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PROTECTION OF INFORMATION

WITH CHAOS

CHAOS-BASED CRYPTOGRAPHY

2

CHAOTI C SYSTEMS I N COMMUNI CATI ONS

new designed communication systems are based on chaos

theory

chaotic systems widely used for improving security level

aspects regarding the implementation of digital chaotic maps

differences between different hardware solutions

Chaos-based cryptography

3

Chaos-based communication system

(t)

y(t) s(t)

Transmitted signal

Emitter

Receiver

I nformation

signal

Received

signal

Chaotic

generator

Chaotic

generator

Chaos-based cryptography

4

Low-dimensional nonlinear dynamical systems are capable of

complex and unpredictable behavior. In this case, a

dynamical system is called CHAOTIC.

x

n+1

= F(x

n

)

The set of points: {x

0

, F(x

0

), F

2

(x

0

), } is called a trajectory

(or orbit) of the initial condition x

0

.

x

0

is a plaintext to be encrypted

x

k

is a ciphertext

No finite computer program can predict a chaotic trajectory!

Dynamical chaotic systems

x

k

x

2

x

2

x

0

=x

0

+x

x

1

x

1

x

0

x

k

Chaos-based cryptography

5

What is chaos?

Exponential sensitivity dependent on initial conditions

( butterfly effect)

Continuous and wide power spectrum density

Exponential loss of information

Pseudo-randomness and unpredictability

Ergodicity: almost each orbit leads to the same distribution

Mixing: each initial region with positive area spreads to all

over the definition domain

Bifurcation

6

Why chaos?

Digital chaotic systems may be a new source of new

ciphers

Dynamical properties - cryptographic properties of good

ciphers

New chaotic ciphers can provide perfect cryptographic

properties

We believe that the chaotic cryptography will be helpful

to understand the essence of chaos and also security, and

enrich knowledge in cryptography

7

CHAOTIC CIPHERS

Secure communications or cryptosystems

based on chaos synchronization technique of

analog circuits

Chaos-based ciphers realized on digital circuits

or computers with finite precision

8

CHAOS-BASED CRYPTOGRAPHY- SCHOOLS

Chinese school

Shujun Li:

- analyses and design of digital chaotic ciphers

- improvements methods for Baptista cryptosystems type

- Chaotic Stream Ciphers construct with PRNG using chaos

- remedies to avoid dynamical degradation of chaotic systems

Wong:

- improve Baptista method

- use look-up table technique for authentication

Wang:

- use chaotic systems as tools to construct S-Boxes

cryptosystems that are compared with AES

9

CHAOS-BASED CRYPTOGRAPHY- SCHOOLS

American school

Kocarev:

- Chaosbased cryptography theoretician

- new direction in cryptography (chaos & classic)

- Public-Key encryption based on Chebyshev maps

Baptista:

- General chaotic encryption method based on searching plain text

in chaotic sequence

Tenny:

- use the non-linear dynamics to construct public-key cryptosystems

Fridrich:

- Cryptosystems for image files based on 2D chaotic maps

10

CHAOS-BASED CRYPTOGRAPHY- SCHOOLS

Spanish school

G. Alvarez:

- Analog cryptosystems based on chaotic systems

synchronisation

- VLSI implementation for dynamical chaotic systems

E. Alvarez:

- encryption method based on searching plain text in chaotic

sequence

Gonzales:

- Cryptosystem based on 3D chaotic map (Lorenz system)

FPGA implementation

11

ANALOG METHODS

chaotic masking

chaotic switching or chaos shift keying

chaotic modulation

chaos control methods

inverse system approach

12

CHAOS-BASED SECURE COMMUNICATIONS

The basic properties characterizing a secure object are

randomness-increasing and computationally unpredictable

Information

signal

Encrypted

signal

Recovered

signal

13

DIGITAL CRYPTOSYSTEMS - Directions

Stream ciphers based on chaos-based PRNG

(pseudo-random number generators)

Chaotic stream ciphers via inverse system approach

(with cipher text feedback)

Block ciphers based on forward/backward chaotic

iterations

Chaotic ciphers based on searching plain-bits in a

chaotic pseudo-random sequence

Cryptosystems based on 2-D chaotic maps for

image encryption

Block ciphers based on chaotic round function or S-

boxes

Public-key cryptosystems

14

Chaotic maps used in

cryptography

Logistic map

Quadratic map

Exponential map

Logarithmic map

Tent map

Piece Wise Linear Chaotic Map (PWLCM)

15

Chaotic map: the logistic map:

Chaos in Cryptography

1

(1 )

n n n

x x x

+

=

0 5 10 15 20 25

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1

X

0

=0.

41

X

0

=0.

