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Teaching Notes: Finntrack Strategy: Analysis and Practice 2005 McGraw-Hill Education Europe

Cola Wars in China

Discussion Notes
Case Analysis
Case Questions
How to Use Your Workshop Resources
Learning Objectives
Qualitative Research
Qualitative Marketing Research
Quantitative Research
Business Intelligence
Business Intelligence Tools
Database Models
Data Analysis and SPSS
Research Reports

Click on Image. Source: Intel Corporation
Competitive Position: Competitive Advantage
Market Positioning
GE Matrix
Strategic Management
Click on Image
Source: University of Florida
Life Cycles, Turnarounds,
Product Life Cycle Management
Global Strategies
Chinese Enterprise
Competitiveness in an Age of
Global Integration
Navigating the Five Currents of
Going Global: Assessing Market
Conducting International
Marketing Research in the 21

Market Research
Chapter Outlines
Industry Analysis and Competitive Strategy
Competitive Position: Competitive
Life Cycles, Turnaround and Entrepreneurs
Global Strategies
Risk and Uncertainty
Click on Image
Source: Copyright 2001 Hangzhou
Wahaha Group Co., Ltd.
This workshop series is designed to compliment Teaching and Learning
Strategies for undergraduate, postgraduate and executive level
Strategic Management and related programmes and courses using the
case studies featured in the text below.

The overall aim is to support the learning contents offered in the
relevant chapters of the book whilst expanding participants knowledge
and skills base required to understand, review and analyse the
decisions taken during the companys strategy development and
implementation processes.
Strategy Analysis and Practice
John McGee, Warwick Business School
Howard Thomas, Warwick Business School
David Wilson, Warwick Business School

Case Analysis
A case study is a particular method
of qualitative research.
Rather than using large samples and
following a rigid protocol to examine
a limited number of variables, case
study methods involve an in-depth,
longitudinal examination of a single
instance or event: a case.
They provide a systematic way of
looking at events, collecting data,
analyzing information, and reporting
the results.
As a result the researcher may gain
a sharpened understanding of why
the instance happened as it did, and
what might become important to look
at more extensively in future
Click on Image
Source: doyleresearch
Case Analysis
The scope and relevance of case
Types of case study
Illustrative case studies
Exploratory case studies
Critical instance case studies
Program implementation case
Program effects case studies
Cumulative case studies
Business school case studies
Medical case studies
History of the case study
Notable case studies
See also
External links
Case Studies lend themselves especially to generating (rather than
testing) hypotheses.
Click on Image
Source: Copyright 2003
Hangzhou Wahaha Group
Co., Ltd.
Workshop Debate
Workshop discussion topics have been divided into seven parts according to the
relevant chapters of the book involved in the case study:
1. Introduction
2. Business Analysis
3. Industry Analysis & Competitive Strategy
4. Competitive Position: Competitive Advantage
5. Life Cycles, Turnarounds, Entrepreneurs
6. Global Strategies
7. Risk and Uncertainty
You should ensure that you have understood the contents of chapters 5, 6, 8, 11
and 14 prior to attending any of the above debates.
Also see:
How to Use Your Workshop Resources
Learning Objectives
Learning from Case Studies: A Short Guide for Students
Case Questions
Please Note:
At your instructors discretion the indicative questions below and elsewhere in this
resource may be varied or deemed unnecessary for teaching and learning
purposes for some courses or modules.
How will Wahahas multinational competitors respond to Future
Cola and other Future Series carbonated drinks achieving an
impressive 18% market share (2002)?

How should Wahaha prepare for these responses?

How should it continue to increase its maker share?
How to Use Your Workshop Resources

You will need either MS PowerPoint program or PowerPoint Viewer
installed on your computer. The latter may be downloaded free from
Microsoft website here.


The Learning Contents (Literature Reviews) are linked to a relevant
public domain on the Internet.

Most, if not all pictures/images are clickable, i.e. linked to its source
which provides further information on the topic or the copyright holder.
If your version of PowerPoint does not show navigation buttons on the
slide, right click on the screen and select your destination from the
dialogue box. Alternatively use the small arrowheads, indicating
previous and next.
This information is provided with the understanding that the authors and
publishers do not assume any legal responsibility for the completeness or
accuracy of the contents or any opinions or views expressed on these
pages or linked destination sources.

