Compendium Review Major Topic Two: Movement

Table of Contents Part 1 • The Skeleton System • Growth & Repair • Axial Skeleton • Appendicular Skeleton • Articulations Part 2 • Muscular System • Skeleton Muscle Fiber Contractions • Whole Muscle Contraction • Muscular Disorders and Homeostasis

• The Skeleton System
• Growth & Repair • Axial Skeleton • Appendicular Skeleton • Articulations

Pic from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skeletal_system

The Skeleton System
The skeleton system helps support the body, protect internal body parts, produces blood cells, stores fat and mineral, and aids in body movement. There are a total of 206 bones in an adult body. The long shaft of a bone is known as the diaphysis and is coated with periosteum, a fibrous layer which houses nerves, blood and lymphatic vessels. The diaphysis contains the medullary cavity (home to yellow marrow), which is made of compact bone and lined with a vascular membrane called the endosteum. At each end is a large region called the epiphysis which is made of spongy bone and house the red bone marrow. The ends of the bones, the epiphysis, are coated with articular cartilage at the joints.

Pic from Human Biology Pg 209

The Skeleton System
Compact bones are densely made of osteons, or tubular units. The osteocytes, or bone cells, in the osteon are found in chambers called lacunae and are held together by cytoplasm. Between the rings of lacunae is matrix which contains tiny canals known as canaliculi that help connect the rings of lacunae together and to the central canal. In the central canal, osteocytes exchange waste and nutrients via blood vessels. Spongy bones are made of trabeculae, or thin plates that are unevenly spaced apart. In the spaces are red bone marrow, tissue which produces blood cells. Spongy bones are lighter than compact bones but are still as tough.
Pic from Human Biology Pg 209

Cartilage serves as a padding material for joints and contains fibers (collagenous and elastic) and matrix (gel material) which yield flexibility. Cartilage contains no nerves or blood vessels, but cells known as chondrocytes which are found in the lacunae. The 3 types of cartilage are hyaline cartilage, fibrocartilage, and elastic cartilage. Hyaline’s matrix contains a significant amount of collagen fibers, and is firm but flexible. Fibrocartilage has thick collagen fiber rows, is strong, and can withstand pressure. It is found in places that succumb to a lot of tension and pressure like in the vertebrae disks and knees. Elastic cartilage is the most flexible containing the most amount of elastin fibers in the matrix. Ligaments, which connect bones to each other, are made of fibrous connective tissue. Fibrous connective tissue also makes up tendons which are responsible for connecting muscles to bones.

The Skeleton System

Pic from Human Biology Pg 209

• The Skeleton System

• Growth & Repair
• Axial Skeleton • Appendicular Skeleton • Articulations

Pic from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bone#Formation

Growth & Repair
The formation of bones is known as ossification. Bone growth is possible due to the following cells: osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts. Osteoblasts form bones by releasing osteoid (organic part of matrix) and promote mineralization of the matrix. Osteocytes are mature osteoblasts which aid in bone maintenance. Osteoclasts are responsible for bone resorption. They remove mineralized matrix, thus removing bone tissue.

Pic from Human Biology Pg 210

Intramembranous ossification is the classification for bones that form between fibrous tissue. During fetal development, osteoblasts are formed from connective tissue cells and release osteoid, mixing with calcium salts to bring about calcification. The bone formation process takes place in the spongy bone, where it is coated by a periosteum, compact bone forms and encloses the spongy bone. This process is used in healing fractured bones.

Growth & Repair
Another way bone growth occurs is by endochondral ossification. Calcified bone matrix replaces cartilage, and on the inside the bone forms from the center outward towards the ends.

The above diagram shows the steps as follows: the chondrocytes (cells) lay down hyaline cartilage; periosteum forms producing osteoblasts; the bone collar (compact bone) is formed by osteoblasts releasing osteoid which undergoes calcification; blood vessels transport the osteoblasts to the ossification center where spongy bone is formed; osteoclasts absorb spongy bone creating the medullary cavity; the secondary ossification centers are created in the epiphysis after birth; articular cartilage and cartilage at the epiphyseal plate are present; the growth plate separates the primary center from each secondary center and this accounts for longitudinal growth in children and adolescents. Pic from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bone#Formation