4

2 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3 3.2 3.4 3.6 3.8 4

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1

Sensitivity of the initial

conditions

The bifurcation diagram

X

18

X

18

16

Logistic map behavior

( 1) ( ( ))

L

x n f x n + =

( ) (1 ), ( ) (0,1)

L

f x x x x = e

:(0,1) (0,1)

L

f

17

Logistic map behavior

( 1) ( ( ))

L

x n f x n + =

( ) (1 ), ( ) (0,1)

L

f x x x x = e

:(0,1) (0,1)

L

f

18

Tent map behavior

, 0

( )

1

, 1

1

T

x

x p

p

f x

x

p x

p

< s

< <

:(0,1) (0,1)

T

f

( 1) ( ( ))

T

x n f x n + =

19

PWLCM behavior

( 1) ( ( ))

PWLC

x n f x n + =

:(0,1) (0,1)

PWLC

f

, 0

1

( ) , 0.5

0.5

(1 ) 0.5

PWLC

PWLC

x

x p

p

x

f x p x

p

f x x

< s

= < s

>

20

The best chaotic map

bifurcation diagrams PWLCM

physical resources logistic map

randomness tests - PWLCM

21

Logistic map

| | | | | | ( )

1 1 x n k x n x n + =

xe ( 0, 1) - initial condition

ke (3,57; 4] - parameter

22

Logistic generator on 32 bits VHDL simulation

x0 =0.34

k =3.996

| | | | | |

( )

1 1 x n k x n x n + =

23

Differences between Matlab and VHDL values

on 32 bits

24

Differences between Matlab and VHDL values

on 16 bits

Communications 2006

25

Logistic map values on 8 bits

26

METHODS USED

TO AVOI D DYNAMI CAL DEGRADATI ON

higher finite precision

perturbation - based algorithms

cascading multiple chaotic systems

27

Stream ciphers with chaos-based

PRBG

extracting from some bits of the chaotic orbits

determining by which interval the chaotic orbits

reach

equaling the chaotic orbits

28

Couple Chaotic Systems Based PRBG

CCS-PRBG

Tent maps

p1, p2 control parameters

x1(0) and x2(0) initial conditions

{x1(i)} and {x2(i) } chaotic orbits

Pseudo-random sequence

29

CCS-PRBG

Digital Realization with Perturbation

30

Logistic map:

Private-key system:

=3.78

x

0

=0.432031250

I=[0.2;0.8]

homogeneous split of domain

Block cipher encryption (8-bits)

) 1 (

1 k k k

X X X =

+

Specific parameters for some

chaotic cryptosystems

Bifurcation diagram

31

Baptista Method

Algorithm of Baptista:

Description:

Result

I

n

p

u

t

32

Baptista Method

Advantages:

- produce different ciphers for the same message using

logistic function

- n coefficient is known only by emitter

Disadvantages:

- slow cipher

- cipher text is bigger than plain text

- vulnerable to the attack using tables to store

plaintext/ciphertext pairs

33

Baptista Method

Attack of Jakimosky-Kocarev :

254 272 521 530 835 1120 1434 1710 2132

t s o u b j e c t

Moments of interest referenced in a table:

Recovered text : to

34

Improvements of Baptista Method

- secretly mask C

i

with a pseudo-random number stream

- pseudo-random number stream can be generated using the

chaotic system

- use look-up table

- initial iterations

35

Improvements for Algorithm of Baptista

Baptista Method

36

0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

x 10

4

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

Algorithm of Baptista Algorithm of Baptista with improvements

Baptista Method

37

Method with Look-up table

*

@

@

*

Before updat e Aft er updat e

i

j

ASCII ASCII

x

min

x

max

255

0

134

88

min

max min

( ) mod

x x

j i N N

x x

= +

38

A discrete chaotic and hashing

scheme with Wong method

N

x x

x x

v

= ) (

min max

min

] mod ) 1 2 [( ] mod ) 1 [( N v i N v i + + + +

] mod ) 2 3 [( ] mod ) 2 2 [( N v i N v i + + + +

] mod )) 1 ( [( ] mod )) 1 ( ) 1 ( [( N p v p i N p v p i + + + +

39

Method with Look-up table

Clear text - Chaotic dynamical cryptosystem

Received look-up table

Computed at decryption look-up table

Modified ciphertext

40

Data integrity - Look-up table

41

Chaotic cipher based on searching the

plaintext in the chaotic sequence

Chaotic cipher based on searching

the plaintext in the chaotic

sequence

Block cipher with variable length

(x0,p) system key

Ciphertext number of iteration

42

Encryption algorithm

43

Decryption algorithm

44

Diffusion

45

External key cryptosystem

key on 128 bits

block cipher on 8 bits

logistic map

46

Encryption algorithm

47

Decryption algorithm

48

Plaintext/ciphertext distribution

49

A discrete chaotic cryptosystem using external key

Advantages:

- a symmetric key block cipher using the essence of chaos

- uses an external key for parameter and the initial condition

- the encryption of each block of plaintext is dependent on the

secret key

- encryption/decryption of the next block depends on the X

new

and C

i-1

- feedback mechanism

50

Public Key Cryptosystems based on Chebyshev Polynomials

51

Public Key Cryptosystems based on Chebyshev Polynomials

Public key generation algorithm:

1. Generating the private key s (integer)

2. Select a number x and compute the public key

(x, T

s

(x))

T

n

(x) : [1, 1] [1, 1]

T

n

(x) = 2 x T

n1

(x) T

n2

(x)

52

Public Key Cryptosystems based on Chebyshev Polynomials

Encryption steps:

Sender, in order to encrypt a message:

1. Obtains receivers authentic public key (x, T

s

(x))

2. Represents the message as a number Me [1 1]

3. Generates a large integer r

4. Computes T

r

(x), T

rs

(x) = T

r

(T

s

(x)) and X = M T

rs

(x)

5. Sends the ciphertext C = (T

r

(x),X) to receiver

T

n

(x) : [1, 1] [1, 1] T

n

(x) = 2 x T

n1

(x) T

n2

(x)

53

Public Key Cryptosystems based on Chebyshev Polynomials

Decryption steps

Receiver, in order to obtain the message:

1. Compute T

sr

(x) = T

s

(T

r

(x)) and X = M T

rs

(x)

2. Plain text is M_d=X/ T

sr

(x)

T

n

(x) : [1, 1] [1, 1] T

n

(x) = 2 x T

n1

(x) T

n2

(x)

54

Public Key Cryptosystems based on Chebyshev Polynomials

- the cryptosystem can be implemented by using any

chaotic map x

n+1

= F

p

(x

n

), F

p

(x) = f(p f

1

(x)),

F

p

(F

s

(x)) = F

ps

(x) - it enjoys the semigroup property

- Jacobian Elliptic Chebyshev Rational Maps represent a

class of maps enjoying such a property

- is not secure - an adversary can recover the plaintext

from a given ciphertext

55

Combined Cryptosystem (classical/chaotic)

56

Combined Cryptosystem (classical/chaotic)

57

Combined Cryptosystem (classical/chaotic)

Coupled chaotic maps

58

Combined Cryptosystem (classical/chaotic)

S-box

59

Combined Cryptosystem (classical/chaotic)

Since 1990s, many researchers have

noticed that there exists an

interesting relationship

between chaos and cryptography:

many properties of chaotic systems

have their corresponding

counterparts in traditional

cryptosystems that use

computational methods.

The property of ergodicity is similar

with the confusion because the

output

Since 1990s, many researchers have

noticed that there exists an

interesting relationship

between chaos and cryptography:

many prope%s of chaotic

systems have their corresponding

counterparts

@ K:tion+WEosystems

that use computational methods.

ThCES_ $6 is

(7 H

Plain text Decrypted text with a difference for

a

j

values with 0.2

60

Combined Cryptosystem (classical/chaotic)

Plain text Decrypted text with a difference for

a

j

values with 0.2

61

Combined Cryptosystem (classical/chaotic)

Since 1990s, many

researchers have noticed that

there exists an interesting

relationshipbetween ch

qRzEpF

J`63EO7y\ )

{[UysL_{e

iy=:]-:l<=

,>\5@#NCB

Plain text Decrypted text with a difference for

a

j

values with 0.2

62

Plain text Decrypted text with a difference for

a

j

values with 0.2

Combined Cryptosystem (classical/chaotic)

63

Chaotic-cryptosystems sensitivities

' 6

0 0

10 x x

= +

' 6

10

= +

' 3

min min

10 x x

= +

Plaintext / ciphertext

Key of the

cryptosystem

t e x t

Initial state 1173 2368 1185 801

1192 482 4835 244

3441 1248 184 435

1736 2420 570 376

1235 123 506 1528

' 2

max max

10 x x

= +

64

Input seed

value/ System

initialisation

Set the number of

generated bytes

Computing style

(fixed point /

double)

Save

mode

Keystream

generated

Pseudo-random generateor block

Input seed

value/ System

initialisation

Select input/

output file

Operation

encryption/decryption

Validate the

operation

Ciphertext /

Plaintext

Encryption/Decryption block

Chaos-based cryptosystems software

implementation

65

Pseudo-random generator implementation

66

Encryption algorithm

, 0

1

( ) , 0.5

1

2

(1 ) 0.5

HLC

HLC

x

x p

p

x

f x p x

p

f x x

< s

= < s

>

67

Coupled chaotic system

1

(1,1) (1 ) [ (1,1)] [ (2 2 )]

n n n

y f y f x m N c c

+

= + +

68

Aspects regarding software implementation

Fixed-point representation:

