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ENGLISH

FOR
ACADEMIC
PURPOSES
What is EAP(ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC
PURPOSES)?
EAP is a branch of ESP in that the teaching
content is matched to the requirements of the
learners. It is also considered to be ESP if we take
Robinson's (1991 features which are usuall! thought
of as being criteria to ESP courses.

"irst ESP is goal directed # the students are not


learning the English language for the sake of it$ but
because the! need to use English. E%P students are
usuall! current higher education students or the!
are ho&ing to go on to higher education after their
E%P course. 'he! need to learn English in order to
succeed in their academic careers.

(ften there is a )er! clearl! s&ecified &eriod for


the course. *ost E%P students are doing fi+ed
term courses in &re&aration for an academic
course.

ESP learners tend to be adults rather than children. *ost


E%P students are o)er 1, and the! will ha)e made a difficult
decision to stud! in an English medium uni)ersit!.

Students ma! need s&ecialist language$ but this is not


necessaril! so. It is the acti)ities that the students will
want to engage in that defines the course. %s with all ESP$
an E%P lecturer would not take a te+t and sa!$ - .hat can I
do with this/- 'he starting &oint is alwa!s$ - .hat will m!
students need to do with this te+t and how can I hel& them
to do it/-

In some cases$ a )er! high le)el of &roficienc! is not


required$ as long as the students can succeed in their aims.
Students need to be able to get good marks for
assignments. (ur 0ob as E%P lecturers is to find wa!s to
enable them to do this # getting their &resent tenses
correct ma! not be as im&ortant the o)erall structure of
the essa!.
Academic Writi! C"asses
"or man! students this is &robabl! the
most im&ortant as it is the wa! in which
most of their work is assessed. 'he aim
of an academic writing class is to
&re&are students for academic writing
tasks. 'hese tasks )ar! )er!
much from writing short
answers in e+ams to writing
dissertations and theses.
'he following would be t!&ical content1

Research and using the librar!1 finding


rele)ant information$ using catalogues$
books$ &eriodicals$ bibliogra&hies and
inde+es.

2sing sources1 making notes and


writing u& notes # &ara&hrasing$
summari3ing$ quoting 4
referring to sources$ writing a
bibliogra&h!.

.riting descri&tions of &laces$ ob0ects


etc. classif!ing and categori3ing
com&aring and contrasting re&orting
and narrating.

5escribing &rocesses 4 de)elo&ments1


e+&ressing &ur&ose$ means and method$
degrees of certaint!$ reasons and
e+&lanations6cause and effect
describing de)elo&ments and
changes describing a sequence of
e)ents6time relations.

.riting instructions.

5e)elo&ing an argument1 &resenting


arguments$ ideas and o&inions e+&ressing
certaint! and doubt su&&orting an
argument1 illustrating and e+em&lif!ing
ideas refuting arguments$ ideas and
o&inions drawing conclusions.

.riting skills1 different kinds of


writing$ organi3ation # &resentation and
la!out s&elling and &unctuation including
gra&hs$ charts and tables st!le re)ising
the essa! # &roof#reading.
Academic Listei! C#$rse
%cademic listening usuall! in)ol)es the non#
nati)e s&eaker of English tr!ing to follow a
lecture or discussion in English and write
adequate notes on it.
'here is also a need for making students
aware of the wa! lectures are organi3ed$
the &articular kind of language that is used
in lectures (7!nch$ 19,8 and making sure
the! know the language$ &articularl! the
&ronunciation of familiar words$ of their
own sub0ect.
% t!&ical s!llabus would include1

9ow to take notes.

Recogni3ing lecture structure1


understanding relationshi&s in the
lecture understanding relations within
the sentence6com&le+ sentences
im&ortance markers$ sign&osts.

5educing the meaning of unfamiliar


words and word grou&s.

Recogni3ing im&lications1 information not


e+&licitl! stated recogni3ing the
s&eaker's attitude. E)aluating the
im&ortance of information # selecting
information.

2nderstanding intonation$ )oice em&hasis


etc.

7istening skills1 skimming # listening to


obtain gist scanning # listening to obtain
s&ecific information selecti)e e+traction
of rele)ant &oints to summari3e te+t.
Academic S%ea&i! S&i""s C#$rse
'his is becoming increasingl! im&ortant as
teaching methods change to in)ol)e more
grou& work$ 0oint &ro0ects and grou& marks.
%cademic s&eaking classes tr!
to hel& the students to be
more aware of what is
in)ol)ed in seminar or grou&
acti)it! and to su&&l! them
with some of the interactional
language that is used there.
Such a course might include1

'he &ur&ose of seminars.

*aking a &resentation1 the structure of


&resentations making and using notes to s&eak
from. Introducing the to&ic gi)ing the information
in detail sequencing$ describing similarities and
differences com&aring and
contrasting illustrating

a &oint # gi)ing e+am&les and


referring to research em&hasi3ing
a &oint summari3ing and
concluding.

:ontrolling the discussion1 leading the


discussion changing the sub0ect # mo)ing on
s&eeding u& things coming to a conclusion.

