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10/30/2014

Prepared by: Eng. Chamil Duminda Mahagamage
B.Sc.Eng (Hons), C Eng, MIE(SL)
1 International College of Business and Technology
6102BEUG- Lecture Note: 06
DESIGN OF MASONRY STRUCTURES
EC6 applies to the design of buildings and civil engineering works in, predominantly,
unreinforced and reinforced masonry. It is based on limit state principles and is
published in four parts as named below

Part 1.1 General rules for reinforced and unreinforced masonry
Part 1.2 Structural fire design
Part 2 Design consideration, selection of materials and execution of masonry
Part 3 Simplified calculation methods for unreinforced masonry structures.
Part 1.1 of EC6 provides the basic information necessary for the design of masonry
structure and deals with the material properties and gives detailed rules which are
mainly applicable to ordinary buildings.
Part 1.2 deals with the accidental event of fire and addresses, amongst other aspects,
fire protection of load bearing members to prevent premature collapse of the structure
and the measures required to limit the spread of fire in masonry structures.
Part 2 provides guidance on, amongst other aspects, the selection of mortars and
masonry units for various exposure conditions and applications.
Part 3 contains simple rules for the design of various types of unreinforced masonry
walls including panel, shear and basement walls.
10/30/2014
Prepared by: Eng. Chamil Duminda Mahagamage
B.Sc.Eng (Hons), C Eng, MIE(SL)
2 International College of Business and Technology
6102BEUG- Lecture Note: 06
List of Symbols
Refer Cl. 1.6 of EC6 for full list of symbols.
10/30/2014
Prepared by: Eng. Chamil Duminda Mahagamage
B.Sc.Eng (Hons), C Eng, MIE(SL)
3 International College of Business and Technology
6102BEUG- Lecture Note: 06
Design Basis
EC6 is a limit state code. The two principal categories of limit states relevant to the
design of masonry structures are durability and strength. Design for durability is
discussed in chapter 4 of EC6 and largely relates to the selection of masonry units and
mortars for particular structure types and exposure classes. The design rules dealing
with ultimate limit states are given in chapter 6 of EC6. Generally, in order to assess the
effect of these loading conditions on masonry structures the designer will need to
estimate
- the design values of actions
- the design strength of materials
Design values of actions


10/30/2014
Prepared by: Eng. Chamil Duminda Mahagamage
B.Sc.Eng (Hons), C Eng, MIE(SL)
4 International College of Business and Technology
6102BEUG- Lecture Note: 06
Design compressive strength

The design compressive strength f
d
= f
k

M

where,
f
k
= characteristic compressive strength of masonry
γ
M
= partial factor for materials
The characteristic compressive strength of masonry is a function of the following
material characteristics:
- Group number of masonry unit
- Normalised mean compressive strength of masonry unit
- Compressive strength of mortar
The partial factor for materials is a function of the following aspects:
- Category of (masonry unit) manufacturing control
- Class of execution control
Some of the above information is provided by the manufacturer of the masonry units
whereas the others are determined using the guidance given in EC6.


10/30/2014
Prepared by: Eng. Chamil Duminda Mahagamage
B.Sc.Eng (Hons), C Eng, MIE(SL)
5 International College of Business and Technology
6102BEUG- Lecture Note: 06
10/30/2014
Prepared by: Eng. Chamil Duminda Mahagamage
B.Sc.Eng (Hons), C Eng, MIE(SL)
6 International College of Business and Technology
6102BEUG- Lecture Note: 05
Normalised compressive strength
The normalised compressive strength, f
b
, is the compressive strength converted to the
air dried compressive strength of an equivalent 100mm wide x 100mm high unit of the
same material.
f
b
= conditioning factor x shape factor x declared mean compressive strength

Compressive strength of Mortar


10/30/2014
Prepared by: Eng. Chamil Duminda Mahagamage
B.Sc.Eng (Hons), C Eng, MIE(SL)
7 International College of Business and Technology
6102BEUG- Lecture Note: 06
Category of unit manufacturing control
Units manufactured in accordance with European specifications can be further classified
as belonging to Category I or Category II depending on the manufacturing control.
Category I units are those where the manufacturer operates a quality control scheme
and the probability of the units not reaching the declared compressive strength is less
than 5%. Masonry units not intended to comply with the Category I level of confidence
are classified as Category II. It is the manufacturer’s responsibility to declare the
category of the masonry unit supplied.

Class of execution control
EC6 allows for up to five classes of execution control but, as in BS 5628, only two classes
are used in the UK National Annex, namely, 1 and 2. Class 1 or Class 2 execution
control should be assumed whenever the work is carried out following the
recommendations for workmanship in EC6-2. Class 1 execution control corresponds to
the ‘special’ category of construction control used in BS 5628 and Class 2 to the ‘normal’
category.
10/30/2014
Prepared by: Eng. Chamil Duminda Mahagamage
B.Sc.Eng (Hons), C Eng, MIE(SL)
8 International College of Business and Technology
6102BEUG- Lecture Note: 06
Characteristic compressive strength of masonry
The characteristic compressive strength of unreinforced masonry, f
k
, built with general
purpose mortar can be determined,
f
k
= K*f
b
0.7
*f
m
0.3
where,
f
m
= the compressive strength of general purpose mortar but not exceeding
20N/mm
2
or 2f
b
, whichever is the smaller
f
b
= the normalised compressive strength of the masonry units
K= a constant obtained from following Table

Partial factor for materials γ
M

10/30/2014
Prepared by: Eng. Chamil Duminda Mahagamage
B.Sc.Eng (Hons), C Eng, MIE(SL)
9 International College of Business and Technology
6102BEUG- Lecture Note: 06
Design of unreinforced masonry walls subjected to vertical loading

Design value of the vertical load N
Ed
≤ Design vertical resistance of the wall N
Rd


Cl. 6.1.2.1

=
,

where,

,
= the capacity reduction factor,

at the top or bottom of the wall, or

, in the
middle of the wall, as appropriate, allowing for the effects of slenderness and
eccentricity of loading, obtained from 6.1.2.2.
t= thickness of the wall
f
d
= design compressive strength of the masonry.

= 1 − 2

/

=

+

±

≥ 0.05

= the eccentricity at the top or bottom of the wall

= the design bending moment at the top or bottom of the wall

= the design vertical load at the top or bottom of the wall


= the eccentricity at the top or bottom of the wall, if any, resulting from horizontal
loads

= the accidental eccentricity resulting from construction in accuracies and can be
taken as h
ef
/450
10/30/2014
Prepared by: Eng. Chamil Duminda Mahagamage
B.Sc.Eng (Hons), C Eng, MIE(SL)
10 International College of Business and Technology
6102BEUG- Lecture Note: 06
10/30/2014
Prepared by: Eng. Chamil Duminda Mahagamage
B.Sc.Eng (Hons), C Eng, MIE(SL)
11 International College of Business and Technology
6102BEUG- Lecture Note: 06
Note-: A simplified sub-frame analysis procedure described in Annex C of EC6 can be
used to calculate the values of the bending moments and then the corresponding values
of ei and emk. The smaller of

and

is used to estimate the vertical design
resistance of the wall.
Clause 6.1.2.1(3) notes that where the cross sectional area of a wall is less than 0.1m2,
the characteristic compressive strength of masonry should be multiplied by (0.7+3A),
where A is the loaded horizontal cross sectional area of the member, expressed in m
2
.

Effective Height, h
ef
(Cl. 5.5.1.2, EC6)
The effective wall height is a function of the actual wall height, h, and end/edge
restraints.
h
ef
= ρ
n
h


10/30/2014
Prepared by: Eng. Chamil Duminda Mahagamage
B.Sc.Eng (Hons), C Eng, MIE(SL)
12 International College of Business and Technology
6102BEUG- Lecture Note: 06
Effective thickness, t
ef
(Cl. 5.5.1.3, EC6)
The effective thickness t
ef
, of a single-leaf wall, a double-leaf wall, a faced wall, a shell
bedded wall and a cavity wall, as defined in 1.5.10, should be taken as the actual
thickness of the wall, t.

For cavity walls in which the leaves are connected by suitable wall ties



10/30/2014
Prepared by: Eng. Chamil Duminda Mahagamage
B.Sc.Eng (Hons), C Eng, MIE(SL)
13 International College of Business and Technology
6102BEUG- Lecture Note: 06
For walls stiffened by piers



10/30/2014
Prepared by: Eng. Chamil Duminda Mahagamage
B.Sc.Eng (Hons), C Eng, MIE(SL)
14 International College of Business and Technology
6102BEUG- Lecture Note: 06
Example 01
The internal load-bearing brick wall shown in Figure below supports an ultimate axial
load of 140kN/m including self-weight of the wall. The wall is 102.5mm thick and 4m
long. Assuming that the manufacturing control of the units is category II and the
execution control is class 2, design the wall.


10/30/2014
Prepared by: Eng. Chamil Duminda Mahagamage
B.Sc.Eng (Hons), C Eng, MIE(SL)
15 International College of Business and Technology
6102BEUG- Lecture Note: 06
Example 02
Re-design the wall in Example 01 assuming that it is only 0.9m long.


Example 03
A 3.5m high wall shown in cross section Figure below is constructed from clay bricks of
standard format size having a declared air dried mean compressive strength of
30N/mm2 laid in a 1:1:6 mortar. Calculate the ultimate load bearing capacity of the wall
assuming the partial safety factor for materials is 3.0 and the resistance to lateral
loading is (A) ‘enhanced’ and (B) ‘simple’.


10/30/2014
Prepared by: Eng. Chamil Duminda Mahagamage
B.Sc.Eng (Hons), C Eng, MIE(SL)
16 International College of Business and Technology
6102BEUG- Lecture Note: 06
Example 04
A cavity wall of length 6m supports the loads shown in Figure below. The inner leaf is
built using solid concrete block of 440mm (L) x 100mm (W) x 215mm (H) , faced with
plaster, and the outer leaf from standard format clay bricks. Design the wall assuming
that the execution control is Class 1 and that the manufacturing control of the concrete
blocks is Category II. The self weight of the blocks and plaster can be taken as 2.4kN/m
2
.