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# Free Video Lectures for

MBA
By:
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Keys into Buckets:
Lower bounds, Linear-time sort,
& Hashing
Comp 122, Spring 2004
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Comparison-based Sorting
Comparison sort
Only comparison of pairs of elements may be
used to gain order information about a sequence.
Hence, a lower bound on the number of
comparisons will be a lower bound on the
complexity of any comparison-based sorting
algorithm.
All our sorts have been comparison sorts
The best worst-case complexity so far is
O(n lg n) (merge sort and heapsort).
We prove a lower bound of O(n lg n) for any
comparison sort: merge sort and heapsort
are optimal.
The idea is simple: there are n! outcomes,
so we need a tree with n! leaves, and
therefore lg(n!) =
Comp 122
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Decision Tree
Comp 122
For insertion sort operating on three elements.
1:2
2:3 1:3
1:3 2:3
(1,2,3)
(1,3,2) (3,1,2)
(2,1,3)
(2,3,1)
(3,2,1)
s
s
s
s
s
>
>
>
>
Contains 3! = 6 leaves.
Simply unroll all loops
for all possible inputs.
Node i:j means
compare A[i] to A[j].
Leaves show outputs;
No two paths go to
same leaf!
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Decision Tree (Contd.)
Execution of sorting algorithm corresponds to
tracing a path from root to leaf.
The tree models all possible execution traces.
At each internal node, a comparison a
i
s a
j
is
made.
If a
i
s a
j
, follow left subtree, else follow right subtree.
View the tree as if the algorithm splits in two at each
node, based on information it has determined up to that
point.
When we come to a leaf, ordering a
t(1)
s a
t(2)
s
s a
t(n)
is established.
A correct sorting algorithm must be able to
produce any permutation of its input.
Hence, each of the n! permutations must appear at one
or more of the leaves of the decision tree.

Comp 122
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A Lower Bound for Worst Case
Worst case no. of comparisons for a sorting
algorithm is
Length of the longest path from root to any of the
leaves in the decision tree for the algorithm.
Which is the height of its decision tree.
A lower bound on the running time of any
comparison sort is given by
A lower bound on the heights of all decision trees
in which each permutation appears as a reachable
leaf.
Comp 122
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Optimal sorting for three elements
Comp 122
Any sort of six elements has 5 internal nodes.
1:2
2:3 1:3
1:3 2:3
(1,2,3)
(1,3,2) (3,1,2)
(2,1,3)
(2,3,1)
(3,2,1)
s
s
s
s
s
>
>
>
>
There must be a worst-case path of length 3.
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A Lower Bound for Worst Case
Proof:
Suffices to determine the height of a decision
tree.
The number of leaves is at least n! (#
outputs)
The number of internal nodes n!1
The height is at least lg (n!1) = O(n lg n)
QED
Comp 122
Theorem 8.1:
Any comparison sort algorithm requires O(n lg n) comparisons in the
worst case.
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Beating the lower bound
We can beat the lower bound if we dont
base our sort on comparisons:
Counting sort for keys in [0..k], k=O(n)
Radix sort for keys with a fixed number of
digits
Bucket sort for random keys (uniformly
distributed)
Comp 122
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Counting Sort
Assumption: we sort integers in {0, 1, 2, ,
k}.
Input: A[1..n] c{0, 1, 2, , k}
n
.
Array A and values n and k are given.
Output: B[1..n] sorted. Assume B is already
allocated and given as a parameter.
Auxiliary Storage: C[0..k] counts
Runs in linear time if k = O(n).

Comp 122
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Counting-Sort (A, B, k)
CountingSort(A, B, k)
1. for i 1 to k
2. do C[i] 0
3. for j 1 to length[A]
4. do C[A[j]] C[A[j]] +
1
5. for i 2 to k
6. do C[i] C[i] + C[i 1]
7. for j length[A] downto 1
8. do B[C[A[ j ]]] A[j]
9. C[A[j]] C[A[j]]1

Comp 122
O(k) init counts
O(k) prefix sum
O(n) count
O(n) reorder
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Radix Sort

Used to sort on card-sorters:
Do a stable sort on each column,
one column at a time.
The human operator is
part of the algorithm!

