TOPIC

:

Wind Turbines
BY:

RAHEEL AHMAD Mech Engg. 06-mech-28(RCET GJW)

Outline
• • • • • • • • • Wind Turbines Why Wind – causes? How Wind Works? How Wind Turbine Works? Types & Sizes of Wind Turbines Inside the Wind Turbine Potential Turbine Power Terms used in Wind Turbine Advantages & Disadvantages

Wind Turbines
A wind turbine is a rotating machine which  converts the kinetic energy in wind into mechanical  energy.  If the mechanical energy is used directly by  machinery, such as a pump or grinding stones, the  machine is usually called a windmill.  If the mechanical energy is then converted  to electricity, the machine is called a wind generator, wind turbine, wind power unit (WPU), wind energy converter (WEC), or aero generator.

Why wind Energy – Causes?
Energy
Most of our electricity is  generated with nonrenewable resources: -Coal -Natural Gas -Uranium for nuclear -power

Why ?
• COAL
– Mine & transport coal → burn coal →  boil water  → make steam → steam  pushes turbine  → turbine coupled to  generator

• NATURAL GAS
– Drill for & transport gas → burn gas →  push turbine → turbine coupled to  generator

• NUCLEAR POWER

– Mine & transport uranium  → uranium  gets hot & boils water  → make  steam → steam pushes turbine  →  turbine coupled to generator – Wind pushes turbine → turbine  coupled to generator

• WIND POWER

Wind Turbine
Wind
Wind is a form of solar energy. Winds  are caused by the uneven heating of  the atmosphere by the sun, the  irregularities of the earth's surface,  and rotation of the earth. 

Wind Energy
The terms wind energy or wind power  describes the process by which the wind is  used to generate mechanical power or  electricity. Wind turbines convert the kinetic  energy in the wind into mechanical power 

How Wind Turbine Works ?
So how do wind turbines make electricity? 
A wind turbine works the opposite of a fan.  The wind turns the blades, which spin a  shaft, which connects to a generator and  makes electricity. 

This aerial view of a wind power  plant shows how a group of  wind turbines can make  electricity for the utility grid. The  electricity is sent through  transmission and distribution  lines to homes, businesses,  schools, and so on.

Aerodynamics of Wind Turbine Blades
•Forces are transmitted from a moving fluid to an object in the flow stream
–Lift = the force component perpendicular to the original flow direction –Drag = the force component in line with the original flow direction

Lift

Drag
http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/K-12/airplane/newton3.html

How Wind Works ?
LIFT AND DRAG • Old-fashioned windmills  use DRAG • DRAG devices are  pushed by the wind • Modern wind turbines  (not windmills) use LIFT • LIFT devices work like  airplane wings • This is why modern  wind turbines have 3  blades

Wind – what causes it ?
Wind Flow Over an Air Foil Generates LIFT

Inside Wind Turbine

Inside Wind Turbine

Yaw system

Types of Wind Turbine
Turbines can be categorized into two overarching  classes based on the orientation of the rotor. 1.Vertical Axis 2.Horizontal Axis

Types of Wind Turbine
1.Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

A type of wind turbine in which the axis of  rotation is perpendicular to the wind  stream and the ground . Vertical axis turbines work whatever direction  the wind is blowing, but require a lot more  ground space to support their guy wires than  horizontal axis wind turbines. Vertical-axis wind turbines fall into two  major categories:   • •  Savonius Darrieus

Savonius Wind Turbine
The Savonius is a drag-type VAWT which  operates in the same way as a cup anemometer
•15 % efficiency  •Applications

Cup Anemometer
An Anemometer is a wind speed  measuring device.

Cup Anemometer 

Darrieus Wind Turbines
A Darrieus is a type of vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) generator.  Unlike the Savonius wind turbine, the Darrieus  is a lift-type VAWT. Rather than collecting the  wind in cups dragging the turbine around, a  Darrieus uses lift forces generated by the wind  hitting aerofoil to create rotation.

Lift vs. Drag VAWTs
Lift Device “Darrieus”
– Low solidity,  aerofoil blades – More efficient  than drag device

Drag Device “Savonius”
– High solidity, cup  shapes are  pushed by the  wind – At best can  capture only 15%  of wind energy

Horizontal Axis wind Turbine
A wind turbine in which the axis of  the rotor's rotation is parallel to the  wind stream and the ground. 

