RAHEEL AHMAD Mech Engg. 06-mech-28(RCET GJW)
• • • • • • • • • Wind Turbines Why Wind – causes? How Wind Works? How Wind Turbine Works? Types & Sizes of Wind Turbines Inside the Wind Turbine Potential Turbine Power Terms used in Wind Turbine Advantages & Disadvantages
A wind turbine is a rotating machine which converts the kinetic energy in wind into mechanical energy. If the mechanical energy is used directly by machinery, such as a pump or grinding stones, the machine is usually called a windmill. If the mechanical energy is then converted to electricity, the machine is called a wind generator, wind turbine, wind power unit (WPU), wind energy converter (WEC), or aero generator.
Why wind Energy – Causes?
Most of our electricity is generated with nonrenewable resources: -Coal -Natural Gas -Uranium for nuclear -power
– Mine & transport coal → burn coal → boil water → make steam → steam pushes turbine → turbine coupled to generator
• NATURAL GAS
– Drill for & transport gas → burn gas → push turbine → turbine coupled to generator
• NUCLEAR POWER
– Mine & transport uranium → uranium gets hot & boils water → make steam → steam pushes turbine → turbine coupled to generator – Wind pushes turbine → turbine coupled to generator
• WIND POWER
Wind is a form of solar energy. Winds are caused by the uneven heating of the atmosphere by the sun, the irregularities of the earth's surface, and rotation of the earth.
The terms wind energy or wind power describes the process by which the wind is used to generate mechanical power or electricity. Wind turbines convert the kinetic energy in the wind into mechanical power
How Wind Turbine Works ?
So how do wind turbines make electricity?
A wind turbine works the opposite of a fan. The wind turns the blades, which spin a shaft, which connects to a generator and makes electricity.
This aerial view of a wind power plant shows how a group of wind turbines can make electricity for the utility grid. The electricity is sent through transmission and distribution lines to homes, businesses, schools, and so on.
Aerodynamics of Wind Turbine Blades
•Forces are transmitted from a moving fluid to an object in the flow stream
–Lift = the force component perpendicular to the original flow direction –Drag = the force component in line with the original flow direction
How Wind Works ?
LIFT AND DRAG • Old-fashioned windmills use DRAG • DRAG devices are pushed by the wind • Modern wind turbines (not windmills) use LIFT • LIFT devices work like airplane wings • This is why modern wind turbines have 3 blades
Wind – what causes it ?
Wind Flow Over an Air Foil Generates LIFT
Inside Wind Turbine
Inside Wind Turbine
Types of Wind Turbine
Turbines can be categorized into two overarching classes based on the orientation of the rotor. 1.Vertical Axis 2.Horizontal Axis
Types of Wind Turbine
1.Vertical Axis Wind Turbine
A type of wind turbine in which the axis of rotation is perpendicular to the wind stream and the ground . Vertical axis turbines work whatever direction the wind is blowing, but require a lot more ground space to support their guy wires than horizontal axis wind turbines. Vertical-axis wind turbines fall into two major categories: • • Savonius Darrieus
Savonius Wind Turbine
The Savonius is a drag-type VAWT which operates in the same way as a cup anemometer
•15 % efficiency •Applications
An Anemometer is a wind speed measuring device.
Darrieus Wind Turbines
A Darrieus is a type of vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) generator. Unlike the Savonius wind turbine, the Darrieus is a lift-type VAWT. Rather than collecting the wind in cups dragging the turbine around, a Darrieus uses lift forces generated by the wind hitting aerofoil to create rotation.
Lift vs. Drag VAWTs
Lift Device “Darrieus”
– Low solidity, aerofoil blades – More efficient than drag device
Drag Device “Savonius”
– High solidity, cup shapes are pushed by the wind – At best can capture only 15% of wind energy
Horizontal Axis wind Turbine
A wind turbine in which the axis of the rotor's rotation is parallel to the wind stream and the ground.