It is the nature of the media (Internet) that some of the pages may not
always be available due to broken or dead links, withdrawals, etc. Whilst
the publishers will be pleased to take any appropriate corrective action, for
example, by replacing or removing the sources when possible, they unable
to assume any legal responsibility for unavailability of any third party
material for whatever reason beyond their direct control.
Learning Objectives
The main objective of the workshops is to evaluate Wahaha Groups
corporate strategic planning process and its impact on the companys
business level operations.
Participants will have an opportunity of developing and enhancing their
strategic thinking and internet research skills
analytical and critical thinking skills by reviewing the factors that
influenced corporate centre's decisions on the business

Also see Learning Using Case Studies for further information
Also see A Model for Case Analysis and Problem Solving
Research is often described as an active, diligent, and systematic process
of inquiry aimed at discovering, interpreting and revising facts. This
intellectual investigation produces a greater understanding of events,
behaviors, or theories, and makes practical applications through laws and
theories. The term research is also used to describe a collection of
information about a particular subject, and is usually associated with
science and the scientific method.

The word research derives from Middle French (see French language); its
literal meaning is 'to investigate thoroughly'.

Thomas Kuhn, in his book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, traces an
interesting history and analysis of the enterprise of research.

Business Research Methods, 8/e
Donald R Cooper, Florida Atlantic University
Pamela S Schindler, Wittenberg University
Applied research
Basic research
Business Research
Research methods
Research process
Research funding
Getting Started
See also
External links
Click on Image
Source: Kentucky Virtual Library
Click on Image
Source: CESTER
Business Research
Business Research is the systematic investigation of facts, knowledge,
and information that relate to businesses or the world of business. There
are several major types of business research.

Types of business research

Marketing research - This is a form of applied sociology which
concentrates on understanding the behaviours, whims and preferences, of
consumers in a market-based economy.
Market research - This is broader in scope and examines all aspects of a
business environment. It asks questions about competitors, market
structure, government regulations, economic trends, technological
advances, and numerous other factors that make up the business
Product research - This looks at what products can be produced with
available technology, and what new product innovations near-future
technology can develop.
Business Research
Advertising research - This
attempts to assess the likely impact
of an advertising campaign in
advance, and also measure the
success of a recent campaign.
Competitor research - This is the
investigation into the operations and
strategies of competitors to a
Financial research - This concerns
the financial analysis of companies,
industries, or sectors. In this case,
financial analysts usually carry out
the research and provide the results
to investment advisors and potential
Click on Image
Source: 2005-2006 Smart
Media Consulting
Business Research - Outcomes
Creating Economic Value From
Research Knowledge
Publishing your Work
Click on Image
Source: Copyright 2003
Hangzhou Wahaha Group
Co., Ltd.
Competitive Position: Competitive
Market Positioning
GE Matrix
Strategic Management
Also see Annotated Lecture Outline
Click on Image
Source: Tutor2u Limited
Life Cycles, Turnarounds, Entrepreneurs
Literature Reviews
Product Life Cycle Management
Also see Annotated Lecture Outline
Click on Image. Larger Image
Source: 2006 Corprenewal - all rights
Global Strategies
Click on Image
Source: Agrium Inc. 2004
Chinese Enterprise
Competitiveness in an Age
of Global Integration
Navigating the Five Currents
of Globalization
Going Global: Assessing
Market Opportunities
Conducting International
Marketing Research in the
Market Research

Also see Annotated Lecture Outline
Literature Review
Market Positioning
Market Positioning
Product positioning
Product positioning
Positioning concepts
Measuring the
See also
Market Research
Other types of
business research
Types of marketing
Marketing research
Some commonly
used marketing
research terms
See also
Strategic Management
General approaches
The strategy hierarchy
Historical development of
strategic management
Birth of strategic
Growth and portfolio
The marketing revolution
The Japanese challenge
Gaining competitive
External Links
Click on Image Source:
2006 Framework
Partners Inc
Literature Review
Market Positioning
In marketing, positioning is the
technique by which marketers try
to create an image or identity in
the minds of their target market for
its product, brand, or organization.
It is the 'relative competitive
comparison' your product occupies
in a given market as perceived by
the target market.

Positioning is something
(perception) that is done in the
minds of the target market. A
product's position is how potential
buyers see the product.
Positioning is expressed relative to
the position of competitors.
Click on Image. Larger Map
Source: 1998-2005 by Sterling Institute, Inc.
Literature Review
Market Positioning
The term was coined in 1969 by Jack
Trout in his paper, ""Positioning" is a
game people play in todays me-too
market place" in the publication,
Industrial Marketing.

Re-positioning involves changing
the identity of a product, relative to
the identity of competing products, in
the collective minds of the target

De-positioning involves attempting
to change the identity of competing
products, relative to the identity of
your own product, in the collective
minds of the target market.

Click on Image. Larger Image.
Literature Review
GE Matrix
Click on Image
Also see Tutorial for the GE Portfolio Planning Model
Literature Review
Strategic Management
Strategic management is the
process of specifying an organization's
objectives, developing policies and
plans to achieve these objectives, and
allocating resources so as to
implement the plans. It is the highest
level of managerial activity, usually
performed by the company's Chief
Executive Officer (CEO) and executive

It provides overall direction to the
whole enterprise. An organizations
strategy must be appropriate for its
resources, circumstances, and
objectives. The process involves
matching the company's strategic
advantages to the business
environment the organization faces.
Click on Image. Larger Image.
Literature Review
Strategic Management
One objective of an overall
corporate strategy is to put the
organization into a position to carry
out its mission effectively and
efficiently. A good corporate
strategy should integrate an
organizations goals, policies, and
action sequences (tactics) into a
cohesive whole. To see how
strategic management relates to
other forms of management, see

Strategic management can be seen
as a combination of strategy
formulation and strategy

Click on Image. Larger Image.
Source: (c) 2006, Bain & Company
Literature Review
Strategic Management
Strategy formulation involves:
Doing a situation analysis: both
internal and external; both micro-
environmental and macro-

Concurrent with this assessment,
objectives are set. This involves
crafting vision statements (long term
view of a possible future), mission
statements (the role that the
organization gives itself in society),
overall corporate objectives (both
financial and strategic), strategic
business unit objectives (both
financial and strategic), and tactical

Click on Image. Larger Image.
Source: Copyright2003
Literature Review
Strategic Management
These objectives should, in the light
of the situation analysis, suggest a
strategic plan. The plan provides the
details of how to achieve these

This three-step strategy formation
process is sometimes referred to as
determining where you are now,
determining where you want to go,
and then determining how to get
there. These three questions are the
essence of strategic planning.
SWOT Analysis: I/O Economics for
the external factors and RBV for the
internal factors.

Click on Image. Larger Image.
Establishing a chain of command
or some alternative structure (such
as cross functional teams)
Assigning responsibility of specific
tasks or processes to specific
individuals or groups. It also
involves managing the process.
Literature Review
Strategic Management
Strategy implementation involves:
Allocation of sufficient resources
(financial, personnel, time, computer
system support).
Click on Image. Larger Image
Source: 2006 The Bridge Strategy
This includes monitoring results,
comparing to benchmarks and best
practices, evaluating the efficacy and
efficiency of the process, controlling
for variances, and making
adjustments to the process as

When implementing specific
programs, this involves acquiring the
requisite resources, developing the
process, training, process testing,
documentation, and integration with
(and/or conversion from) legacy
Literature Review
Strategic Management
Click on Image. Larger Image
Strategy formation and implementation is an on-going, never-ending,
integrated process requiring continuous reassessment and reformation.
Strategic management is dynamic. See Strategy dynamics.

It involves a complex pattern of actions and reactions. It is partially
planned and partially unplanned. Strategy is both planned and emergent,
dynamic, and interactive.

Some people (such as Andy Grove at Intel) feel that there are critical
points at which a strategy must take a new direction in order to be in step
with a changing business environment.

These critical points of change are called strategic inflection points.

Literature Review
Strategic Management
Strategic management operates on
several time scales.
Literature Review
Strategic Management
Short term strategies involve
planning and managing for the
Long term strategies involve
preparing for and preempting the
Click on Image. Larger Image
Source: Copyright 2006 SCSU
Marketing strategist Derek Abell
(1993), has suggested that
understanding this dual nature of
strategic management is the least
understood part of the process.

He claims that balancing the temporal
aspects of strategic planning requires
the use of dual strategies
Literature Review
Entrepreneur is a loanword from
the French language that refers to
a person who undertakes and
operates a new venture, and
assumes some accountability for
the inherent risks.
Most commonly, the term
entrepreneur applies to someone
who establishes a new entity to
offer a new or existing product or
service into a new or existing
market, whether for a profit or not-
for-profit outcome (see
entredonneur). Business
entrepreneurs often have strong
beliefs about a market opportunity
and are willing to accept a high
level of personal, professional or
financial risk to pursue that
opportunity. More
Click on Image
Source: 2005 MIT Sloan School
Literature Review
Defining entrepreneur
Entrepreneur as a risk bearer
Entrepreneur as an organizer
Functional and indicative approach to
entrepreneur definition
Entrepreneur as a person willing to
engage uncertainty
Entrepreneur as a leader
Nature or Nurture (origins of the
See also
Theories of the Firm
External links
Entrepreneurship, China
Click on Image
Source:1996-2006 Accenture All
Rights Reserved
Literature Review
Intrapreneurship is the practice of entrepreneurial skills and
approaches by or within a company. Employees are supposed to
behave as entrepreneurs.
The History of Intrapreneurship
Human Resources Issues
The Intrapreneurial Organization
The Intrapreneur
Click on Image
Larger Image
Source: University of Tampere
Literature Review
Product Life Cycle Management
Product Lifecycle Management or PLM is a term used for the process
of managing the entire lifecycle of a product from its conception, through
design and manufacture to service and disposal. PLM is a set of
capabilities that enable an enterprise to effectively and efficiently
innovate and manage its products and related services throughout the
entire business lifecycle. It is one of the four cornerstones of a
corporation's IT digital structure.
All companies need to manage communications and information with its
customers (CRM-Customer Relationship Management) and its suppliers
(SCM-Supply Chain Management) and the resources within the
enterprise (ERP-Enterprise resource planning). In addition,
manufacturing engineering companies must also develop, describe,
manage and communicate information about their products (PLM).
Literature Review
Product Life Cycle Management
Introduction to development process
Phases of Product Lifecycle and
corresponding technologies
Phase: 1. Conceive
Phase: 2. Design
Phase: 3. Realize
Phase: 4. Service
All Phases: Product Lifecycle
Product Development processes and
Concurrent engineering workflow
Bottom-up design
Top-Down design
Front loading design and workflow
Design in context
Data standards
See also
External links
Click on Image
Source: Wikipedia
Literature Review
Product Life Cycle Management
The conditions a product is sold under will change over time. The
Product Life Cycle refers to the succession of stages a product goes
through. Product Life Cycle Management is the succession of
strategies used by management as a product goes through its life cycle.
The Stages
Management of the cycle
Market evolution
Technology life cycle
See also
Finding related topics
External links
Click on Image. Larger Image
Source: Wikipedia
Literature Review
Market Research
Research is the search for and retrieval
of existing, discovery or creation of new
information or knowledge for a specific
purpose. Research has many
categories, from medical research to
literary research. Marketing research
(also called consumer research) is a
form of business research. It is a form of
applied sociology which concentrates on
understanding the behaviours, whims
and preferences, of consumers in a
market-based economy. The field of
marketing research as a statistical
science was pioneered by Arthur
Nielsen with the founding of the
ACNielsen Company in 1923.
Click on Image. Larger Image.
Source: 1994-2004 Strategic Research
Also see Need Market Research?
Also see Qualitative Marketing Research
Chapter 5
Industry Analysis and Competitive Strategy 1/6
Opening Remarks
Previous lectures have alluded to
competitive strategy and the importance
of understanding the interface between
organisations and their environments.

In this session the concept of
competitive strategy is given a more
practical flavour and a number of basic
tools and techniques for analysing
competitive strategies are introduced. In
particular students will be introduced to
industry analysis (Porter's 5 forces
framework), generic competitive
strategies, and the value chain.

These ideas are used to improve our
understanding of the nature and sources
of competitive advantage.
Click on Image. Larger Image
Case Study
Chapter 5
Industry Analysis and Competitive Strategy 2/6
The recognition that competitive
advantage is a key firm-specific attribute
provides us with a way to describe
strategy and to explore the significance
of internal resources and external
market positioning for firm performance.
This chapter covers a significant
amount of material which is probably
best covered in more than one lecture
on undergraduate programmes.
Alternatively certain elements could be
omitted. These are indicated below.