- representation precision influenced the performances

- computing speed

- advantage no dependence on the hardware system

Floating-point arithmetic:

- a discrete approximation

- operations order is important

- dependence on the hardware system

69

Chaos-based cryptosystem

hardware implementation

70

71

Encryption block

72

Logistic map

implementation

73

Logistic map simulation

74

Ciphertext distribution 8 bii

75

Confusion

Plain text Cipher text

External key method

76

DYNAMI CAL DEGRADATI ON

OF DI GI TAL CHAOTI C SYSTEMS

statistical degradation of the digital chaotic maps -

affects the properties of the chaotic cryptosystems

cause weak keys in the whole space of the chaotic

cryptosystem

in finite precision - short length cycle of chaotic

map values

precision of L (bits) - the length cycle << 2

L

77

METHODS USED

TO AVOI D DYNAMI CAL DEGRADATI ON

higher finite precision

perturbation - based algorithms

cascading multiple chaotic systems

78

The perturbation - based algorithms

PRNG - small perturbation signal S

p

(i)

S

p

(i) control the chaotic orbit at every N iterations

Configuration A: x(i+1) = F

n

(x(i)) S(i)

Configuration B: x(i+1) = F

n

(x(i) S(i))

S(i)=S

p

(i/N) if i mod N= 0 else S(i)=0

advantage - prolong cycle lengths of pseudo orbits

79

Systems with perturbation-based algorithm

Configuration A: x(i+1) = F

n

(x(i)) S(i)

Configuration B: x(i+1) = F

n

(x(i) S(i))

80

Dynamical degradation

8 bits representation

Logistic map Tent map

81

Logistic map - behaviour

on 16 bits

on 32 bits

82

Tent map - behaviour

on 16 bits

on 32 bits

83

Perturbed logistic map - 8 bits representation

N=10 iterations N=5 iterations

84

Perturbed tent map - 8 bits representation

N=10 iterations N=5 iterations

85

Logistic map in 8 bits precision

controlled by another logistic map

86

Weaknesses & I mprovements

1 1

1 2

( , )

( , )

n n

n n

x F x p

y F y p

+

+

=

=

1 1 1

1 1

n n n

n n n

x x y

y x y

+ + +

+ +

=

=

i i

i i

i mod 256 1

X' = + if X =0

256 ( i mod 256 ) +3

i mod 256 1

Y' = + if Y=0

256 ( i mod 256 ) +3

Chaotic map: apply a perturbation

Perturbation

Avoid null values

Iteration of

the map

87

Values obtained with an improved map on 8 bits

Good results with statistical tests (NIST) : 16/22

Weaknesses & I mprovements

88

Dynamical degradation of digital chaotic maps

low computing precision (small digital devices,

microcontrollers) - dynamical degradation

the periodic orbits are lower than we expected

perturbing the system we avoid the periodicity and

we improved the performances

89

How to make a good chaotic cipher

increase security using multiple chaotic systems

improve encryption speed

select an appropriate chaotic systems

simple chaotic maps

simple implementation - low cost

90

CLASSICAL METHODS vs. CHAOTIC CRYPTOSYSTEMS

Phase space: finite set of integers

Phase space: (sub)set of real

numbers

Algebraic methods Analytic methods

Rounds Iterations

Key (Boolean) - Discrete keyspace

Parameters (real) - Continuous

keyspace

Diffusion

Sensitivity to a change in

- initial condition/parameters

Digital realizations by integer

arithmetic

Digital realization by non integer

arithmetic which approximates

continuous-value systems

Security and performance ?

91

Questions about chaos-based cryptography

not answered yet

Many questions but yet few answers!

Pseudo-random

ensembles

Chaotic signals

(Chaotic

system)

unpredictable

Probabilistic

polynomial-time

Turing-machines

?

? Infinite powerful machines unpredictable

Central question of chaos-based cryptography:

Whether and under what conditions a chaotic system is unpredictable

by probabilistic polynomial-time machines?

92

Future directions

Theory about chaos in discrete space

Unpredictability of the pseudo-randomness

generated by digital chaos

Chaos in conventional ciphers

93

Conclusions

conventional ciphers and chaotic ciphers have

similarities

chaos and cryptography - systems in which a small

variations of any variable changes the outputs

systems used in chaos - real numbers

classical cryptography - finite number of integers

chaos theory could be used to explain the nonlinear

functions and operations used in conventional

ciphers

chaotic systems can be a new source of

cryptography

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