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# INTRODUCTORY MATHEMATICAL

INTRODUCTORY MATHEMATICAL
ANALYSIS
ANALYSIS For Business, Economics, and te Li!e and Socia" Sciences
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Chapter 2
Chapter 2
Functions and Graphs
Functions and Graphs
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## To introduce addition, subtraction, multiplication,

division, and multiplication by a constant.

## To be familiar with shapes of the graphs of six

basic functions.
Chapter 2: Functions and Graphs
Chapter Objectives
Chapter Objectives
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Functions
Special Functions
ombinations of Functions
!nverse Functions
"raphs in #ectangular oordinates
Symmetry
Translations and #eflections
Chapter 2: Functions and Graphs
Chapter Outline
Chapter Outline
\$.%&
\$.\$&
\$.'&
\$.(&
\$.)&
\$.*&
\$.+&
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output number.

the function.

## The set of all output numbers is the range.

Equality of Functions

## Two functions f and g are equal -f . g)/

%. 0omain of f . domain of g1
2. f(x) . g(x).
Chapter 2: Functions and Graphs
2. Functions
2. Functions
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Chapter 2: Functions and Graphs
2. Functions
E!ample " #etermining Equality of Functions
Determine which of the following functions are equal.

'

'

% if '
% if \$
& - d.

% if 2
% if \$
& - c.
\$ & - b.
& % -
& % &- \$ -
& - a.
x
x x
x k
x
x x
x h
x x g
x
x x
x f
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Chapter 2: Functions and Graphs
2. Functions
E!ample " #etermining Equality of Functions
Solution/
3hen x . %,
4y definition, g(x) . h(x) . k(x) for all x %.
Since g-%& . ', h-%& . 2 and k-%& . ', we conclude
that
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) % %
, % %
, % %
k f
h f
g f

k h
h g
k g

,
,
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Chapter 2: Functions and Graphs
2. Functions
E!ample \$ " Finding #omain and Function %alues
5et . ,ny real number can be used
for x, so the domain of g is all real numbers.
a. Find g(z).
Solution/
b. Find g(r
2
).
Solution/
c. Find g(x 6 h).
Solution/
2
( ) 3 5 g x x x +
2
( ) 3 5 g z z z +
2 2 2 2 4 2
( ) 3( ) 5 3 5

g r r r r r + +
2
2 2
( ) 3( ) ( ) 5
3 6 3 5

g x h x h x h
x hx h x h
+ + + +
+ + +
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Chapter 2: Functions and Graphs
2. Functions
E!ample & " #emand Function
Suose that the equation ! "##\$q describes the
relationshi between the rice er unit of a certain
roduct and the number of units q of the roduct that
consumers will buy (that is% demand) er week at the
stated rice. &rite the demand function.
Solution/
q
q
%22

## 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 2: Functions and Graphs
2.2 'pecial Functions
2.2 'pecial Functions
E!ample " Constant Function

## 3e begin with constant function.

5et h(x) . \$. The domain of h is all real numbers.
, function of the form h(x) . c, where c . constant, is
a constant function.
(10) 2 ( 387) 2 ( 3) 2 h h h x +
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Chapter 2: Functions and Graphs
2.2 'pecial Functions
E!ample \$ " (ational Functions
E!ample & " )bsolute*%alue Function
a. is a rational function, since the
numerator and denominator are both polynomials.
b. is a rational function, since .
2
6
( )
5
x x
f x
x

+
( ) 2 3 g x x +
2 3
2 3
1

x
x
+
+
)bsolute*value function is defined as , e.g.
x
if 0
if 0
x x
x
x x

' )
<

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Chapter 2: Functions and Graphs
2.2 'pecial Functions
E!ample + " Genetics
'wo black igs are bred and roduce exactly fi(e
offsring. )t can be shown that the robability * that
exactly r of the offsring will be brown and the others
black is a function of r %
+n the right side% * reresents the function rule. +n
the left side% * reresents the deendent (ariable.
'he domain of * is all integers from 2 to ), inclusi(e.
Find the robability that exactly three guinea igs will
be brown.
( )
5
1 3
5!
4 4
( ) 0,1, 2,..., 5
! 5 !
r r
P r r
r r

