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“ IN D IA ”
Presented by:
Samantha midha
Sapandeep singh
Seema dahiya
Shipra mahajan
Introduction and political structure-Sapandeep

Problems lying with Indian political system &

areas of concern-Seema Dahiya

Areas of reforms-Shipra Mahajan

Recommdations & conclusion-Samantha Midha

Political system of INDIA-
Ø Political parties are indispensable to any democratic system   and
play the most crucial role in the electoral process – in setting
up candidates and conducting election campaigns.

Ø Political parties and the party system in India have been greatly
influenced by :

cultural diversity, traditions of the

social, nationalist

ethnic, movement,

caste, contrasting style of

community and party leadership,

religious pluralism, and clashing

Ø The two major categories of political parties in India are:
ü National
ü State
Major political parties
q National Democratic Alliance (NDA)-10
 Bharatiya Janata Party(BJP)
 Shiv Sena

q United Progressive Alliance (UPA)-12

 Indian National Congress

q Left Front-4
 Communist Party of India (Marxist)
 Communist Party of India
 Revolutionary Socialist Party
 India Forward Blocs

q Others-13
 Bahujan Samaj Party
 Samajwadi Party
 Janata Dal (Secular)

Problems in the Working of
Ø Absence of Inner Party Democracy
Ø       Representation of Women
Ø       Training of Members
Ø        Need for Funds
Ø        Lack of Ideology and Values in Politics
Ø        Leadership Quality
Ø        Campaign Methods
Ø        Regionalization
Ø        Casteism
Ø        Communalism
Ø       Criminalization
Ø        Growing Violence
Ø       Political Parties and Governance
Ø        Jumbo Council of Ministers
Reform Options
  Areas of Concern: Many of   leaders have been affected
by  communalism, caste, community or religious biases and have
known to have links with  mafia groups, criminals, senas,  and
militant or fundamentalist organizations.  Changing of party or
group loyalty is endemic in  party organizations in India, and
almost everyone is willing to defect at the drop of the hat, if the
grass seems to be greener on the other side. Parties make and
break political alliances to maintain their influence within the
party and government, and  to remain in power  with the aim to
keep the rivals out.  Most of these factional groups are non-
ideological and have  no vision of the good of the people nor any
capability to govern or undertake party responsibilities.
 problems in regard to  discipline, defections, intra-party
organizations, elections within the parties, and splits in the party.
Raising of adequate funds for  party organizations and activities
by legitimate means and their appropriate and
effective  utilization during non-election and election  periods is a
perennial problem.  criminalisation of politics and politicization of
criminals and the maintenance of public ethics is another  area of
concern in respect of party functioning.

 of reforms

 1.        Institutionalization of Political Parties

 2.       Structural and organizational Reforms

 3.       Problems of Party Funding

 4.   Maintenance of Regular Accounts by the Political Parties

 5.    Party system and Electoral system

 6.      Steps to check criminalisation of political parties

 7.    Steps to curb the role of casteism and communalism

 8.    Problem of proliferation of independent candidates

 9.    Party system and governance

 10.    Restoration of  values and morality in public life

Suggestions for reforms
President K R Narayanan
 Center for Policy Research  Study  (Lok Raj
Baral) on Party Reforms (2000):
V. M. Tarakunde Committee (1974-75)
 Dinesh Goswami Committee Report  (1990)
Justice V. R. Krishna Iyer Committee (1994)
 Justice Kuleep Singh Panel:
Suggestions by Academics/ Scholars/
Journalists etc.


Ø Need for a Legislation Governing Political Parties.
Ø Criteria for Registration
Ø  Criteria for De-Registration
Ø  Structural Requirements
Ø  Educational Training and Development Activities          
Ø   Leadership Conventions
Ø  Stabilising the Parliamentary System
Ø   Curbing Criminalisation of Politics
Ø   Checking Proliferation of Independent Candidates.
Ø   Problem of Party Funding
Ø   Regulating Political Contributions
Ø   Controlling Electoral Expenditure
Ø   Monitoring Election Expenditure
Ø   Patrimony of Candidates and Politicians
Ø  Strengthening of Anti-Defection Measures
Ø  Party System and Governance