Analysis of industries and
The notion of perfect competition was
introduced in earlier sessions as a
benchmark by which economists and
others, such as government
departments and regulators judge the
efficiency of markets.
Click on Image. Larger Image
Source: Tutor2U Limited
Chapter 5
Industry Analysis and Competitive Strategy 3/6
We have also seen that few, if any,
markets match the characteristics of this
'ideal' type and, indeed, firms have a
vested interest in creating market
imperfections that distinguish them from

By understanding the economic
characteristics of an industry and the way
these characteristics are shaped by the
investment and planning decisions of
firms, we can better understand the
nature and intensity of competition in
different markets. This leads in to a
presentation of Porter's familiar five
forces model. Lectures to postgraduate
students (and final year undergraduate
strategy courses) could also include a
discussion of the limitations of Porter's

Click on Image. Larger Image
Source: A.R.K. Business Analysis Ltd
Chapter 5
Industry Analysis and Competitive Strategy 4/6
Strategy as Imperfections
This section could be omitted at this
point for undergraduate students or
left for discussion in seminars rather
than the lecture. A session with
postgraduate students could include a
discussion of perfect competition,
competitive advantage and
competitive strategy.

Generic Strategies and Sources of
Competitive Advantage
The establishment of a link between
industry analysis (5 forces) and
generic strategies - quoting the text
the essence of strategy is the creation
of space within which discrete and
distinctive actions can secure
improved positioning within markets'.

Click on Image. Larger Image
Chapter 5
Industry Analysis and Competitive Strategy 5/6
This leads in to a straightforward
exposition of Porter's generic strategies
model and the implications of being 'stuck
in the middle'. If time permits, the session
leader may wish to explore some of the
criticisms of this model and consider the
defense of the model offered in the text -
namely that generic strategies are
intended to capture and portray essential
underlying economic forces.

Describing Strategy: How would you
recognise a strategy if you saw one?
An explanation of the checklist provided
in the chapter. Most students have
difficult in pinning down what is meant by
an organisation's strategy so the checklist
provided in this chapter is likely to prove
particularly helpful in providing some
practical guidance about where to start.
Click on Image. Larger Image.
Chapter 5
Industry Analysis and Competitive Strategy 6/6
This segment may be introduced a little
later in an undergraduate course.

Strategy Making in Practice
This provides the opportunity to make
the link with the earlier session of
Strategy and Organisation and to
reintroduce the intended versus
emergent strategy debate.

The session could conclude here or , in
line with the text, go on to address
some issues of strategic
implementation and evaluating
progress, finishing with the introduction
of the notion of a balanced scorecard.

Click on Image.
Source: Copyright 2003,
2004, 2005 Protean
Strategy/Eleanor Kruszewski
Chapter 6 - Competitive Position: Competitive
Advantage 1/4
Opening Remarks
It is useful to start the session by recapping on
the previous lecture and emphasizing the notion
of strategy as imperfection or the quest for
unfair advantage. This lecture explores the idea
of competitive advantage in more detail and puts
some flesh on the bare bones of generic
strategies introduced in the preceding session.
The lecture focuses on the idea that strategy is
about the position of an organisation with respect
to its markets and competitors (the so called
market-based or positioning school) and looks at
the relationships between market structure,
pricing and strategy.

The Market Positioning School
A recap on the generic strategies framework
introduced briefly in the last chapter and
restatement of the stuck in the middle hypothesis.
Larger Image
Click on Image
Source: Wikipedia
Chapter 6 - Competitive Position:
Competitive Advantage 2/4
The Nature and Source of Cost Advantage
A more detailed look at the nature and sources of cost advantage focussing on
the links between economies of scale, scope and learning and the achievement
of cost advantage.

The Nature and Source of Differentiation Advantage
A more detailed look at the nature and source of differentiation advantage and the
risks associated with this strategy emphasising the difference between
differentiation and cost based strategies. Identifying the potential for

The Concept of Competitive Advantage
A definition of competitive advantage and a description of its constituent
elements. An explanation of firm-specific imperfections as the source of
competitive advantage and the interrelationship between industry structure and
competitive advantage.. This latter point may be omitted from undergraduate
lectures and developed in a tutorial context.
Figure 6.7. An explanation of the concept of sustainability and its determinants
(on undergraduate programmes this may be included a little later in the course)
Chapter 6 - Competitive Position:
Competitive Advantage 3/4
Three Major Routes to Competitive Advantage: Is it possible for a firm to
pursue more than one generic strategy?
A re-statement of the stuck in the middle hypothesis and a summary of the
reasons for arguing that, in order to be successful, a firm should commit to a
single strategy. The critique of this position and the implications of composite
strategies. The relationship between generic strategies and market structure (this
may be omitted on undergraduate programmes).
On undergraduate programmes the following sections may form the basis of a
second lecture

Market Segmentation Analysis
The rationale for market segmentation analysis. The concept of offer curves and
price/quality trade-offs (this element may be omitted on undergraduate
programmes). The identification of segmentation variables.

