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INTRODUCTORY MATHEMATICAL

INTRODUCTORY MATHEMATICAL
ANALYSIS
ANALYSIS For Business, Economics, and te Li!e and Socia" Sciences
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Chapter 2
Chapter 2
Functions and Graphs
Functions and Graphs
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To understand what functions and domains are.

To introduce different types of functions.

To introduce addition, subtraction, multiplication,


division, and multiplication by a constant.

To introduce inverse functions and properties.

To graph equations and functions.

To study symmetry about the x- and y-axis.

To be familiar with shapes of the graphs of six


basic functions.
Chapter 2: Functions and Graphs
Chapter Objectives
Chapter Objectives
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Functions
Special Functions
ombinations of Functions
!nverse Functions
"raphs in #ectangular oordinates
Symmetry
Translations and #eflections
Chapter 2: Functions and Graphs
Chapter Outline
Chapter Outline
$.%&
$.$&
$.'&
$.(&
$.)&
$.*&
$.+&
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, function assigns each input number to one


output number.

The set of all input numbers is the domain of


the function.

The set of all output numbers is the range.


Equality of Functions

Two functions f and g are equal -f . g)/


%. 0omain of f . domain of g1
2. f(x) . g(x).
Chapter 2: Functions and Graphs
2. Functions
2. Functions
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Chapter 2: Functions and Graphs
2. Functions
E!ample " #etermining Equality of Functions
Determine which of the following functions are equal.

'

'

% if '
% if $
& - d.

% if 2
% if $
& - c.
$ & - b.
& % -
& % &- $ -
& - a.
x
x x
x k
x
x x
x h
x x g
x
x x
x f
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Chapter 2: Functions and Graphs
2. Functions
E!ample " #etermining Equality of Functions
Solution/
3hen x . %,
4y definition, g(x) . h(x) . k(x) for all x %.
Since g-%& . ', h-%& . 2 and k-%& . ', we conclude
that
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) % %
, % %
, % %
k f
h f
g f

k h
h g
k g

,
,
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Chapter 2: Functions and Graphs
2. Functions
E!ample $ " Finding #omain and Function %alues
5et . ,ny real number can be used
for x, so the domain of g is all real numbers.
a. Find g(z).
Solution/
b. Find g(r
2
).
Solution/
c. Find g(x 6 h).
Solution/
2
( ) 3 5 g x x x +
2
( ) 3 5 g z z z +
2 2 2 2 4 2
( ) 3( ) 5 3 5

g r r r r r + +
2
2 2
( ) 3( ) ( ) 5
3 6 3 5

g x h x h x h
x hx h x h
+ + + +
+ + +
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Chapter 2: Functions and Graphs
2. Functions
E!ample & " #emand Function
Suose that the equation ! "##$q describes the
relationshi between the rice er unit of a certain
roduct and the number of units q of the roduct that
consumers will buy (that is% demand) er week at the
stated rice. &rite the demand function.
Solution/
q
q
%22

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Chapter 2: Functions and Graphs
2.2 'pecial Functions
2.2 'pecial Functions
E!ample " Constant Function

3e begin with constant function.


5et h(x) . $. The domain of h is all real numbers.
, function of the form h(x) . c, where c . constant, is
a constant function.
(10) 2 ( 387) 2 ( 3) 2 h h h x +
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Chapter 2: Functions and Graphs
2.2 'pecial Functions
E!ample $ " (ational Functions
E!ample & " )bsolute*%alue Function
a. is a rational function, since the
numerator and denominator are both polynomials.
b. is a rational function, since .
2
6
( )
5
x x
f x
x

+
( ) 2 3 g x x +
2 3
2 3
1

x
x
+
+
)bsolute*value function is defined as , e.g.
x
if 0
if 0
x x
x
x x

' )
<

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Chapter 2: Functions and Graphs
2.2 'pecial Functions
E!ample + " Genetics
'wo black igs are bred and roduce exactly fi(e
offsring. )t can be shown that the robability * that
exactly r of the offsring will be brown and the others
black is a function of r %
+n the right side% * reresents the function rule. +n
the left side% * reresents the deendent (ariable.
'he domain of * is all integers from 2 to ), inclusi(e.
Find the robability that exactly three guinea igs will
be brown.
( )
5
1 3
5!
4 4
( ) 0,1, 2,..., 5
! 5 !
r r
P r r
r r