Key idea: sort on the least significant
digit first and on the remaining digits in
sequential order. The sorting method used
to sort each digit must be stable.
If we start with the most significant digit, well
need extra storage.
Comp 122
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An Example
392 631 928 356
356 392 631 392
446 532 532 446
928 495 446 495
631 356 356 532
532 446 392 631
495 928 495 928
| |
|
Comp 122
Input
After sorting
on LSD
After sorting
on middle
digit
After sorting
on MSD
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Radix-Sort(A, d)
Correctness of Radix Sort
By induction on the number of digits sorted.
Assume that radix sort works for d 1 digits.
Show that it works for d digits.
Radix sort of d digits radix sort of the low-
order d 1 digits followed by a sort on digit
d .
Comp 122
RadixSort(A, d)
1. for i 1 to d
2. do use a stable sort to sort array A on digit i
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Algorithm Analysis
Each pass over n d-digit numbers then
takes time O(n+k). (Assuming counting sort
is used for each pass.)

There are d passes, so the total time for
radix sort is O(d (n+k)).
When d is a constant and k = O(n), radix
sort runs in linear time.
Radix sort, if uses counting sort as the
intermediate stable sort, does not sort in
place.
If primary memory storage is an issue, quicksort or other
sorting methods may be preferable.
Comp 122
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Bucket Sort
Assumes input is generated by a random
process that distributes the elements
uniformly over [0, 1).
Idea:
Divide [0, 1) into n equal-sized buckets.
Distribute the n input values into the buckets.
Sort each bucket.
Then go through the buckets in order, listing
elements in each one.

Comp 122
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An Example
Comp 122
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Bucket-Sort (A)
BucketSort(A)
1. n length[A]
2. for i 1 to n
3. do insert A[i] into list B[ nA[i] ]
4. for i 0 to n 1
5. do sort list B[i] with insertion sort
6. concatenate the lists B[i]s together in
order
7. return the concatenated lists
Comp 122
Input: A[1..n], where 0 s A[i] < 1 for all i.
Auxiliary array: B[0..n 1] of linked lists, each list initially empty.
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Analysis
Relies on no bucket getting too many values.
All lines except insertion sorting in line 5 take
O(n) altogether.
Intuitively, if each bucket gets a constant
number of elements, it takes O(1) time to
sort each bucket O(n) sort time for all
buckets.
We expect each bucket to have few
elements, since the average is 1 element per
bucket.
But we need to do a careful analysis.
Comp 122
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Analysis Contd.
RV n
i
= no. of elements placed in bucket
B[i].
Insertion sort runs in quadratic time.
Hence, time for bucket sort is:

Comp 122

=
= + O =
+ O =
(

+ O =
+ O =
1
0
2
1
0
2
1
0
2
1
0
2
) ] [ ] [ ( ]) [ ( ) (
n) expectatio of linearity (by )] ( [ ) (
) ( ) ( )] ( [
have we n, expectatio
of linearity using and sides both of ns expectatio Taking
) ( ) ( ) (
n
i
i
n
i
i
n
i
i
n
i
i
X aE aX E n E O n
n O E n
n O n E n T E
n O n n T
(8.1)
video.edhole.com
Analysis Contd.
Claim: E[n
i
2
] = 2 1/n.
Proof:
Define indicator random variables.
X
ij
= I{A[j] falls in bucket i}
Pr{A[j] falls in bucket i} = 1/n.

n
i
=

Comp 122

=
n
j
ij
X
1
(8.2)
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Analysis Contd.
Comp 122

s s
=
s s =
= s s
=
s s
= =
=
+ =
(
(

+ =
(

=
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
n j
k j
n k
ik ij
n
j
ij
n
j n j
k j
n k
ik ij ij
ik
n
j
n
k
ij
n
j
ij i
X X E X E
X X X
X X E
X E n E
1 1 1
2
1 1 1
2
1 1
2
1
2
n. expectatio of linearity by , ] [ ] [
E