Horizontal axis turbines (more common) need to  be aimed directly at the wind.  The wind passes over both  surfaces of the airfoil shaped blade  but passes more rapidly over the  upper side of the airfoil. The  pressure differential between top  and bottom surfaces results in  aerodynamic lift like aeroplane  blades 

HAWT
Main Components

•Foundation •Tower •Nacelle •Rotor •Turbine blades

Common HAWT Construction

Rotor

• Blades are connected to a hub, which is connected to a shaft • Rotational speed will depend on blade geometry, number of blades, and wind speed (40 to 400 revolutions per minute typical speed range) • Gear box needed to increase speed to 1200-1800 RPM for generator

Towers
Lattice tower Guyed Pole  Tower Tubular steel  towers

Concrete  tower

Nacelle

Types Of HAWT
It has two basic types • Upwind Wind Turbine • Downwind Wind Turbine

Upwind Wind Turbine
• A type of wind turbine in which the rotor faces the  wind. The wind starts bending away from the tower  before it reaches the tower itself. • The power from the wind turbine drops slightly.  • The basic drawback of upwind designs is     that the rotor needs to be made rather  inflexible, and placed at some distance from  the tower. • In addition an upwind machine needs a yaw  mechanism to keep the rotor facing the wind. 

Downwind Wind Turbine
• A horizontal-axis wind turbine in which the rotor is    downwind (i.e. on the lee side) of the tower.  • They may be built without a yaw mechanism. • The rotor may be made more flexible. So the   blades will bend at high wind speeds. 

Number of Blades
Single Blade
Captures 10% less energy  than two blade design

Double Blade
 Capture 5% less energy  than three blade designs

Number of Blades - Three

Increase in Number of Turbine Blade
•Number of blades
–Increasing the number of blades tends to increase the aerodynamic efficiency –Increasing the number of blades increases the cost (material and manufacturing –Turbines with fewer blades tend to run most efficiently at lower tip speed ratios (ratio of tip speed to wind speed)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wind_turbine_design

Blade Composition
Wood
-Strong, light  weight, cheap,  abundant,  flexible -Popular on  do-it yourself  turbines

Blade Composition
Metal

• Steel
– Heavy & expensive

• Aluminum
– Lighter-weight and  easy to work with – Expensive – Subject to metal  fatigue

Development of HAWT

Horisontal-Axis Wind Turbines

HAWT vs. VAWT

Multibrid M5000
•Power output: 5 MW •Diameter:   116 m. •Turbine speed: 5,9  -14,8 rpm •Masses:   •Blade:  16.500 kg  •Hub: 60.100 kg  •Nacelle:  199.300  kg 

Old Fashioned Turbines

The Persian windmill

The Chinese wind wheel

Wind Turbine Sizes
• “SMALL”
– Residential use – 20 kW or less

• “MEDIUM”
– Commercial use – 20 kW – 660 kW

• “LARGE”
– Utility-scale use – 660 kW – 2+  MW

Wind Energy and Power
• Atmospheric pressure differences accelerate and impart kinetic energy into the air • Wind energy conversion machines (WEC) convert wind energy into electrical or mechanical forms • How much power can we extract?
K.E. 12 ( mass ) × (velocity ) 2 Power = = time time mass = density × area × velocity time

ρAV 3 Power = 1 2 (density ) × area × (velocity )3 = 2

Wind Turbine Size-Power Comparison

Power output

10 000 9 000 8 000 7 000

]

Growth of Wind Energy Capacity Worldwide
45000 40000

Actual Rest of World North America Europe

Projected Rest of World North America Europe

Jan 2003 Cumulative MW Rest of World   =  2,803 North America =   5,018 Europe             = 21,319

MW Installed

35000 30000 25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 0 90 91 92

93

94

95

96

97

98

99

00

01

02

03

04

05

06

Year
Sources:  BTM Consult Aps, March 2001                 Windpower Monthly, January 2003 

Tip-Speed Ratio
Tip-speed ratio is the ratio of the  speed of the rotating blade tip  to the speed of the free  stream wind. There is an optimum angle of  attack which creates the  highest lift to drag ratio. Because angle of attack is  dependant on wind speed,  there is an optimum tip-speed  ratio 
Where, ΩR

R

ΩR TSR = V

Ω = rotational speed in radians /sec R = Rotor Radius V = Wind “Free Stream” Velocity

Rotor Solidity
Solidity is the ratio of total rotor planform area to total swept area
Low solidity (0.10) = high speed, low torque

R a

A
High solidity (>0.80) = low speed, high torque

Solidity = 3a/A

Swept Area
The area through which the rotor blades of a wind  turbine spin, as seen when directly facing the center  of the rotor blades. The power output of a wind  turbine is directly related to the swept area of its  blades 

Advantages Of Wind Turbine
 Environmental  Economic Development  No air pollution  Wind energy is renewable   No greenhouse gasses   Expanding Wind Power development   brings jobs to rural communities

Disadvantages
May create a lot of noise. Wind can never be predicted.  Wind energy depends upon the wind in  an area and therefore is a variable source  of energy. It covers a large area.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful