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Permutation:- Each of the different arrangements that can be made out of a given number of things by taking some or all of them at a time called a permutation.

r≤n

Notation:The no. of permutations (or arrangements) of n different things taken r at a time (r <=n) is denoted by r≤n the symbol nPr.

• For example:- Permutations of three letters, say a, b, c taken two at a time are ab, ba, bc, cb, ca, ac and the no. of permutations of these three letters taken two at a time is denoted by 3 P2. i.e. • 3P2= 3*2=6.

Example 1:- How many different numbers of four digits can be formed with the digits 2,3,4,5,6,7, none of the digits being repeated in any of the numbers so formed? Solun : To form the numbers of four digits, we have to arrange the given digits 2,3,4,5,6,7 taking four at a time. Six digits can be arranged taken four at a time in 6P4. Hence the required number of numbers = 6P4= 6*5*4*3=360.

Example 2:- In how many different ways can the letter of the word SUNDAY be arranged? How many of these arrangements begin with S? Solun:- There are six different letters S, U, N, D, A, Y in the given word and these six letters can be arranged taking all at a time in 6P6 ways. Hence the required number of ways = 6P6 = 6*5*4*3*2*1=720. For the arrangements beginning with S, S is kept fixed and we arrange the other 5 letters U,N,D,A,Y taking 5 at a time in 5P5 ways. Hence the required number of ways = 5P5 = 5*4*3*2*1=120.

Excerise:Q1. In how many other ways can letter of the word “SIMPLETON” be arranged? Q2. In how many ways can 7 people be arranged at a round table so that 2 particular persons may be together?

Combination

Combination:- Each of the different selections (or groups) that can be made out of a given number of things by taking some or all of them at a time is called a combination. Notations: The number of combinations (or selections) of n different things taken r at a time (r <=n) is denoted by the symbol nCr .Where nCr stands for !n n Cr = !r !( n − r )

For example:The combinations of three letters a,b,c taken two at a time are ab, bc,ac and the no. of combinations of three letters taken two at a time denoted by 3C2 , i.e.

3

!3 3.!2 C2 = = =3 !2!( 3 − 2 ) !2!1

The combination of three letters taken all at a time is abc and the no. of combination is 1. i.e. 3 C3= 1.

Example 1:- How many different committees of 6 members may be formed from 7 gentlemen and 5 ladies? Solun :- We have to select 6 members from 7+5=12 persons and this can be done in 12C6 ways.

12

12! 12.11.10.9.8.7.!6 C6 = = = 924 6!( 12 − 6)! !6 * 6.5.4.3.2.1

Hence the required number of committees = 924.

Example 2:-A person has got 15 acquaintances of whom 10 are relatives. In how many ways he may invite 9 guests so that 7 of them would be relatives? Solun :- No. of relatives =10. therefore, No. of non-relatives=15-10=5. 10 7 relatives can be selected out of 10 in C7 ways and for each of 10C ways, 2 non-relatives can be selected out of 5 in 7 5 C2 ways. Hence the required No. of ways in which 9 guests can be invited = 10C7 * 5C2

!10 5.4.!3 = * = 120 *10 = 1200 !7!(10 − 7) 2.1!3

Exercise:Q1. In an examination paper on Business Mathematics 11 questions are set. In how many different ways can you choose 6 questions to answer? If, however, question no. 1 is made compulsory, in how many ways can you select to answer 6 questions in all? Q2. A man has 6 friends. In how many ways may he invite one or more of them to a dinner?

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