Steam Engine


• Objective: Describe the basic cycle and design features of a modern Steam propulsion system Specific Objectives:
• Define the theory of steam turbine propulsion • Sketch and describe a steam propulsion plant layout arrangement • Describe functions of major components • Describe the type and arrangement of steam turbine engine • Sketch and identify the steam turbine engine parts

Major Components
 Boiler  Turbine  Condenser  Extraction

Pump  Feed Pump  Economiser  Superheaters

Steam propulsion plant layout arrangement
Economizer Saturated steam Superheated steam Superheater

Heater stages


HP turbine Deaerator Astern turbine

LP turbine Gearing & propeller shaft

Main feed pump Condenser Condensate pump

Ranking Cycle

T 2

  




3’ 6

3 5 s

1-2 –> Water heated in boiler 2`-2->wet steam heated in superheated boiler 2-3->HP dry steam expand in turbine to obtain much work 3-4->LP steam coming out of turbine is condensed into water in condenser 4-1-> water from the condenser heated return back to boiler drum- this complete the cycle

Components function  Boiler

To produce steam from water To dry the wet steam produced in the boiler Converts heat energy of steam into mechanical work To condense exhaust steam from turbine for re-use in boiler

  




Components function
 Feed

Pump & economizer

To transfer high pressure feed water To raise the temperature of feed water before entry into the boiler drum so that less heat will be required to transform water into steam

 De-aerator

 Main

propulsion boilers are water tube types

C  Steam rate of main boilers is 40-60 bar, 5000C and 60-90 tons/hr  Auxiliary steam boilers are Fire tube boilers of low steaming capacity

•Super Htr located in low temp region exhaust gas path •Both Primary and Secondary have contra flow heating •Metal temp of secondary high •Air attemperator less efficient ESD I Boiler

•Burner front fired •Flame impingement reduced not eliminated •Response to sudden load is slow



 

The Steam turbine is a device for obtaining mechanical work from the energy stored in steam. Steam enters the turbine with high energy content and leaves after giving up most of it. The high pressure steam from the boiler is expanded in nozzles to create a high velocity jet of steam. In any type of steam engine, it is the VELOCITY of the liberated steam, and NOT the pressure, which produces the force which causes rotation of the shaft.

The nozzle acts to convert heat energy in the steam into kinetic energy. Commencing with a high pressure, a high velocity can be produced, and it is the kinetic energy which provides the motive force of the turbine engine. The amount of energy or force available from steam is directly proportional to the amount of heat available from the steam. Heat available is proportional to the mass flow of steam times change in velocity…….

 Mass

flow (kg/s) X Velocity (m/s) = Force (kgm/s2)

 This

is the operating principle of all steam turbines, although the arrangements may be vary considerably.  The heat is available only when the steam remains in gaseous state

 If

condensation takes place during passage through the turbine, then the part which changes state to water will not be capable of producing further motive power. So the steam should therefore enter DRY and theoretically remain dry until it is exhausted.  When dry saturated steam passes through the normal working cycle of a turbine, condensation will take place throughout many stages, but if SUPERHEATED steam is used this condensation is reduced considerably.

Types of Turbines
 Impulse


 Reaction


 

The impulse arrangement is made up of a ring of nozzles followed by a ring of blades. In the pure impulse turbine the high energy steam is expanded only through fixed nozzles, with a decrease in pressure and an increase in velocity. Energy in the steam is converted to kinetic energy when the jet of steam impinges/ directed onto the moving blades and leaves in a different direction.

 The

changing direction and therefore velocity produces an impulsive force which mainly acts in the direction of rotation of the moving turbine blades causing rotation and mechanical work.  The passage between the blades is of parallel section, no expansion or change of pressure takes place between the inlet and outlet sides of the blading.

Impulse Turbine Blades •Flow area between two blades is constant •No pressure drop when steam flows over blade •Flow velocity constant

Two stage impulse turbine with diaphragm blades to change direction of steam flow to enter next stage of turbine

Impulse turbines were classified as below: Single Stage Velocity compounded Pressure compounded Pressure-velocity compounded Velocity-pressure compounded

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