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UTILITARIANISM

Utilitarianism
A theory in normative ethics
Holds that the proper course of action is the
one that maximizes utility
Usually defined as maximizing total benefit
and reducing suffering or negatives
An economic analysis that is human-
centered and has a moral foundation
The moral worth of an action is determined
only by its consequences but there are
considerations in some cases

The Basic Idea of Utilitarianism
The Greatest Happiness Principle:

Happiness = pleasure, and the absence of pain
Unhappiness = pain, and the absence of pleasure

Consequentalist in nature
Defines the GOOD as pleasure without pain

Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832)
Born in London on Feb 15,
1748
English philosopher and
political radical
A son and grandson of
attorneys
Studied law at Lincolns Inn
Though qualified to practice
law, he never did so
Known today for his moral
philosophy, especially his
principle of utilitarianism


Jeremy Bentham:
Nature has placed mankind
under the governance of two
sovereign masters, pleasure
and pain. It is for them
alone to point out what we
ought to do..
Jeremy Bentham
Wanted to create a system of right and wrong for
the benefit of the society
The most useful thing in any moral dilemma is
happiness (leads people to make right ethical
decisions)
Creating the Principle of Utility =

MAXIMIZE PLEASURE minimize pain
Bentham the Hedonic
Calculus
1. Intensity how intense
2. Duration how long
3. Certainty how sure
4. Propinquity how soon
5. Fecundity how many more
6. Purity how secure
7. Extent how many persons

Jeremy Bentham
Benthams view is described as:
Act Utilitarianism - single action with a
single outcome
John Stuart Mill (1806-
1873)
Born in London on May
20, 1806
Profoundly influenced
the shape of 19
th

century British thought
and political discourse
Educated by his father
with the advise and
assistance of Jeremy
Bentham
Wayward disciple of
Bentham

John Stuart Mill
He believed that happiness, not
pleasure, should be the standard of
utility
He agreed with Bentham in emphasizing
that a persons well being is of the
utmost importance
He said that theres more to life than
physical pleasure

John Stuart Mill
He said that the Calculus generates a purely
quantitative analysis and pays no attention to
the quality of the pleasure
He developed a system of higher and lower
pleasures
It is better to be a human being dissatisfied than
a pig satisfied


HIGHER PLEASURES
To pursue pleasures of
the intellect
(experienced only by
humans)
It is discussed in terms
of quality
LOWER PLEASURES
To pursue pleasures of
the body/senses
(food, sleep, sex, etc.)
It may be dealt by using
the Calculus

John Stuart Mill
Mills view is described as:
Rule Utilitarianism consequences of
people following that rule
Bentham v. Mill
JEREMY BENTHAM JOHN STUART MILL
The greatest good (pleasure) for
the greatest number
The greatest happiness for the
greatest number
Focused on the individual alone Focused on protecting common
good universally
Quantitative Hedonic Calculus Qualitative Higher/Lower
pleasures
Act Utilitarianism Rule Utilitarianism
Hedonistic based on pleasure Pleasure is not the same as
happiness
Consequentalist Consequentalist
Act v. Rule Utilitarianism
ACT UTILITARIANISM
(Bentham)
RULE UTILITARIANISM
(Mill)
Judge an act in terms of the
consequences of that act alone
Correctness of a rule is
determined by the amount of good
it brings about when followed
In every individual Applied universally across
societies to promote happiness
It works if it will maximize pleasure
and minimize pain
These rules should not be broken
as they are the basis of morality
Group IX Utilitarianism
Submitted by:
Cruz, Phoebe Kathrine
Go, Ma. Bianca Therese
Reyes, Alyssa Mikaela
Saracho, Nicole
4LM3
Submitted to:
Prof. Wendell Marinay