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UNIT-5

Primary sensing elements and


signal conditioning
The General Measurement System (GMS)


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Example Pressure Gauge
Measured Medium / Quantity:
Primary Element:
Variable Conversion Elements:
Variable Manipulation (Gain)

Data Transmission:
Data Presentation:
Air Pressure
Piston
Spring (F x)


Piston Rod
Pointer/Scale

4
The primary sensing element


which first receives energy from the measured medium and
produces an output depending on the way of measured quantity
(measurand").
5
Signal conditioning
Signal Conditioning is the manipulation of the
output of a sensor, probe, or transducer to
perform one or more of these functions:

Signal level change - amplification or
reduction
Filtering
Impedance matching
A/D conversion

Transducers
Transducer
a device that converts a primary form of energy into a corresponding
signal with a different energy form
Primary Energy Forms: mechanical, thermal, electromagnetic, optical,
chemical, etc.
Sensor (e.g., thermometer)
a device that detects/measures a signal or stimulus
acquires information from the real world
Actuator (e.g., heater)
a device that generates a signal or stimulus

real
world
sensor
actuator
intelligent
feedback
system
Advantages of electrical transducers
Amplification & attenuation
Mass-inertia effects are minimized
Effects of friction are minimized
Controlled using small power level
Output can be easily used ,transmitted and
processed .
Telemetry & remote control
Explosive development in field of electronic
components and devices
Classification of transducers
On the basis of transduction form used.

Primary & secondary transducers

Active & passive transducers

Analog & Digital transducers

Transducers & inverse transducers


On the basis of transduction

Variation of resistance
Variation of inductance
Variation of capacitance
Piezo-electric effect
Magnetostrictive effect
Elastic effect
Hall effect
Thermo electric effect
Piezo-resistive effect
On the basis of transduction

Resistance transducers

-change in resistance due to change in physical quantity.

Example
Potentiometer
RTD
Strain gauges
Photoconductive cells
Thermistor
On the basis of transduction
Inductive transducers
-any of these quantity changes L=f(N,f
r
,A,L) the
inductance changes.
Example
LVDT
Synchro
Reluctance pickup
Eddy-current pickup
Velocity transducer
On the basis of transduction
Capacitive Transducers
C =
o

r
A/d

Any one of these quantity changes the capacitance
also changes
Example
Variable capacitance pressure gauge
Capacitor microphone
Dielectric gauge
Active and Passive transducers
Active transducers
-no need of any external power source
Ex:photovolatic,thermoelectric,piezoelectric
Passive transducers
Do not generate energy for conversion
Need of external power source
Types
Variable resistance
Opto electronic
Variable reactance



Variable resistance
Photo conductors
Strain gauge
Thermistor
Opto electronic
Photo- emissive cell
Photo junctions
Variable reactance

Inductive
Variable reluctance
Variable permeability
Lvdt
Eddy current
Capacitive
Variable area
Variable separation
Variable permittivity
Analog & digital transducers
Analog-output continuous function of time
Example
Thermocouple
Thermistor
LVDT
Digital output in pulses-discrete function of time
Digital tachometer
Push button switch
Television set tuner
Direct and Inverse Transducers
Direct-one form to electrical
Example :microphone [sound-electrical]


Inverse-electrical into non-electrical
Example:loudspeaker[electrical-sound]

Characteristics of transducers
Input characteristics
Type of input & operating range
Loading effects
Transfer characteristics
Transfer function
Error
response of transducer to environmental influences
Output characteristics
Type of electrical output
Output impedence
Useful range

Factors influencing the choice of
transducers
Operating principle
Sensitivity
Operating range
Accuracy
Error
Transient & frequency response
Loading effects
Environmental compatibility
Insensitive to unwanted signals
Usage & ruggedness
Electrical aspects
Stability & reliability
Static characteristics
Operational Amplifiers
An amplifier which not only perform amplification of signal
but also Some mathematical functions like,
adding signals
subtracting signals
integrating signals,
}
dt t x ) (
The applications of operational amplifiers ( shortened
to op amp ) have grown beyond those listed above.
Operational Amplifiers
i nverti ng i nput
noni nverti ng i nput
output
V-
V+
The basic op amp with supply voltage included is shown
in the diagram below.
Figure : Basic op am diagram with supply voltage and IC configuration
+