] [
(8.3)
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Analysis Contd.
2
2
2 2
1

1 1

] [ ] [ ] [
variables.
random t independen are and , Since
: for ] [
1

1
1
1
1 0
} bucket in falls ] [ Pr{ 1
} bucket in fall t doesn' ] [ Pr{ 0 ] [
n n n
X E X E X X E
X X k j
k j X X E
n
n n
i j A
i j A X E
ik ij ik ij
ik ij
ik ij
ij
= =
=
=
=
=
+
|
.
|

\
|
=

+ =
Comp 122
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Analysis Contd.
) (
) ( ) (
) / 1 2 ( ) ( )] ( [
.
1
2
1
1
1
) 1 (
1

1 1
] [
1
0
2
1 1 1
2
2
n
n O n
n O n n T E
n
n
n
n
n n
n
n
n n
n E
n
i
n
j n j
j k
n k
i
O =
+ O =
+ O =
=

+ =
+ =
+ =

=
= s s
=
s s
Comp 122
Substituting (8.2) in (8.1), we have,
(8.3) is hence,
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Hash Tables 1
Comp 122, Spring 2004
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Dictionary
Dictionary:
Dynamic-set data structure for storing items
indexed using keys.
Supports operations Insert, Search, and Delete.
Applications:
Symbol table of a compiler.
Memory-management tables in operating systems.
Large-scale distributed systems.
Hash Tables:
Effective way of implementing dictionaries.
Generalization of ordinary arrays.
Comp 122
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Direct-address Tables
Direct-address Tables are ordinary arrays.
Facilitate direct addressing.
Element whose key is k is obtained by indexing into
the k
th
position of the array.
Applicable when we can afford to allocate an
array with one position for every possible key.
i.e. when the universe of keys U is small.
Dictionary operations can be implemented to
take O(1) time.
Details in Sec. 11.1.
Comp 122
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Hash Tables
Notation:
U Universe of all possible keys.
K Set of keys actually stored in the dictionary.
|K| = n.
When U is very large,
Arrays are not practical.
|K| << |U|.
Use a table of size proportional to |K| The
hash tables.
However, we lose the direct-addressing ability.
Define functions that map keys to slots of the hash
table.

Comp 122
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Hashing
Hash function h: Mapping from U to the slots
of a hash table T[0..m1].
h : U {0,1,, m1}
With arrays, key k maps to slot A[k].
With hash tables, key k maps or hashes to
slot T[h[k]].
h[k] is the hash value of key k.
Comp 122
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Hashing
Comp 122
0
m1
h(k
1
)
h(k
4
)
h(k
2
)=h(k
5
)
h(k
3
)
U
(universe of keys)
K
(actual
keys)
k
1
k
2
k
3
k
5
k
4
collision
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Issues with Hashing
Multiple keys can hash to the same slot
collisions are possible.
Design hash functions such that collisions are
minimized.
But avoiding collisions is impossible.
Design collision-resolution techniques.
Search will cost (n) time in the worst case.
However, all operations can be made to have an
expected complexity of (1).
Comp 122
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Methods of Resolution
Chaining:
Store all elements that hash to the
same slot in a linked list.
Store a pointer to the head of the
linked list in the hash table slot.
Open Addressing:
All elements stored in hash table
itself.
When collisions occur, use a
systematic (consistent) procedure to
store elements in free slots of the
table.
Comp 122
k
2
0
m1
k
1
k
4
k
5
k
6
k
7
k
3
k
8
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Collision Resolution by Chaining
Comp 122
0
m1
h(k
1
)=h(k
4
)
h(k
2
)=h(k
5
)=h(k
6
)
h(k
3
)=h(k
7
)
U
(universe of keys)
K
(actual
keys)
k
1
k
2
k
3
k
5
k
4
k
6
k
7
k
8
h(k
8
)
X
X
X
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Collision Resolution by Chaining
Comp 122
k
2
0
m1
U
(universe of keys)
K
(actual
keys)
k
1
k
2
k
3
k
5
k
4
k
6
k
7
k
8
k
1
k
4
k
5
k
6
k
7
k
3
k
8
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Hashing with Chaining
Dictionary Operations:
Chained-Hash-Insert (T, x)
Insert x at the head of list T[h(key[x])].
Worst-case complexity O(1).
Chained-Hash-Delete (T, x)
Delete x from the list T[h(key[x])].
Worst-case complexity proportional to length of
list with singly-linked lists. O(1) with doubly-linked
lists.
Chained-Hash-Search (T, k)
Search an element with key k in list T[h(k)].
Worst-case complexity proportional to length of
list.