Value Creation and Value Analysis
The concept of value and consumer surplus. The link between value, competitive
strategy and competitive advantage. Value maps could be included if time
permits but can be omitted without losing the main thrust of the argument.
Chapter 6 - Competitive Position:
Competitive Advantage 4/4
Strategic Group Analysis
An explanation of the concept of strategic
groups and rationale for this kind of analysis.
Mapping strategic groups over time and
strategic groups in practice.

Industry Transformation
Using the 5 forces framework to gain insight
into industry transformation. On undergraduate
programmes this may be omitted from the main
lecture and developed in tutorial sessions.

Business Models
This is an optional part of this session and may
be considered in a later slot.

An explanation of the terminology. The key
elements of a business model. Business
models in practice. Achieving a sustainable and
defensible strategic position.
Larger Image
Click on Image
Source: Vadim Kotelnikov, GIVIS, Ten3
Chapter 8 - Life Cycles, Turnarounds,
Entrepreneurs 1/5
A recap of the key arguments raised in
the previous lecture which introduced the
resource-based view and suggested that
market and resource-based thinking were
complements rather than substitutes.
However, students should recognise that
the frameworks introduce so far have
been largely static in nature. This lecture
introduces a more dynamic view of
strategy and explores some of the ways
in which managers may need to change
their strategies over time.

Larger Image
Click on Image
Source: Vadim Kotelnikov, GIVIS,
Ten3 East-West
Chapter 8 - Life Cycles, Turnarounds,
Entrepreneurs 2/5
The life-cycle model
An introduction to the industry life-cycle
model, explaining the link between
product life cycles and industry life
cycles. An analysis of the various stages
of the model, i.e. introduction, growth,
maturity, etc. and the potential limitations
of the framework.
Slide: Figure 8.1
Slide: A cautionary note on applying the
life cycle model too generally

Analysing life-cycle effects
This element of the lecture may be
omitted for undergraduate students. An
explanation of the Arthur D Little
Slide: Figure 8.3a
Slide: Figure 8.3b

Click on Image. Larger Image
Source: Copyright Journal of Artificial
Societies and Social Simulation, [2003]
Chapter 8 - Life Cycles, Turnarounds,
Entrepreneurs 3/5
Using the life cycle framework as an
organising device
The lecturer needs to make the link from
the life-cycle model to the three 'events'
which will now be explored in greater
depth, namely start-ups, entry into
heavily defended industries and
corporate failure.
Slide: bullet points listing key themes
Lecturers on undergraduate
programmes may opt to cover only one
or two themes.

Click on Image. Larger Image
Source: Copyright Local Government
Employers (LGE). the IDeA.
Chapter 8 - Life Cycles, Turnarounds,
Entrepreneurs 4/5
Theme 1: Strategy and the
Discussion of the ways entrepreneurs
are perceived and the representation
of entrepreneurs as 'heroes', leading
to a discussion of how entrepreneurs
are defined
Slide: bullet points outlining
characteristic commonly attributed to

Are Entrepreneurs Born or Made?
Discussion of competing explanations,
including antecedent influences,
geographic/organisational context,
environmental factors
Slide: Bullet points outlining different

Click on Image.
Source: CreditSunrise Inc
Chapter 8 - Life Cycles, Turnarounds,
Entrepreneurs 5/5
Entrepreneurship and Intrapreneurship
A discussion of the characteristics of entrepreneurial firms and entrepreneurial
strategies leading into the introduction of the notion of intrapreneurship.

Do entrepreneurs have a shelf life?
An outline of the tensions that are inherent in entrepreneurial strategies, as
represented by the Icarus Paradox (Miller:1992)
Slide: Bullet points outlining the key tensions lie behind the Icarus Paradox

Theme 2: New Entry Strategies
Description of the move from start-up phase to growth. An explanation of
sequential entry strategies and an exploration of the links between industry life
cycle, competition and competitive strategy
Slide: bullet points outlining the main phases in sequential entry strategies.

