Theories on prehistory and early man constantly change as new evidence comes to light.

- Louis Leakey, British paleoanthropologist

1. 4,000,000 BCE – 1,000,000 BCE 1. 4,000,000 BCE – 1,000,000 BCE
Paleolithic Age: Paleolithic Age: ( Old Stone Age ) ( Old Stone Age )
2,500,000 BCE 2,500,000 BCE to 8,000 BCE to 8,000 BCE

2. 1,500,000 BCE -- 250,000 BCE 2. 1,500,000 BCE -- 250,000 BCE 3. 250,000 BCE – 30,000 BCE 3. 250,000 BCE – 30,000 BCE 4. 30,000 BCE -- 10,000 BCE

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“Paleolithic” --> “Old Stone” Age
2,500,000 BCE – 10,000 BCE 2,500,000 BCE – 10,000 BCE Made tools Made tools

 hunting (men) & gathering (women) hunting (men) & gathering (women)

 small bands of 20-30 humans small bands of 20-30 humans

NOMADIC (moving from place to place) NOMADIC (moving from place to place)

4,000,000 BCE – 1,000,000 BCE

Hominids --> any member Hominids --> any member of the family of two-legged of the family of two-legged primates that includes all primates that includes all humans. humans.

 Australopithecines Australopithecines  An An

Apposable Apposable Thumb Thumb

HOMO HABILIS
( “Man of Skills” ) ( “Man of Skills” ) found in East Africa. found in East Africa. created stone tools. created stone tools.

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Humans during this period found shelter in caves. Humans during this period found shelter in caves. Cave paintings left behind. Cave paintings left behind.

Purpose??

1,6000,000 BCE – 30,000 BCE

HOMO ERECTUS

( “Upright Human Being” ) ( “Upright Human Being” ) BIPEDALISM BIPEDALISM

Larger and more varied Larger and more varied tools --> primitive technology tools --> primitive technology First hominid to migrate and First hominid to migrate and leave Africa for Europe and leave Africa for Europe and Asia. Asia. First to use fire ( 500,000 BCE ) First to use fire ( 500,000 BCE )

Are we all Africans “under the skin”????

200,000 BCE – 10,000 BCE HOMO SAPIENS

( “Wise Human Being” ) ( “Wise Human Being” )

( 200,000 BCE – 30,000 BCE ) ( 200,000 BCE – 30,000 BCE )

Neanderthals Neanderthals

( 40,000 BCE – 10,000 BCE ) ( 40,000 BCE – 10,000 BCE )

Cro-Magnons Cro-Magnons

NEANDERTHALS:

Neander Valley, Neander Valley, Germany (1856) Germany (1856) First humans to bury First humans to bury their dead. their dead. Made clothes from Made clothes from animal skins. animal skins. Lived in caves and Lived in caves and tents. tents.

NEANDERTHALS

Early Hut/Tent Early Hut/Tent

CRO-MAGNONs:

Homo sapiens sapiens Homo sapiens sapiens ( “Wise, wise human” ) ( “Wise, wise human” )

 By 30,000 BCE they

replaced Neanderthals.

WHY??? WHY???

70,000 BCE – 10,000 BCE

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“Neolithic”  “New Stone” Age 10,000 BCE – 4,000 BCE Gradual shift from:
Nomadic lifestyle  settled, stationery lifestyle. Nomadic lifestyle settled, stationery lifestyle. Hunting/Gathering  agricultural production and Hunting/Gathering agricultural production and domestication of animals. domestication of animals.

 8,000 BCE – 5,000 BCE 8,000 BCE 5,000 BCE  Agriculture developed independently in Agriculture developed independently in

different parts of the world. different parts of the world.

 SLASH-AND-BURN Farming SLASH-AND-BURN Farming

Middle East Middle East 8,000 BCE 8,000 BCE

India India 7,000 BCE 7,000 BCE

Central America Central America 6,500 BCE 6,500 BCE

China China 6,000 BCE 6,000 BCE

Southeast Asia Southeast Asia 5,000 BCE 5,000 BCE

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Development Development of Agriculture of Agriculture

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Why do you think the development of agriculture occurred around the same time in several different places?

Why do some archaeologists believe that women were the first farmers?

Growing crops on a regular basis made possible the Growing crops on a regular basis made possible the support of larger populations. support of larger populations. More permanent, settled communities emerged. More permanent, settled communities emerged. 9,000 BCE  Earliest Agricultural Settlement at 9,000 BCE Earliest Agricultural Settlement at JARMO ( northern Iraq )  wheat JARMO ( northern Iraq ) wheat

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8,000 BCE  Largest Early Settlement at Çatal Hüyük 8,000 BCE Largest Early Settlement at Çatal Hüyük ( Modern Turkey )  6,000 inhabitants ( Modern Turkey ) 6,000 inhabitants 12 cultivated crops 12 cultivated crops Division of labor Division of labor Engaged in trade Engaged in trade Organized religion Small military Small military An obsidian dagger

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Çatal Hüyük

What role did the food supply play in shaping the nomadic life of hunter-gatherers and the settled life of the farmers?

Advanced Cities

Advanced Technology

Specialized Workers

RecordKeeping

Complex Institutions