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By: Naveed Iqbal

By: Naveed Iqbal


“A careful, critical search for solutions to the
problems that puzzle the mankind.”
OR
Scientific investigation of the “known” for
the purpose of discovering the “unknown.”
OR
Any relatively systematic, formal, conscious
procedure for evolving and testing
hypotheses about reality, or in more modern
terms for decisions.

By: Naveed Iqbal


Purposiveness
Rigor
Testability
Replicability
Precision
Confidence
Objectivity
Generalizability
Parsimony
By: Naveed Iqbal
May it be investigation or scientific
research’ both are undertaken with a
clear purpose and objective to lead into
problem identification or the range of
inquiry. The process leads into the
study of the implications deducted from
the issues and their relationship within
the theoretical framework.

By: Naveed Iqbal


A good theoretical base and a sound
methodological design would add rigor to a
purposive study.

Rigor donates carefulness and the degree of


exactitude in research investigations.

By: Naveed Iqbal


A research design is prepared to facilitate the
understanding of the sequence of study and method
to be applied to formulate hypotheses, collect data
and analyze it with the help of statistical tests and
techniques. The methods used are to achieve the
objectives and purpose of the study. The objective
descriptions of the methods, problems and
hypotheses with the relationship of different variable
make the study, hence testable. The testability is the
characteristic and attribute of scientific investigation
making it replicable and it also contributes to
generalization

By: Naveed Iqbal


The method of testing of hypotheses
and the study of the problem facilitates
Replicability of the research. This
reflects the validity and reliability of the
measures adopted by the researchers.
The repetition of the procedures to
study similar situations will increase
confidence in the methodology and
understanding of the research process

By: Naveed Iqbal


Precision refers as to how close are
the findings based on a sample or
reality. In other words, precision
reflects the degree of exactitude or
the results based on the sample, to
the phenomena studied as they
exist in the universe.

By: Naveed Iqbal


Confidence refers to the probability that our
estimations are correct. It is not enough to be
merely precise or one can say that 95% of the
time we are going to find our results to be true
and there will be 5 % chances of being wrong.
This is known as confidence level and some
refers to it as accuracy. The precision and
confidence are important aspects of research
and can be achieved by the proper sampling
and analysis of data.

By: Naveed Iqbal


The conclusions drawn through data
analysis and interpretation of the results
should be objective, based on the fact,
resulting from actual data and not on the
subjective evaluation. The more objective
the interpretation of the data, the more
scientific research it becomes. The
researcher should take measures to
eliminate his level of subjectivity and
depend on the objectivity.

By: Naveed Iqbal


The characteristic of research is more
applicable in case of pure or general
research because the result of this type
of research is not restricted upto one
organization. Generalizability means
that the result of research conducted by
the one organization is acceptable by the
majority of other organizations.

By: Naveed Iqbal


It is also named as economical. For
every research task cost and time is
required. The span of time should be
moderate, not too much and not too
less. And cost should also not too
huge or less but moderate.

By: Naveed Iqbal


A manager who is interested in investigating
how employee’s commitment to the
organization can be increased. We examine
how the above stated hall marks of science
applied to his investigation.

• Reference studies:
Research Methods by Umma Sekaran
Research Methods by Dr. Matin Ali Khan

By: Naveed Iqbal