1
2
3
4
8
7
6
5
OFFSET
NULL
-IN
+IN
V
N.C.
V+
OUTPUT
OFFSET
NULL
DIP-741
OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER
Vd
+

Vo
Rin~inf Rout~0
Input 1
Input 2
Output
+Vcc
-Vcc
Operational Amplifier
Definition
Operational amplifier is basically a differential
amplifier whose basic function is to amplify the
difference between two input signals.op-amp
also called as difference amplifier.
Terminal a is known as inverting input terminal.
The signal which is applied at the inverting
terminal(v1) is inverted at the output.The
negative sign indicates the polarity change at
output

OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER
Terminal b is known as non-inverting input
terminal.
The signal which is applied at the non-
inverting terminal(v2) is not- inverted at the
output.The positive sign indicates the no
polarity change at output
The output voltage V out directly proportional
to the difference of the input volteges(V1~V2)
Operational Amplifier
Operational amplifier is a direct coupled high gain
differential input amplifier.
They are used in voltage regulators, active
filters,Instrumentation,A/D ,D/A converters
The performance of the op-amp is well controlled and
determined by the application of negative feedback.
Usually the feedback elements are passive. So the
operation of the ckt can be made very stable.
The advantage of using differential amplifier in op-amp
is due to its rejection capability of unwanted signals.
Ref:080114HKN Operational Amplifier 27
Common-Mode and Differential
Mode Operation
+

Vo
Vi
~
Same voltage source is applied
at both terminals
Ideally, two input are equally
amplified
Output voltage is ideally zero
due to differential voltage is
zero
Practically, a small output
signal can still be measured


Note for differential circuits:
Opposite inputs : highly amplified
Common inputs : slightly amplified
Common-Mode Rejection
Ref:080114HKN Operational Amplifier 28
Common-Mode Rejection Ratio (CMRR)
Differential voltage input :
+
= V V V
d
Common voltage input :
) (
2
1
+
+ = V V V
c
Output voltage :
c c d d o
V G V G V + =
G
d
: Differential gain
G
c
: Common mode gain
) dB ( log 20 CMRR
10
c
d
c
d
G
G
G
G
= =
Common-mode rejection ratio:
Note:
When G
d
>> G
c
or CMRR
V
o
= G
d
V
d

+

Noninverting
Input
Inverting
Input
Output
Operational Amplifier 29
CMRR Example
What is the CMRR?
Solution :
dB CMRR and
V (2) From
V (1) From
V V
V V
40 ) 10 / 1000 log( 20 10 1000
60700 70 60
80600 60 80
70
2
40 100
60
2
20 100
60 40 100 80 20 100
2 1
2 1
= = = =
= + =
= + =
=
+
= =
+
=
= = = =
c d
c d o
c d o
c c
d d
G G
G G V
G G V
V V
V V
+

100V
20V
80600V
+

100V
40V
60700V
(1)
(2)
Operational Amplifier 30
Op-Amp Properties
(1) Infinite Open Loop gain
- The gain without feedback
- Equal to differential gain
- Zero common-mode gain
- Pratically, G
d
= 20,000 to 200,000
(2) Infinite Input impedance
- Input current i
i
~0A
- T-O in high-grade op-amp
- m-A input current in low-grade op-
amp
(3) Zero Output Impedance
- act as perfect internal voltage source
- No internal resistance
- Output impedance in series with load
- Reducing output voltage to the load
- Practically, R
out
~ 20-100 O

4. Bandwidth infinite
+

V1
V2
Vo
+

Vo
i1~0
i2~0
+

Rout
Vo'
Rload
out load
load
o load
R R
R
V V
+
'
=
Operational Amplifier 31
Ideal Vs Practical Op-Amp
Ideal Practical
Open Loop gain A

10
5
Bandwidth BW
10-100Hz
Input Impedance Z
in
>1MO
Output Impedance Z
out
0 O 10-100 O
Output Voltage V
out
Depends only
on V
d
= (V
+
V