Growth & Repair
Four distinct zones take place during endochondral ossification.
1. Resting Zone: next to epiphysis, contains cartilage 2. Proliferating Zone: chondrocytes undergo mitosis producing new cells 3. Degenerating Zone: cartilage cells dye off 4. Ossification Zone: formation of bone

epiphysis

Pic from Human Biology Pg 211

Growth & Repair
The growth of bones is affected by hormones (chemical messengers). Calcium, which aids in bone strength and growth, is absorbed in the intestinal tract by a hormone derived from vitamin D (converted in kidneys). In addition, cells metabolic activity is stimulated by thyroid hormone which in turn helps promote growth of epiphyseal plates through growth hormone. The amount of hormones distributed throughout the bloodstream has a direct correlation on bone growth. Too little and dwarfism may result, too much and gigantism may result. Exercise helps stimulate osteoblasts to form compact bone in particular area’s, keeping bones strong but not too thick.

Pic from Human Biology Pg 212 & www.lifespan.org/.../ima ges/en/17285.jpg

Bone remodeling is a term used to describe bone renewal, the constant bone breakdown by osteoclasts and bone buildup by osteoblasts. This process helps maintain bone homeostasis, keeping it strong. If bone is generated too fast (Paget’s Disease), it becomes soft and is vulnerable to breakage and deformities. Blood calcium levels are regulated by parathyroid hormone (speeds up bone recycling) and calcitonin (opposite PTH). Once one reaches about middle age, a condition known as osteoporosis can set in. Osteoporosis is a decrease in bone mass resulting in weakened and brittle bones. Exercise, calcium, and vitamin D can all help

Growth & Repair
After a bone is fractured the repair process takes several months and 4 steps: hematoma, fibrocartilaginous callus, bony callus, and remodeling. Hematoma is an accumulation of clotted blood and is the first step that takes place to healing fractured bones. After a fracture, blood vessels are ruptured and blood accumulates in the break of the bone for about seven hours. The next step, fibrocartilaginous callus, is when the tissue repair begins to fill the fractured part of the bone. This process takes about three weeks. The third step, bony callus, takes about three to four month to complete. Trabeculae of spongy bone is formed by osteoblasts and fibrocartilage callus is transformed to bony callus to aid in fusing the broken bones together. The final step, remodeling, is the formation of new compact bone by osteoblasts and the absorption of spongy bone by osteoclasts, The result is a new medullary cavity.

Pic from Human Biology Pg 214

• The Skeleton System • Growth & Repair

• Axial Skeleton
• Appendicular Skeleton • Articulations

Pic from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Axial_skeleton

Axial Skeleton

Pic from Human Biology Pg 216

The skull, hyoid bone, vertebral column, and the rib cage are all bones that belong to the axial skeleton. The skull is formed by the cranium which protects the brain. Fully formed craniums consist of eight bones, whereas in infants the cranium is not fully formed so some of their cranium bones are joined by fontanels, or The sinuses are air spaces and rimmed with mucous. The mastoid sinuses drain to the membranous middle part of the ear. The forehead is formed by the frontal lobe, the sides of the head regions.

are formed by the parietal bones, and the back of the head is formed by the occipital bone. The spinal cord passes through an opening at the bottom of the cranium known as the foramen magnum, where it becomes the brain stem. The temporal bones have an opening called the external auditory canal for the ears. The sphenoid bones help form the eye sockets and complete the sides of the cranium. The ethmoid bone helps form the nasal septum.

Axial Skeleton
The mandible is a facial bone known as the lower jaw. The maxillae is the upper portion of a jaw and both the mandible and maxillae house teeth. The cheek bones are called zygomatic bones and the nose is formed by the nasal bones. The forehead shape is from the frontal bone. The hyoid bone is attached to the larynx (voice box) by a membrane. Muscles that aid in swallowing are attached to the hyoid bone.