Partici&ating in the discussion1 interru&ting


&olitel! asking questions # asking for more
information6clarification stating a &oint of )iew
# su&&orting !our )iew agreeing and disagreeing
# challenging and commenting making
suggestions checking # making sure
that !ou ha)e understood holding the
floor # &re)enting interru&tions.

7istening and note taking.


Academic Readi! C#$rse
'hese classes therefore aim to assist the non#nati)e
s&eaker of English stud!ing in the medium of English
at tertiar! le)el to use a wide range of reading
strategies in order to recei)e more benefit from the
course. *an! students still rel! on &ainstakingl! slow
word b! word reading. ;eneral efficient reading
strategies such as scanning to find the book or
cha&ter$ skimming to get the gist and careful
reading of im&ortant &assages are
necessar! as well as )ocabular! building
e+ercises in the student's own area.
%n academic reading course could include1

2nderstanding meaning1 deducing the meaning of


unfamiliar words and word grou&s relations within
the sentence6com&le+ sentences im&lications #
information not e+&licitl! stated$ conce&tual
meaning$ e.g. com&arison$ &ur&ose$ cause$ effect.

2nderstanding relationshi&s in the te+t1 # te+t


structure the communicati)e )alue of sentences
relations between the &arts of a te+t through
le+ical and grammatical cohesion
de)ices and indicators in
discourse.

2nderstanding im&ortant &oints distinguishing


the main ideas from su&&orting detail recogni3ing
unsu&&orted claims and claims su&&orted b!
e)idence # fact from o&inion e+tracting salient
&oints to summaries following an argument
reading criticall!6e)aluating the te+t.

Reading efficientl!1 sur)e!ing the te+t$


cha&ter6article$ &aragra&hs$ skimming for
gist6general im&ression scanning to locate
s&ecificall! required information
reading quickl!.

<ote taking.
ENGLISH
FOR
BUSINESS
PURPOSES
English for Specifc Purposes-Business
(ESP-Business, also referred to as English
for Business Purposes, or EBP) is a
dynamic, growing feld in the world of
English for Speakers of Other anguages
(ESO)! "ith the glo#ali$ation of trade,
companies, uni%ersities, and indi%iduals
are increasingly turning to educational
specialists from the feld of ESP-Business
to de%elop and pro%ide high &uality
learning opportunities in language and
communication skills!
Growing Demand for English for
Specic P!rposes"B!siness
't the same time, the need for
technological competence in #usiness is
e(panding! )ar-reaching inno%ations in
technology and telecommunications
ha%e rendered the glo#al marketplace
of today*s +,nformation 'ge- an
e%er-e(panding world of
networked #usinesses, stock market
ups and downs, news agencies,
trade associations, and
country.regional information!
/nowing how to tap the
wealth of information
resources on the ,nternet
and how to analy$e and
communicate that
information e0ecti%ely are
critical skills in today*s
competiti%e world of
international #usiness!
and aspects of
pronunciation!2hese
skills-#uilding classes
can #e taken in
com#ination withother
34 hour courses as a
one or two hour
supplement!
B!siness
#omm!nica$ion 2hese classes focus on speaking and
writing 5 the two skills thatyou need
to #e a#le to communicate in
#usiness e0ecti%ely! 2he course also
incorporates aspects of cross-
culturalcommunication
%n ar$icle a&o!$ $he di'eren$
aspec$s of $eaching B!siness
English(

Some E) teachers may feel intimidated


when faced with the prospect of
teachingB!siness English! 2his is
generally #ecause they are concerned that
their possi#le lack of #usiness e(perience
or knowledge a#out the world of #usiness
will #e e(posed and they will #e made to
feel inade&uate as a result!

"here teaching Business English di0ers


from
teaching 6eneral English will normally #e
in the choice of conte(ts for listening and
reading te(ts and in the choice of le(is in
grammar and %oca#ulary e(ercises!

,n many cases learners will #e in positions of


authority and in7uence within their
company! 's such they will often e(pect
their teacher to #e informed and
e(perienced and may react #adly to
someone who is noticea#ly younger or #adly
dressed!

2here may also #e an ad%erse reaction to


statements such as +Oh, you8re an
accountant! , know a#solutely nothing a#out
accounting!+ "hile the teacher is not
e(pected to teach the learner how to #e an
accountant, they will at the %ery least need
to
adopt the position of an informed layperson
and ask rele%ant &uestions a#out the
learner8s feld of e(pertise!

Similarly, asking learners to gi%e a


presentation a#out their particular product,
their company or their current research will
also #e a highly focused acti%ity, where the
teacher can #oth gi%e guidance at the
preparation stage and feed#ack on
performance!

' particularly e0ecti%e general approach


for the teacher is to see this kind of
teaching as #oth a teaching and a learning
process for the teacher,
where a great deal of interesting
information
a#out a wide range of #usiness processes
can #e ac&uired!
E9:
;eferences<
http<..www!sites!udel!edu.eli.program
s.iep.tracks.eap.
http<..
www!ucl!ac!uk.clie.english-for-academ
ic-purposes
http<..www!onestopenglish!com.support
.methodology.english-for-specifc-pur
poses.english-for-specifc-purposes-a
spects-of-teaching-#usiness-english.3
=>=?4!article