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Automatic Source Transfer
< 8 Cycles
< 150ms
Build an asset
Fiber has a 20 year + life
Any excess fiber can be leased or sold

Multimode Fiber
Large Core most common 62.5um
Only good for < 4KM
Single Mode Fiber
ITU-T G.652-Zero Dispersion around 1310 nm\
Supports CWDM and DWDM and Standard Ethernet
Dispersion Compensated Fiber
ITU-T G.655-Zero Dispersion around 1550 nm
Supports DWDM and Standard Ethernet @1550 nm
Support Long Spans 50 KM+

Loose Tube Fiber
Commonly used in lashed or under ground
Has very little internal support.
Fiber loose in buffer tubes to allow for temperature
and moisture change.

Armored Fiber
Loose tube fiber with corrugated steel Armor
Must be grounded

ADSS(All-Dielectric Self-Supporting)
Support and span length engineered into fiber
No grounding requirements
Installed using Pulleys

Dead End with
ADSS Minimum Bend Radius
To arrive at a working bend radius for cable installation,
multiply 20 times (20 x) the cable outside diameter.
Cable Diameter = 0.46 in (11.8 mm)
20 x 0.46 in = 9.2 in (177 mm)
Minimum Working Bend Radius = 9.2 in (17.7 cm)
To find the minimum diameter requirement for pull wheels or
rollers, simply double the minimum working bend radius:
ADSS Tensions
As temperature increases ADSS tension will also

This is opposite of ACSR (conductor)

Incorrect tension can damage fiber over time

Single mode starts at
Ribbon Fiber
Efficient packaging of higher fiber counts
Lightweight and easy to handle during installation
Specialized Splicers to splice 12 Fiber simultaneously
Optical Ground Wire (OPGW)
Fiber optics engineered into ground wire(Shield)

Wire and Fiber must be Pre-engineered for access
of fiber optics( No access mid span)

Lower cost than underground
Core Alignment Splicer
Uses Servos and Camera to align core
Very precise low loss splice
Electrical Arc fuses Glass
Must be cleaved

V Groove Splicer
Less Precise
Lower cost to purchase and maintain
Must be cleaved
Dome enclosures
High Capacity enclosure
Customizable using grommets
Splice trays separate
Typically used for butt connections

Low Count enclosures
Compact Size
Low splice capacity
Inline or Butt splices
Dead Ends
Used to make high angle turns
Must use for slack storage
Creates Shear points
Supports fiber between dead ends
Line angle limitation < 20 degrees
Some models can be used in
pulling short spans

1. Keeper
2. Cushion Inserts (With or Without Grit)
3. Captured Bolt and Washer (Captured with Grommet)
4. Lock Nut
5. Anchor Shackle with Eye-nut (Optional not shown)
6. Structural Reinforcing Rods (optional, not shown)
Lashed Fiber
Fiber lashed to steel carrier
Must be grounded
Can not be installed in power space
SC (Subscriber Connector)
Square connector
Push-Pull snap

LC (Lucent/little connector)
Small high density
Snap fit
Used on Lasers(XFP/SFP)
ST (Straight Tip)
Twist lock
Common in Sub Stations
UPC (Ultra Physical Contact) polish style of fiber optic ferrules
Standard for most applications
APC (Angled Physical Contact)
Has Lower lightwave reflectance
Used in RF optical applications

One Fiber 32 to 64 Customers
Requires optical Splitters
Bandwidth is Shared

One Fiber One Customer
Bandwidth not shared
Requires high fiber counts
Non Powered
Optical splitter

Sonet (Synchronous Optical Network)
Based on older Time Division Multiplexing T1-T3 Technology
Poor bandwidth Efficiency(Protection Path No bandwidth)
Limited bandwidth sizes
Sub 50ms protection
High Deployment cost

Active Path
Reserved path
No activity
Low Cost Deployment
Flexible bandwidth rates
Sub 50ms protection without stranding bandwidth
Mesh and Ring Topologies
Easily Scalable
Active Path
Secondary path
Active Path
Multiplex up to 160 channels of bandwidth on 2 fibers
Capable of long distance communications
Wavelength sizes up to 100Gb
Can use a digital wrapper(OTN) to encapsulate many types of
data and maintain packet quality
Most systems do not have protection
Standard Ethernet

Layer 2 (Facts)
1. Switching determined by MAC address database
2. If Packet Collision occurs, packet randomly retries
3. Packet Broadcast transverses all switches on domain
4. Vlans provide segmentation of domain
5. Vlans also allow for security and network traffic flow

Layer 3 Router
Layer 2 Switch
Vlan 10 Sub A
Vlan 20 Sub B
Vlan 30 Sub C
Vlan 40 Sub D
Ethernet Ring
G. 803.2
IPs terminated on Router
Vlan 10=
Vlan 20=
Vlan 30=
Vlan 40=
29 usable IPs per Vlan
1. ITU G.8032 provides a method of ethernet protection while
preventing loops.

2. Master node blocks traffic on one interface of ethernet

3. Failover achieved in less than 50ms

4. Many derivatives of this technology that are proprietary
(Nodes must be of same Manufacture and same Firmware)

Layer 3 (Facts)
1. Network Control by routing IP address
2. No problems controlling Broadcast domains
3. Control Services and bandwidth based on IP subnets
4. Ring and Mesh redundancy available
5. Traffic flooding and storming easy controlled
6. Most Layer 3 devices support layer 2

Layer 3
Ethernet Ring
G. 803.2
IPs terminated on Router
Vlan 10=
Vlan 20=
Vlan 30=
Vlan 40=
2 usable IPs per segment
2 Ring
Traffic controlled by static
or Dynamic routing
MPLS packets transverse fiber node based on shortest
path and label

MPLS allows transport of ATM, Sonet and Ethernet

VPLS (Virtual Private Lan Service) allow for layer 2 type
connectivity with layer 3 controls

While running MPLS switch processor and QOS are easily
controlled per vpls instance

Availability of complex traffic engineering

Layer 3
Ethernet Ring
G. 803.2
2 Ring
Traffic controlled by Labels
VPLS creates layer 2
optical time-domain reflectometer
Used to test quality and length
Shows projected fiber loss
Find fiber optic breaks

OTDR Output
Single-mode/Multimode Loss Test Kit
Measure true loss of fiber
Fiber identification
Certify Fiber for Sale/IRU
Optical Fiber Identifier
Fiber Identification
Power Meter and Direction
Features no other SCADA protocol has had before...
Self-description and browsers
Structured data
Device models, not data points
Capability for access security
Fast peer-to-peer communications
Dramatic reduction of necessary wiring
Powerful reporting features
A wide choice of lower layers
What is the Purpose of the Network ?
What is the necessary capacity ?
How critical is the DATA transport ?
What types of DATA do I wish to transport ?
What is the future plans for the Network ?
Will We transport public DATA ?
What security levels do I need ??

Thank You
Billy Wise