_ _

, ,

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Chapter 2: Functions and Graphs
2.2 'pecial Functions
E!ample + " Genetic
Solution/
3 2
1 3 1 9
5! 120
45 4 4 64 16
3!2! 6(2) 512
(3) P
_ _ _ _

, , , ,

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Chapter 2: Functions and Graphs
2.$ Combinations of Functions
2.$ Combinations of Functions
E!ample " Combining Functions

3e define the operations of function as/


( )( ) ( ) ( )
( )( ) ( ) ( )
( )( ) ( ). ( )
( )
( ) for ( ) 0
( )
f g x f x g x
f g x f x g x
fg x f x g x
f f x
x g x
g g x
+ +


)f f(x) . 'x 7 % and g(x) . x
$
6 'x, find
a. ( )( )
. ( )( )
c. ( )( )
d. ( )
!
1
e. ( )( )
2
f g x
f g x
fg x
f
x
f x
+

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Chapter 2: Functions and Graphs
2.$ Combinations of Functions
E!ample " Combining Functions
Solution/
2 2
2 2
2 3 2
2
a. ( )( ) ( ) ( ) (3 1) ( "3 ) 6 1
. ( )( ) ( ) ( ) (3 1) ( "3 ) 1
c. ( )( ) ( ) ( ) (3 1)( 3 ) 3 8 3
( ) 3 1
d. ( )
( ) 3
1 1 1 3 1
e. ( )( ) ( ( )) (3 1)
2 2 2
f g x f x g x x x x x x
f g x f x g x x x x x
fg x f x g x x x x x x x
f f x x
x
g g x x x
x
f x f x x
+ + + +

+ +


2
Composition

omposite of f with g is defined by


( )( ) ( ( )) f g x f g x o
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Chapter 2: Functions and Graphs
2.$ Combinations of Functions
E!ample $ " Composition
Solution/
2
If ( ) 4 3, ( ) 2 1, and ( ) , find
a. ( ( ))
. ( ( ( )))
c. ( (1))
F p p p G p p H p p
F G p
F G H p
G F
+ +
2 2
2
2
2
a. ( ( )) (2 1) (2 1) 4(2 1) 3 4 12 2 ( )( )
. ( ( ( ))) ( ( ))( ) (( ) )( ) ( )( ( ))
( )( ) 4 12 2 4 12 2
c. ( (1)) (1 4 1 3) (2) 2 2 1 5
F G p F p p p p p F G p
F G H p F G H p F G H p F G H p
F G p p p p p
G F G G
+ + + + + +

+ + +
+ +
o
o o o o o
o
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Chapter 2: Functions and Graphs
2., -nverse Functions
2., -nverse Functions
E!ample " -nverses of .inear Functions

,n inverse function is defined as


1 1
( ( )) ( ( )) f f x x f f x


Show that a linear function is one,to,one. Find the
in(erse of f(x) . ax 6 b and show that it is also linear.
Solution/
,ssume that f(u) . f((), thus .
3e can prove the relationship,
au b av b + +
( )
( )( ) ( ( ))
ax b b ax
g f x g f x x
a a
+
o
( )( ) ( ( )) ( )
x b
f g x f g x a b x b b x
a

+ + o
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Chapter 2: Functions and Graphs
2., -nverse Functions
E!ample $ " -nverses /sed to 'olve Equations
-any equations take the form f(x) . 2% where f is a
function. )f f is a one,to,one function% then the
equation has x . f 7%(2) as its unique solution.
Solution/
,pplying f
7%
to both sides gives .
Since , is a solution.