Horizontal axis turbines (more common) need to be aimed directly at the wind. The wind passes over both surfaces of the airfoil shaped blade but passes more rapidly over the upper side of the airfoil. The pressure differential between top and bottom surfaces results in aerodynamic lift like aeroplane blades
•Foundation •Tower •Nacelle •Rotor •Turbine blades
Common HAWT Construction
• Blades are connected to a hub, which is connected to a shaft • Rotational speed will depend on blade geometry, number of blades, and wind speed (40 to 400 revolutions per minute typical speed range) • Gear box needed to increase speed to 1200-1800 RPM for generator
Lattice tower Guyed Pole Tower Tubular steel towers
Types Of HAWT
It has two basic types • Upwind Wind Turbine • Downwind Wind Turbine
Upwind Wind Turbine
• A type of wind turbine in which the rotor faces the wind. The wind starts bending away from the tower before it reaches the tower itself. • The power from the wind turbine drops slightly. • The basic drawback of upwind designs is that the rotor needs to be made rather inflexible, and placed at some distance from the tower. • In addition an upwind machine needs a yaw mechanism to keep the rotor facing the wind.
Downwind Wind Turbine
• A horizontal-axis wind turbine in which the rotor is downwind (i.e. on the lee side) of the tower. • They may be built without a yaw mechanism. • The rotor may be made more flexible. So the blades will bend at high wind speeds.
Number of Blades
Captures 10% less energy than two blade design
Capture 5% less energy than three blade designs
Number of Blades - Three
Increase in Number of Turbine Blade
•Number of blades
–Increasing the number of blades tends to increase the aerodynamic efficiency –Increasing the number of blades increases the cost (material and manufacturing –Turbines with fewer blades tend to run most efficiently at lower tip speed ratios (ratio of tip speed to wind speed)
-Strong, light weight, cheap, abundant, flexible -Popular on do-it yourself turbines
– Heavy & expensive
– Lighter-weight and easy to work with – Expensive – Subject to metal fatigue
Development of HAWT
Horisontal-Axis Wind Turbines
HAWT vs. VAWT
•Power output: 5 MW •Diameter: 116 m. •Turbine speed: 5,9 -14,8 rpm •Masses: •Blade: 16.500 kg •Hub: 60.100 kg •Nacelle: 199.300 kg
Old Fashioned Turbines
The Persian windmill
The Chinese wind wheel
Wind Turbine Sizes
– Residential use – 20 kW or less
– Commercial use – 20 kW – 660 kW
– Utility-scale use – 660 kW – 2+ MW
Wind Energy and Power
• Atmospheric pressure differences accelerate and impart kinetic energy into the air • Wind energy conversion machines (WEC) convert wind energy into electrical or mechanical forms • How much power can we extract?
K.E. 12 ( mass ) × (velocity ) 2 Power = = time time mass = density × area × velocity time
ρAV 3 Power = 1 2 (density ) × area × (velocity )3 = 2
Wind Turbine Size-Power Comparison
10 000 9 000 8 000 7 000
Growth of Wind Energy Capacity Worldwide
Actual Rest of World North America Europe
Projected Rest of World North America Europe
Jan 2003 Cumulative MW Rest of World = 2,803 North America = 5,018 Europe = 21,319
35000 30000 25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 0 90 91 92
Sources: BTM Consult Aps, March 2001 Windpower Monthly, January 2003
Tip-speed ratio is the ratio of the speed of the rotating blade tip to the speed of the free stream wind. There is an optimum angle of attack which creates the highest lift to drag ratio. Because angle of attack is dependant on wind speed, there is an optimum tip-speed ratio
ΩR TSR = V
Ω = rotational speed in radians /sec R = Rotor Radius V = Wind “Free Stream” Velocity
Solidity is the ratio of total rotor planform area to total swept area
Low solidity (0.10) = high speed, low torque
High solidity (>0.80) = low speed, high torque
Solidity = 3a/A
The area through which the rotor blades of a wind turbine spin, as seen when directly facing the center of the rotor blades. The power output of a wind turbine is directly related to the swept area of its blades
Advantages Of Wind Turbine
Environmental Economic Development No air pollution Wind energy is renewable No greenhouse gasses Expanding Wind Power development brings jobs to rural communities
May create a lot of noise. Wind can never be predicted. Wind energy depends upon the wind in an area and therefore is a variable source of energy. It covers a large area.