Comp 122
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Analysis on Chained-Hash-Search
Load factor o=n/m = average keys per slot.
m number of slots.
n number of elements stored in the hash table.
Worst-case complexity: O(n) + time to
compute h(k).

Average depends on how h distributes keys among m
slots.
Assume
Simple uniform hashing.
Any key is equally likely to hash into any of the m
slots, independent of where any other key hashes to.
O(1) time to compute h(k).
Time to search for an element with key k is
O(|T[h(k)]|).
Expected length of a linked list = load factor
= o = n/m.
Comp 122
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Expected Cost of an Unsuccessful
Search
Proof:
Any key not already in the table is equally
likely to hash to any of the m slots.
To search unsuccessfully for any key k, need
to search to the end of the list T[h(k)], whose
expected length is .
Adding the time to compute the hash
function, the total time required is (1+).

Comp 122
Theorem:
An unsuccessful search takes expected time (1+).
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Expected Cost of a Successful Search
Proof:
The probability that a list is searched is proportional to the
number of elements it contains.
Assume that the element being searched for is equally
likely to be any of the n elements in the table.
The number of elements examined during a successful
search for an element x is 1 more than the number of
elements that appear before x in xs list.
These are the elements inserted after x was inserted.
Goal:
Find the average, over the n elements x in the table, of how
many elements were inserted into xs list after x was inserted.

Comp 122
Theorem:
A successful search takes expected time (1+).
video.edhole.com
Expected Cost of a Successful Search
Proof (contd):
Let x
i
be the i
th
element inserted into the table, and
let k
i
= key[x
i
].
Define indicator random variables X
ij
= I{h(k
i
) =
h(k
j
)}, for all i, j.
Simple uniform hashing Pr{h(k
i
) = h(k
j
)} = 1/m
E[X
ij
] = 1/m.
Expected number of elements examined in a
successful search is:
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
+

= + =
n
i
n
i j
ij
X
n
E
1 1
1
1
Comp 122
Theorem:
A successful search takes expected time (1+).
No. of elements inserted after x
i
into the same slot as x
i
.
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Proof Contd.
n
m
n
n n
n
nm
i n
nm
i n
nm
m n
X E
n
X
n
E
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i
n
i j
n
i
n
i j
ij
n
i
n
i j
ij
2 2
1
2
1
1
2
) 1 ( 1
1
1
1
) (
1
1
1
1
1
] [ 1
1
1
1
2
1 1
1
1 1
1 1
1 1
o o
+ =

+ =
|
.
|

\
|
+
+ =
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
+ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
+

= =
=
= + =
= + =
= + =
Comp 122
(linearity of expectation)
Expected total time for a successful search
= Time to compute hash function + Time
to search
= O(2+o/2 o/2n) = O(1+ o).
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Expected Cost Interpretation
If n = O(m), then o=n/m = O(m)/m = O(1).
Searching takes constant time on average.
Insertion is O(1) in the worst case.
Deletion takes O(1) worst-case time when
lists are doubly linked.
Hence, all dictionary operations take O(1)
time on average with hash tables with
chaining.
Comp 122
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