area
Column: A
= 4 * tributary area
Two-Way Slab: A
= panel area
(see Fig. 2-10, text)
Load Reduction
Environmental Loads
• Snow Loads
• Earthquake
• Wind
• Soil Pressure
• Ponding of Rainwater
• Temperature Differentials
Classification of Buildings for Wind,
Snow and Earthquake Loads
Based on Use Categories (I through IV)
I. Buildings and other structures that represent a low hazard to
human life in the event of a failure (such as agricultural
II. Buildings/structures not in categories I, III, and IV
III. Buildings/structures that represent a substantial hazard to
human life in the event of a failure (assembly halls, schools,
colleges, jails, buildings containing toxic/explosive
IV. Buildings/structures designated essential facilities
(hospitals, fire and police stations, communication centers,
power-generating stations)
Snow Loads
The coefficients of
snow loads are
defined in weight.
Snow Loads
Ground Snow Loads (Map in Fig. 6, ASCE 7):
• Based on historical data (not always the maximum
• Basic equation in codes is for flat roof snow loads
• Additional equations for drifting effects, sloped
roofs, etc.
• Use ACI live load factor
• No LL reduction factor allowed
Wind Loads
• Wind pressure is proportional to Velocity

• Wind velocity pressure = q

0.00256 reflects mass density of air and unit conversions.
V = Basic 3-second gust wind speed (mph) at a height of 33 ft. above
the ground in open terrain. (1:50 chance of exceedance in 1 year)
= Exposure coefficient (bldg. ht., roughness of terrain)
= Coefficient accounting for wind speed up over hills
I = Importance factor

I V k K q
zt z z
00256 . 0 =
Wind Loads
Design wind pressure,
p = q
* G * C

G = Gust Response Factor
= External pressure coefficients (accounts for pressure
directions on building)
Earthquake Loads
(See Ch. 19 of text)
Inertia forces caused by earthquake motion
(F = m * a)
• Distribution of forces can be found using equivalent static force procedure
(code, not allowed for every building) or using dynamic analysis procedures
• Equivalent Static Force Procedure for example, in ASCE 7-95:
V = C
* W
V = Total lateral base shear
Cs = Seismic response coefficient
W = Total dead load
Earthquake Loads
Total Dead Load, W:
1.0 * Dead Load
+ 0.25 * Storage Loads
+ larger of partition loads or 10 psf
+ Weight of permanent equipment
+ contents of vessels
+ 20% or more of snow load
Earthquake Loads

= Seismic coefficient based on soil profile and Av
= Seismic coefficient based on soil profiled an Aa
R = Response modification factor (ability to deform in inelastic range)
T = Fundamental period of the structure

T = C


where C
= 0.030 for MRF of concrete
0.020 for other concrete buildings.
= Building height
of smaller C
a v
5 . 2 2 . 1
3 / 2
Seismic Coefficient
V =
• V = Base Shear
• Z = Seismic co-efficient/ zone co-efficient
• I = Structural importance co-efficient
• C = 1.25 S/T, S = Soil parameter
• T = Period of vibration
• W = Total dead load
• R = Type of structure

Roof Loads
• Roof loads are in addition to snow loads
• Minimum loads for workers and construction materials
during erection and repair
• Ponding of rainwater
– Roof must be able to support all rainwater that could
accumulate in an area if primary drains were blocked.
– Ponding Failure:
÷ Rain water ponds in area of maximum deflection
÷ increases deflection
÷ allows more accumulation of water ÷ cycle continues…
÷ potential failure
Construction Loads

• Construction materials

• Weight of formwork supporting weight of
fresh concrete