Theme 3: Corporate Strategy and Turnaround
A review of the common causes of corporate failure, the nature of turnaround
strategies and actions for recovery.
Slide: figures 8.9, 8.10, 8.11
Chapter 11 Global Strategies and
International Advantage 1/6
Lecture Outline
The 'global strategies and international
advantage' topic covers a lot of ground
and on undergraduate programmes it
might be worthwhile covering the topic
over two lectures. The first lecture could
focus on the concept globalization and
the pursuit of international competitive
advantage at the nation and industry
level. The second could focus on firm
level choices and the strategic options
available to international firms
Chapter 11 Global Strategies and
International Advantage 2/6
Introduction opening remarks should
establish the link with previous lectures
on competitive and corporate strategy
and explain this lectures focus on the
global arena

The Terminology of International
Business an explanation of key terms
and the introduction of the notions of
internationalization and globalization.
Slide: The terminology of international
business (list of key definitions drawn
from p.412 and 413)

The Context of International Strategy
a brief review of the major trends in trade
and foreign direct investment. A
discussion of the factors driving
globalization. Slide: Table 11.1 and 11.2
Chapter 11 Global Strategies and
International Advantage 3/6
National Competitive Advantage an introduction to, and explanation of, the
determinants of national competitive advantage (Porters diamond model).
Lectures to postgraduate audiences could also include a discussion of the
limitations of the model (discussed on p.434-436 of the text) and introduce the
double diamond model.
Slide: Figure 11.1

The Internationalization process an explanation of the ways in which
domestic firms develop their overseas activities and the evolution of different
forms engagement in foreign markets over time. A summary of the advantages
and disadvantages of these different forms of international activity, e.g. licensing,
foreign direct investment, etc.
Slide: Figure 11.2

From international to global strategies a reiteration of the opening themes of
internationalization, moving to a discussion of the strategic options available to
multi-national firms, introducing the notion of multi-domestic and global strategies.
Slide: Figure 11.3
Slide: Bullet points contrasting multi-domestic and global strategies
Chapter 11 Global Strategies and
International Advantage 4/6
The Drivers of Globalization a
discussion of the forces that are driving
the industries and firms to go global and
the limitations of, and tensions in, this
Slide: Table 11.4

Global v Local an outline of the trade-
offs between standardisation and
differentiation and the link between the
strategic environment and available
strategic options.
Slide: Table 11.5

Strategic Choices an explanation of
Bartlett and Ghosal's four basic strategies
used to enter and compete in
international environments
Slide: Figure 11.5

Chapter 11 Global Strategies and
International Advantage 5/6
The Best of Both Worlds Transnational Strategies an outline of what is
understood by a transnational strategy and an explanation of implementing this
strategy in practice.

Strategy and Organization a return to one of the key themes running through the
strategy literature, namely the strategy/structure debate. A discussion of the fit
between strategy and structure in international firms, paying particular attention to
Bartlett and Ghoshal's (1989) model. If time permits the lecturer may also like to re-
introduce the notions of country-specific and firm-specific advantages and Rugman
& D'Cruz's (2000) 'flagship'model
Slide: Figure 11.7
Slide: Figure 11.11 (optional)

Managing International Organizations an explanation of the complexity inherent
in organising a multi-product, multi-market firm and a discussion of the ways in
which managers may seek to organise and control such businesses.
Slide: Bullet points for and against a matrix structure
Slide: Figure 11.13

Chapter 11 Global Strategies and
International Advantage 6/6
Concluding Comments a summary of some of the main themes including the
nature of globalization and the significance of national competitive advantage, the
global/local debate and the way this connects with firm-specific versus country-
specific advantages, the tantalizing possibility of gaining the 'best of both worlds'
through transnationality and the possibilities and problems of developing appropriate
organizational structures and systems to make the transnational organization a
Chapter 14 -Risk and Uncertainty 1/
Introduction - A statement of the
problems of decision making in the
absence of complete information and
dealing with risk and uncertainty.

Topical examples of crafting strategies
in the face of risks and uncertainties to
highlight some of the key debates.