_ _

, ,

## 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 2: Functions and Graphs
2.2 'pecial Functions
E!ample + " Genetic
Solution/
3 2
1 3 1 9
5! 120
45 4 4 64 16
3!2! 6(2) 512
(3) P
_ _ _ _

, , , ,

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Chapter 2: Functions and Graphs
2.\$ Combinations of Functions
2.\$ Combinations of Functions
E!ample " Combining Functions

## 3e define the operations of function as/

( )( ) ( ) ( )
( )( ) ( ) ( )
( )( ) ( ). ( )
( )
( ) for ( ) 0
( )
f g x f x g x
f g x f x g x
fg x f x g x
f f x
x g x
g g x
+ +

)f f(x) . 'x 7 % and g(x) . x
\$
6 'x, find
a. ( )( )
. ( )( )
c. ( )( )
d. ( )
!
1
e. ( )( )
2
f g x
f g x
fg x
f
x
f x
+

## 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 2: Functions and Graphs
2.\$ Combinations of Functions
E!ample " Combining Functions
Solution/
2 2
2 2
2 3 2
2
a. ( )( ) ( ) ( ) (3 1) ( "3 ) 6 1
. ( )( ) ( ) ( ) (3 1) ( "3 ) 1
c. ( )( ) ( ) ( ) (3 1)( 3 ) 3 8 3
( ) 3 1
d. ( )
( ) 3
1 1 1 3 1
e. ( )( ) ( ( )) (3 1)
2 2 2
f g x f x g x x x x x x
f g x f x g x x x x x
fg x f x g x x x x x x x
f f x x
x
g g x x x
x
f x f x x
+ + + +

+ +

2
Composition

## omposite of f with g is defined by

( )( ) ( ( )) f g x f g x o
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Chapter 2: Functions and Graphs
2.\$ Combinations of Functions
E!ample \$ " Composition
Solution/
2
If ( ) 4 3, ( ) 2 1, and ( ) , find
a. ( ( ))
. ( ( ( )))
c. ( (1))
F p p p G p p H p p
F G p
F G H p
G F
+ +
2 2
2
2
2
a. ( ( )) (2 1) (2 1) 4(2 1) 3 4 12 2 ( )( )
. ( ( ( ))) ( ( ))( ) (( ) )( ) ( )( ( ))
( )( ) 4 12 2 4 12 2
c. ( (1)) (1 4 1 3) (2) 2 2 1 5
F G p F p p p p p F G p
F G H p F G H p F G H p F G H p
F G p p p p p
G F G G
+ + + + + +

+ + +
+ +
o
o o o o o
o
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Chapter 2: Functions and Graphs
2., -nverse Functions
2., -nverse Functions
E!ample " -nverses of .inear Functions

## ,n inverse function is defined as

1 1
( ( )) ( ( )) f f x x f f x

Show that a linear function is one,to,one. Find the
in(erse of f(x) . ax 6 b and show that it is also linear.
Solution/
,ssume that f(u) . f((), thus .
3e can prove the relationship,
au b av b + +
( )
( )( ) ( ( ))
ax b b ax
g f x g f x x
a a
+
o
( )( ) ( ( )) ( )
x b
f g x f g x a b x b b x
a

+ + o
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Chapter 2: Functions and Graphs
2., -nverse Functions
E!ample \$ " -nverses /sed to 'olve Equations
-any equations take the form f(x) . 2% where f is a
function. )f f is a one,to,one function% then the
equation has x . f 7%(2) as its unique solution.
Solution/
,pplying f
7%
to both sides gives .
Since , is a solution.