Pic from Human Biology Pg 217

Axial Skeleton
The are 33 vertebrae in the vertebral column, and the spinal cord passes through the column. Between each vertebrae are intervertebral disks which act as a padding and absorb shock/pressure; made of fibrocartilage. The vertebral column is organized into five parts. Cervical curvature accounts for the first seven vertebrae; the first being the atlas (holds head up) and the second being the axis (aids in head rotation). The twelve vertebrae in the thoracic curvature are long, thin, and attach to the ribs. Lumbar curvature accounts for five thick vertebrae while the sacrum’s five vertebrae are fused and form the pelvic curvature. At the bottom of the column is the coccyx, or tail bone, which consists of three to five fused vertebrae. The vertebral column get strength from its curve. People with scoliosis have a sideways curve that is abnormal.
Pic from Human Biology Pg 218

Axial Skeleton
The thoracic cage (rib cage) protects the heart and lungs, and is made of thoracic vertebrae, ribs, cartilage, and the sternum. There are 12 ribs that come of the thoracic vertebrae in the vertebral column and the top 7 ribs connect to the sternum. The sternum (breast bone) is a vertical bone that protects the heart and lungs. The manubrium, body, and xiphoid process make up the sternum. True ribs are connected to the sternum by costal cartilages, whereas false ribs are connected by common cartilage.

Pic from Human Biology Pg 219

• The Skeleton System • Growth & Repair • Axial Skeleton • Appendicular Skeleton • Articulations

Pic from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Appendicular_skeleton

Appendicular Skeleton
The appendicular skeleton consists of the shoulders down and the pelvic down. The scapula (shoulder blade) and the clavicle (collarbone) exist in the left and right sides of the body known as the pectoral girdles. The scapula is a shoulder blade bone that attaches to clavicle via the acromion process. The humerus, single bone in upper arm, joins with the scapula via the glenoid cavity. Ligaments help stabilize this joint because it is a popular site of dislocation due to the small glenoid cavity. The rotator cuff consists of tendons that start at the scapula and extend downward. In the forearm is the radius and ulna which attach at the elbow to the humerus via the capitulum and trochlea.
Pic from Human Biology Pg 220

The wrist contains 8 carpel bones; 5 are metacarpal and spread out to form the palm part of the hands. The fingers and thumb bones are known as the phalanges.

Appendicular Skeleton
The pelvis is made of the pelvic girdle (large hip bones known as coxal bones), sacrum, and coccyx, attaches the legs, and bears body weight. The coxal bones are made of the ilium (largest part, bigger in women), the ischium (we sit on), and the pubis (both pubis bones are joined by the pubic symphysis). The acetabulum is the hip socket where the femur (thighbone) joins with the coxal bone. The greater trochanter at the top of the femur and the lesser trochanter on the inside if the top of the femur allow for muscle attachment. The femur ends in a medial condyle and a lateral epicondyle which join the tibial tuberosity (top of tibia). The area of connection is at the patella, or kneecap. The smaller bone in the lower leg is called the fibula; it attaches to the tibial tuberosity and ends in the lateral malleolus at the ankle. The medial malleolus is the end of the tibia and accounts for the inside ankle bulge. The ankle has 7 tarsal bones, the talus (one of the tarsal bones) is attached to the tibia and fibula, and the heal bone (calcaneus) which supports body weight. The end of the 5 metatarsal bones form the ball of the foot, and the ends of the feet are known as phalanges, or toes.
Pic from Human Biology Pg 221

• The Skeleton System • Growth & Repair • Axial Skeleton • Appendicular Skeleton

• Articulations

This picture shows synovial joint movements.

Pic from Human Biology Pg 223

Articulations
Bones are joined together at fibrous joints which aid in flexibility. The sutures are a form of fibrous joints which are immovable in between cranial bones. Cartilaginous joints have some flexibility. Synovial joints are the most flexible and are filled with synovial fluid in the joint cavity. Above the cavity is articular cartilage and below is menisci (sections of hyaline cartilage). Joints are supported by ligaments which are responsible for connecting bones. Bursae are sacs filled with fluid that offer cushion around joints and in areas between bones and muscles.

Synovial Joint

Pic from Human Biology Pg 222

Works Cited
"Appendicular skeleton." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 1 Apr 2008, 03:16 UTC. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 1 Apr 2008 <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Appendicular_skeleton&oldid=202964230>. "Axial skeleton." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 27 Feb 2008, 03:42 UTC. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 1 Apr 2008 <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Axial_skeleton&oldid=194340644>. "Bone." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 1 Apr 2008, 11:31 UTC. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 1 Apr 2008 <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bone&oldid=203265526>. Lifespan.com. Osteoporosis and Aging. Accessed 1 Apr 2008. <www.lifespan.org/.../images/en/17285.jpg> Mader, Sylvia S. Human Biology. New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc, 2008. Pages 207-225. "Skeleton." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 1 Apr 2008, 18:08 UTC. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 2 Apr 2008 <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Skeleton&oldid=203093039>.

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