)
Differential
mode signal
Depends slightly
on average input
V
c
= (V
+
+V

)/2
Common-Mode
signal
CMRR
10-100dB
+

~
AVin
Vin Vout
Zout=0
I deal op-amp
+

AVin
Vin
Vout
Zout
~
Zin
Practical op-amp
Op-amp Amplications
Voltage Comparator
digitize input


Voltage Follower
buffer

Non-Inverting Amp
Inverting Amp
More Op-amp Configurations
Summing Amp


Differential Amp


Integrating Amp


Differentiating Amp
Converting Configuration
Current-to-Voltage



Voltage-to-Current
FILTERS
Need of filters
-eliminate unwanted signals
- to improve Sample/Noise ratio.
Purpose of filters in circuits
-to pass the signals of wanted frequencies
-to reject the signals of unwanted frequencies
TYPES OF FILTERS
Any physical form
-mechanical,electrical,pneumatic,hydraulic
The most commonly used types are electrical
type.They are
Passive filters
Active filters
Passive filters
Filters use only passive circuit elements(R,L,C)
Active filters
PE+Op-amp




ATTENUATORS
Attenuators are devices used in bringing down
the voltage conducted between the circuits
that are connected to its input and output
Types of attenuators
resistance attenuators
symmetrical attenuators( T shape)
L type attenuators
pi type attenuators
MODULATION
Introduction
modulation means modify or to change
The transduced signal is super-imposed on a
high frequency waveform (called carrier) .So
that the original signal can be recovered and
displayed.
The high frequency waveform is then said to
be modulated by the transduced signal. The
process of recovery is called demodulation
MODULATION
The process of changing some characteristics
(amplitude,frequency,phase) of a carrier wave
in accordance with the intensity of the signal
is known as modulation.The resultant wave is
called modulated wave.
Types of modulation
AM-Radio broadcasting
FM-television sound signal
PM

AM
When the amplitude of high frequency carrier
wave is changed in accordance with the
intensity of the signal, it is called amplitude
modulation
Three signals
audio signal
carrier wave
modulated signal


Modulation Factor
determines strength and quality of the
transmitted signal
It is the ratio of the amplitude change of carrier
wave to normal carrier wave.
DEMODULATION
The process required for recovery of original
signal from modulated waveform is called
demodulation
It involves rectification of the modulated signal
followed by elimination of carrier frequency.
Analog to Digital Converters
Analog Signals
Analog signals directly measurable quantities
in terms of some other quantity
Examples:
Thermometer mercury height rises as
temperature rises
Car Speedometer Needle moves farther
right as you accelerate
Stereo Volume increases as you turn the
knob.
Digital Signals
Digital Signals have only two states. For digital
computers, we refer to binary states, 0 and 1.
1 can be on, 0 can be off.
Examples:
Light switch can be either on or off
Door to a room is either open or closed

Examples of A/D Applications
Microphones - take your voice varying pressure waves in the air
and convert them into varying electrical signals
Strain Gages - determines the amount of strain (change in
dimensions) when a stress is applied
Thermocouple temperature measuring device converts
thermal energy to electric energy
Voltmeters
Digital Multimeters
Just what does an
A/D converter DO?
Converts analog signals into binary words

Analog Digital Conversion
2-Step Process:
Quantizing - breaking down analog value is a
set of finite states
Encoding - assigning a digital word or number
to each state and matching it to the input
signal
Step 1: Quantizing
Example:
You have 0-10V signals.
Separate them into a set
of discrete states with
1.25V increments. (How
did we get 1.25V? See
next slide)
Output
States
Discrete Voltage
Ranges (V)
0 0.00-1.25
1 1.25-2.50
2 2.50-3.75
3 3.75-5.00
4 5.00-6.25
5 6.25-7.50
6 7.50-8.75
7 8.75-10.0
Quantizing
The number of possible states that the converter can
output is:
N=2
n

where n is the number of bits in the AD converter

Example: For a 3 bit A/D converter, N=2
3
=8.

