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Steps in Research Process

Selecting the research topic

Basic Step in research
Research is possible in Marketing, banking
insurance, transport, export etc
For e.g.: In marketing we have areas of
research such as product research, price
research, consumer behavior research,
packaging research, promotion research etc.
Primary decision in a research process is to
select the research area.
Our Topic of Research
Ishant Avasti Problem Child from
Taare Zameen Par
The case
Ishaan Nandkishore Awasthi, the story's leading character, is an eight-year-
old boy who dislikes school and fails every test or exam. He finds all subjects
difficult, and is belittled by his teachers and classmates.

Lets assume that Ishants parents have appointed you as Ishants Mentor
and Guide. Your task is to help him in his academics and help his parents to
understand his problem.

The first step you need to take is to
conduct a research on Ishants problem
and then suggest a solution to the

Step 1 - Define the research problem
The second, and the most important step in

A problem well-defined is half solved

Nature of the problem determines the
type of study to conduct.

Symptoms, for example, declining sales,
profit, market share, or customer loyalty
are not problems.

Ishants Problem is not Lack of interest in
studies, Misbehavior at home, Lack of
focus, A problem child, Very mischeavious
etc, they are symptoms.

A research problem must be accurately and precisely defined,
otherwise the task of designing a good research is difficult.

Marketing problems may be difficulty-related or
opportunity-related. For both, the prerequisite of defining
the problem is to identify and diagnose it.

Conduct situation analysis. It
provides the basic motivation
and momentum for further

Get the right answer to the question:
What exactly do Ishants Parents want or need to know?

The basic question to address is:
What is Ishants Problem?

The symptoms which show that Ishant has a problem are:
Lack of interest in studies, Misbehavior at home, Lack of focus, A
problem child, Very mischeavious,

In the same way a companys Problems
may become apparent from:

deviation from the business plan, company records and reports, customer
complaints and grievances, conversations with company employees, and
observation of inappropriate behavior or conditions in the firm; the success of the
firms competitors, and published materials reporting issues such as, changes in
market or environmental trends, new government regulations, anticipated
changes in the economy, etc.)

Once the symptoms of a problem are detected..

Conduct some initial fact finding to determine the nature of the
true problem.

Talk to others about the problem and conduct a preliminary
literature search on the topic.

In the initial stage, a problem may be recognized in a
very broad and general form only. This may restrict
the research program from being comprehensively

Both the researcher and the marketing manager (or
the research client ) need to work together to
formulate the problem into a precise and definite

This fact-finding exercise helps the researcher to refine
his educated guess to a more accurate problem

Prof Nikumb speaks to Ishants Parents, brother, friends
and other professors.

He discovers that he is finding it difficult to read and write.

Thus he comes to a conclusion that he might be suffering
from Dyslexia

So In the case of Ishant:
Step 2: Establish Research Objectives
If you do not know what you are looking for, you wont find it

Research objectives are related to and determined by the problem definition. In
establishing research objectives, the researcher must answer the following
i) What specific information should the project provide?
ii) If more than one type of information will be developed from
the study, which is the most important? and finally,
iii) What are the priorities?

When specifying research objectives,
development of hypothesis, might be
very helpful.

When achieved, objectives provide the
necessary information to solve the
Our Objectives In Ishants Case
What is the diagnosis for Dyslexia?

Has anyone ever suffered from Dyslexia? How did they manage?

How to manage Dyslexia? ( how to help Ishant)

Focus Group;
Survey research
Laboratory Experiment
Field Experiment
Step 3: Research Design
Research Design step involves the development of a research plan for
carrying out the study.
There are a number of alternative research designs. The choice
will largely depend on the research purpose.
What type of research will be suitable
for Ishant?
Exploratory Research
Step 4: Specify the information required.
After defining the problem the researcher must determine
what kind of information will best meet the research
Secondary information Information
that is readily available. E.g.
- Internet, Magazines, books,

Primary information Information that
needs to be found by conducting
Survey, Observation or

Design the method of collecting the needed
Marketing research information
may be collected in many

via mail, telephone, fax,
Internet, or personal

using consumer panels,
consisting of individuals
who have agreed to
provide purchasing and
media viewing behavior.

Design the questionnaire.
You need to have a questionnaire to collect Primary data

A primary responsibilities of a marketing researcher is to
design the data collection instrument or questionnaire in a
manner so that it is easily understood by the respondent
and administered to them.
Sample Questionnaire
Since how long do you know Ishant?

What does Ishant Like?

What is he good at?

What food does he like?

Which subjects does he find difficult?

Does he understand the first time that you tell him, or do
you need to repeat what you say?

Decide on the sampling design.
Selecting the target audience
The researcher must determine the criteria that would enable a
respondent to take part in a study.

The sampling design must result in the proper sample of respondents being
selected. Different sampling designs are available to researchers.

Manage and implement the data collection.
The researcher must properly manage and oversee the data
collection process.

If interview method is used, the researcher must train interviewers
and develop procedures for controlling the quality of the

[This is not necessary if survey methodology is used, where the
research instruments are completed by the respondents. ]

Step 5: Analyze and interpret the results.
The raw research data needs to be edited, tabulated and analyzed to
find the results and to interpret them.

the method used may be manual or computer based.

The analysis plan follows from the research objective of the study.

Association and relationships of variables are identified and discussed in the
light of the specific marketing problem.
Step 6: Communicate the findings and
The researcher has to submit a written report and often
make an oral presentation to management or the client.
In conducting all the marketing research activities; the marketing
researchers must adhere to ethical standards.