Examples might include 3G licences in
the mobile phone industry or risks from
natural disasters.
Chapter 14 -Risk and Uncertainty 2/
Chapter 14 -Risk and Uncertainty 3/
Qualitative Research
The term qualitative research has different meanings in different
fields, with the social science usage the most well-known.
In the social sciences, qualitative research is often a broad term that
describes research that focuses on how individuals and groups view
and understand the world and construct meaning out of their
It essentially is narrative-oriented and uses content analysis methods
on selected levels of communication content. Other researchers
consider it simply to be research whose goal is not to estimate
statistical parameters but to generate hypotheses to be tested
quantitatively. More
See also
External links
Qualitative Research
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Source: Nova Southeastern University
Qualitative Measures
The Qualitative Debate
Qualitative Data
Qualitative Approaches
Qualitative Methods
Qualitative Validity
The Qualitative Report
An online journal
dedicated to qualitative
Qualitative Marketing Research
Qualitative research is a set of research techniques, used in marketing
and the social sciences, in which data are obtained from a relatively
small group of respondents and not analyzed with statistical techniques.
This differentiates it from quantitative research in which a large group of
respondents provides data that is statistically analyzed. More
The role of qualitative
The main types of qualitative
research are
See also
Lists of related topics
External links
Quantitative Research
Quantitative research is the systematic scientific investigation of
quantitative properties and phenomena and their relationships.
Quantitative research is widely used in both the natural and social
sciences, including physics, biology, psychology, sociology, geology,
education, and journalism. The objective of quantitative research is to
develop and employ mathematical models, theories and hypotheses
pertaining to natural phenomena. The process of measurement is
central to most forms of quantitative research because it provides the
fundamental connection between empirical observation and
mathematical expression of quantitative relationships, based on
models and theory.
Overview and
Statistics in quantitative
Measurement in
quantitative research
Examples of Quantitative
See also
Business Intelligence
The term business intelligence (BI) typically refers to a set of business
processes for collecting and analyzing business information. This includes
the technology used in these processes, and the information obtained
from these processes. More
BI business processes
BI technology
BI software types
Key performance indicators
KPI example
Designing and implementing a
business intelligence
See also
Related subjects

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Source: 2003 all-BI GmbH
Business Intelligence Tools
Business intelligence tools are a type of Application software designed
to help the business intelligence (BI) business processes. Specifically
they are generally tools that aid in the analysis, and presentation of data.
While some business intelligence tools include ETL functionality, ETL
tools are generally not considered business intelligence tools.
Types of business intelligence
OLAP (including HOLAP, ROLAP
and MOLAP)
Reporting software (also called
Pixel perfect reporting software)
Data Mining
Business performance
management (BPM)
Open Source Business
Intelligence Products
Commercial Products
External links
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on Image.
Source: (c) 2006
DM Review and
SourceMedia, Inc.
Database Models
A database is an organized collection of data. The term originated within
the computer industry, but its meaning has been broadened by popular
use, to the extent that the European Database Directive (which creates
intellectual property rights for databases) includes non-electronic
databases within its definition. This resource is confined to a more
technical use of the term; though even amongst computing
professionals, some attach a much wider meaning to the word than
others. More
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Table of Contents
Source: McGraw Hill
Downloadable Slides:
Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Chapter 4
Chapter 5
Chapter 6
Chapter 7
Chapter 8
Chapter 9
Chapter 10
Chapter 11
Chapter 12
Database Models
Database models
Flat model
Hierarchical model
Network model
Relational model
Relational operations
Dimensional model
Object database models
Database Internals
Transactions and concurrency
Applications of databases
Common Database Brands
See also
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Source: (c) 2006 DM
Review and
Data Analysis
Data analysis is the act of transforming data with the aim of extracting
useful information and facilitating conclusions. Depending on the type of
data and the question, this might include application of statistical
methods, curve fitting, selecting or discarding certain subsets based on
specific criteria, or other techniques. Data visualization is sometimes an
important part of data analysis, especially in the case of explorative data
analysis. A special case is the data analysis in information technology
The computer program SPSS
(originally, Statistical Package for
the Social Sciences) was released
in its first version in the 1960s, and
is among the most widely used
programs for statistical analysis in
social science.
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Source: 2001-2006
Accelrys Software Inc.
Data Analysis
The many features of SPSS are accessible via pull-down menus (see
image) or can be programmed with a proprietary 4GL "command
syntax language". Command syntax programming has the benefits of
reproducibility and handling complex data manipulations and analyses.
The pull-down menu interface also generates command syntax,
though, by default, this is invisible to the user. Programs can be run
interactively, or unattended using the supplied Production Job Facility.
Additionally a "macro" language can be used to write command
language subroutines and SAX Basic "scripts" can access the
information in the data dictionary and manipulate the default output.
Scripts will be gradually replaced by the more functional Python
programmability extension.
The Program SPSS
SPSS The Company
See also
External links
Click on Image
Also see Resources to help
you learn and use SPSS
Research Report
Research reports are business reports produced by business
research firms (and commercial and investment banks) by their
financial analysts. The reports are designed to dig out the important
pieces of companies operational and financial reporting to paint a
picture of the future of companies to assist debt and equity investing.
The "estimated" quarterly earnings numbers of publicly owned
companies are spelled out in these reports to the investment
Recent issues
Financial services
See also
External links
Research and analyst websites