Analog quantization size:
Q=(Vmax-Vmin)/N = (10V 0V)/8 = 1.25V
Encoding
Here we assign the
digital value (binary
number) to each state
for the computer to
read.
Output
States
Output Binary Equivalent
0 000
1 001
2 010
3 011
4 100
5 101
6 110
7 111
Accuracy of A/D Conversion
There are two ways to best improve accuracy of A/D
conversion:

increasing the resolution which improves the
accuracy in measuring the amplitude of the analog
signal.

increasing the sampling rate which increases the
maximum frequency that can be measured.
Resolution
Resolution (number of discrete values the converter can
produce) = Analog Quantization size (Q)
(Q) = Vrange / 2^n, where Vrange is the range of analog
voltages which can be represented

limited by signal-to-noise ratio (should be around 6dB)

In our previous example: Q = 1.25V, this is a high resolution. A
lower resolution would be if we used a 2-bit converter, then
the resolution would be 10/2^2 = 2.50V.
Sampling Rate
Frequency at which ADC evaluates analog signal. As we see in
the second picture, evaluating the signal more often more
accurately depicts the ADC signal.
Aliasing
Occurs when the input signal is changing much faster
than the sample rate.

For example, a 2 kHz sine wave being sampled at 1.5
kHz would be reconstructed as a 500 Hz (the aliased
signal) sine wave.

Nyquist Rule:
Use a sampling frequency at least twice as high as
the maximum frequency in the signal to avoid
aliasing.
Overall Better Accuracy
Increasing both the sampling rate and the resolution you
can obtain better accuracy in your AD signals.
A/D Converter Types

Converters

Flash ADC
Delta-Sigma ADC
Dual Slope (integrating) ADC
Successive Approximation ADC


Flash ADC
Consists of a series of comparators, each one
comparing the input signal to a unique
reference voltage.

The comparator outputs connect to the inputs
of a priority encoder circuit, which produces a
binary output
Flash ADC Circuit
How Flash Works
As the analog input voltage exceeds the
reference voltage at each comparator, the
comparator outputs will sequentially saturate
to a high state.
The priority encoder generates a binary
number based on the highest-order active
input, ignoring all other active inputs.
Flash
Advantages
Simplest in terms of
operational theory

Most efficient in terms of
speed, very fast
limited only in terms of
comparator and gate
propagation delays

Disadvantages

Lower resolution
Expensive
For each additional
output bit, the number of
comparators is doubled
i.e. for 8 bits, 256
comparators needed
Delta Sigma ADC
Over sampled input signal
goes to the integrator
Output of integration is
compared to GND
Integraters to produce a
serial bit stream
Output is serial bit stream
with # of 1s proportional
to V
in

Outputs of Delta Sigma
Sigma-Delta
Advantages

High resolution

No precision external
components needed
Disadvantages

Slow due to oversampling
Dual Slope Converter
The sampled signal charges a capacitor for a fixed
amount of time
By integrating over time, noise integrates out of the
conversion
Then the ADC discharges the capacitor at a fixed rate
with the counter counts the ADCs output bits. A longer
discharge time results in a higher count
t
V
in

t
FIX
t
meas

Dual Slope Converter
Advantages
Input signal is averaged
Greater noise immunity
than other ADC types
High accuracy
Disadvantages
Slow
High precision external
components required to
achieve accuracy
Successive Approximation ADC
A Successive Approximation Register (SAR) is
added to the circuit
Instead of counting up in binary sequence,
this register counts by trying all values of bits
starting with the MSB and finishing at the LSB.
The register monitors the comparators output
to see if the binary count is greater or less
than the analog signal input and adjusts the
bits accordingly
Successive Approximation ADC Circuit
Output
Successive Approximation
Advantages

Capable of high speed and
reliable
Medium accuracy compared
to other ADC types
Good tradeoff between speed
and cost

Capable of outputting the
binary number in serial (one
bit at a time) format.
Disadvantages

Higher resolution successive
approximation ADCs will be
slower
Speed limited to ~5Msps
ADC Resolution Comparison
0 5 10 15 20 25
Sigma-Delta
Successive Approx
Flash
Dual Slope
Resolution (Bits)
Type Speed (relative) Cost (relative)
Dual Slope Slow Med
Flash Very Fast High
Successive Appox Medium Fast Low
Sigma-Delta Slow Low
ADC Types Comparison