( ) ( ) ( )
1 1
0 f f x f

1
(0) f
1
( (0)) 0 f f

## 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 2: Functions and Graphs
2., -nverse Functions
E!ample & " Finding the -nverse of a Function
'o find the in(erse of a one,to,one function f % sol(e
the equation y ! f(x) for x in terms of y obtaining x !
g(y). 'hen f
."
(x)!g(x). 'o illustrate% find f
."
(x) if
f(x)!(x . ")
2
% for x / ".
Solution/
5et y . -x 7 %&
\$
, for x 8 %. Then x 7 % . 9y and hence x
. 9y 6 %. !t follows that f
7%
-x& . 9x 6 %.
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Chapter 2: Functions and Graphs
2.& Graphs in (ectangular Coordinates
2.& Graphs in (ectangular Coordinates

## The rectangular coordinate system provides a

geometric way to graph equations in two
variables.

## ,n !*intercept is a point where the graph

intersects the x-axis. 0*intercept is vice versa.
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Chapter 2: Functions and Graphs
2.& Graphs in (ectangular Coordinates
E!ample " -ntercepts and Graph
Find the x, and y,intercets of the grah of y . \$x 6 ',
and sketch the grah.
Solution/
3hen y . 2, we have
3hen x . 2,
3
0 2 3 so t#at
2
x x +
2(0) 3 3 y +
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Chapter 2: Functions and Graphs
2.& Graphs in (ectangular Coordinates
E!ample \$ " -ntercepts and Graph
Determine the intercets of the grah of x . ', and
sketch the grah.
Solution/
There is no y-intercept, because x cannot be 2.
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Chapter 2: Functions and Graphs
2.& Graphs in (ectangular Coordinates
E!ample + " Graph of a Case*#efined Function
0rah the case,defined function
Solution/
if 0 \$ 3
( ) 1 if 3 5
4 if 5 \$ 7
x x
f x x x
x

'

## 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

1se the receding definition to show that the grah
of y . x
\$
Solution/
3hen -a, b& is any point on the graph, .
3hen --a, b& is any point on the graph, .
The graph is symmetric about the y,axis.
Chapter 2: Functions and Graphs
2.1 'ymmetry
2.1 'ymmetry
E!ample " y*)!is 'ymmetry

## , graph is symmetric about the y*a!is when --a,

b& lies on the graph when -a, b& does.
2
b a
2 2
( ) a a b
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Chapter 2: Functions and Graphs
2.1 'ymmetry

## "raph is symmetric about the !*a!is when -x, -y&

lies on the graph when -x, y& does.

## "raph is symmetric about the origin when -7x,7y&

lies on the graph when -x, y& does.

Summary/
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Chapter 2: Functions and Graphs
2.1 'ymmetry
E!ample \$ " Graphing 2ith -ntercepts and 'ymmetry
'est y . f (x) . %7 x
(
the y,axis% and the origin. 'hen find the intercets
and sketch the grah.
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Chapter 2: Functions and Graphs
2.1 'ymmetry
E!ample \$ " Graphing 2ith -ntercepts and 'ymmetry
Solution/
#eplace y with :y, not equivalent to equation.
#eplace x with :x, equivalent to equation.
#eplace x with :x and y with :y, not equivalent to
equation.
Thus, it is only symmetric about the y*a!is.
!ntercept at
4
1 0
1 or 1
x
x x

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Chapter 2: Functions and Graphs
2.1 'ymmetry
E!ample & " 'ymmetry about the .ine y 3 x

## , graph is symmetric about the y 3 x when -b, a&

and -a, b&.
Show that x
\$
6 y
\$
. % is symmetric about the line
y . x.
Solution/
!nterchanging the roles of x and y produces
y
\$
6 x
\$
. % -equivalent to x
\$
6 y
\$
. %&.
!t is symmetric about y . x.
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Chapter 2: Functions and Graphs
2.+ 4ranslations and (eflections
2.+ 4ranslations and (eflections

## * frequently used functions/

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Chapter 2: Functions and Graphs
2.+ 4ranslations and (eflections

## 4asic types of transformation/

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Chapter 2: Functions and Graphs
2.+ 4ranslations and (eflections
E!ample " 5ori6ontal 4ranslation
Sketch the grah of y ! (x . ")
2
.
Solution/