( ) ( ) ( )
1 1
0 f f x f

1
(0) f
1
( (0)) 0 f f

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Chapter 2: Functions and Graphs
2., -nverse Functions
E!ample & " Finding the -nverse of a Function
'o find the in(erse of a one,to,one function f % sol(e
the equation y ! f(x) for x in terms of y obtaining x !
g(y). 'hen f
."
(x)!g(x). 'o illustrate% find f
."
(x) if
f(x)!(x . ")
2
% for x / ".
Solution/
5et y . -x 7 %&
$
, for x 8 %. Then x 7 % . 9y and hence x
. 9y 6 %. !t follows that f
7%
-x& . 9x 6 %.
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Chapter 2: Functions and Graphs
2.& Graphs in (ectangular Coordinates
2.& Graphs in (ectangular Coordinates

The rectangular coordinate system provides a


geometric way to graph equations in two
variables.

,n !*intercept is a point where the graph


intersects the x-axis. 0*intercept is vice versa.
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Chapter 2: Functions and Graphs
2.& Graphs in (ectangular Coordinates
E!ample " -ntercepts and Graph
Find the x, and y,intercets of the grah of y . $x 6 ',
and sketch the grah.
Solution/
3hen y . 2, we have
3hen x . 2,
3
0 2 3 so t#at
2
x x +
2(0) 3 3 y +
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Chapter 2: Functions and Graphs
2.& Graphs in (ectangular Coordinates
E!ample $ " -ntercepts and Graph
Determine the intercets of the grah of x . ', and
sketch the grah.
Solution/
There is no y-intercept, because x cannot be 2.
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Chapter 2: Functions and Graphs
2.& Graphs in (ectangular Coordinates
E!ample + " Graph of a Case*#efined Function
0rah the case,defined function
Solution/
if 0 $ 3
( ) 1 if 3 5
4 if 5 $ 7
x x
f x x x
x


'

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1se the receding definition to show that the grah
of y . x
$
is symmetric about the y,axis.
Solution/
3hen -a, b& is any point on the graph, .
3hen --a, b& is any point on the graph, .
The graph is symmetric about the y,axis.
Chapter 2: Functions and Graphs
2.1 'ymmetry
2.1 'ymmetry
E!ample " y*)!is 'ymmetry

, graph is symmetric about the y*a!is when --a,


b& lies on the graph when -a, b& does.
2
b a
2 2
( ) a a b
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Chapter 2: Functions and Graphs
2.1 'ymmetry

"raph is symmetric about the !*a!is when -x, -y&


lies on the graph when -x, y& does.

"raph is symmetric about the origin when -7x,7y&


lies on the graph when -x, y& does.

Summary/
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Chapter 2: Functions and Graphs
2.1 'ymmetry
E!ample $ " Graphing 2ith -ntercepts and 'ymmetry
'est y . f (x) . %7 x
(
for symmetry about the x,axis%
the y,axis% and the origin. 'hen find the intercets
and sketch the grah.
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Chapter 2: Functions and Graphs
2.1 'ymmetry
E!ample $ " Graphing 2ith -ntercepts and 'ymmetry
Solution/
#eplace y with :y, not equivalent to equation.
#eplace x with :x, equivalent to equation.
#eplace x with :x and y with :y, not equivalent to
equation.
Thus, it is only symmetric about the y*a!is.
!ntercept at
4
1 0
1 or 1
x
x x


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Chapter 2: Functions and Graphs
2.1 'ymmetry
E!ample & " 'ymmetry about the .ine y 3 x

, graph is symmetric about the y 3 x when -b, a&


and -a, b&.
Show that x
$
6 y
$
. % is symmetric about the line
y . x.
Solution/
!nterchanging the roles of x and y produces
y
$
6 x
$
. % -equivalent to x
$
6 y
$
. %&.
!t is symmetric about y . x.
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Chapter 2: Functions and Graphs
2.+ 4ranslations and (eflections
2.+ 4ranslations and (eflections

* frequently used functions/


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Chapter 2: Functions and Graphs
2.+ 4ranslations and (eflections

4asic types of transformation/


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Chapter 2: Functions and Graphs
2.+ 4ranslations and (eflections
E!ample " 5ori6ontal 4ranslation
Sketch the grah of y ! (x . ")
2
.
Solution/