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Human Resource Management


Gaining a Competitive Advantage
Chapter 4
The Analysis and Design of Work
McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, All Rights Reserved.
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Learning Objectives
After reading this chapter, you should be
able to:
Analyze an organizations structure and
work flow process, identifying the output,
activities, and inputs in the production of
a product or service.
Understand the importance of job
analysis in strategic and human resource
management.
Choose the right job analysis technique
for a variety of human resource activities.
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Learning Objectives
After reading this chapter, you should be
able to:
Identify the tasks performed and the
skills required in a given job.
Understand the different approaches to
job design.
Comprehend the trade-offs among the
various approaches to designing jobs.

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Work-flow Analysis
Work-flow analysis are useful in:
providing a means for the managers to
understand all the tasks required to produce a
high-quality product
providing the skills necessary to perform those
tasks
Work flow analysis includes:
analyzing work outputs
analyzing work processes
analyzing work inputs
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Raw Inputs
- material
- information
Equipment
- facilities
- systems
People
- knowledge
- skills
- abilities
ACTIVITY
what tasks
are required?
OUTPUT
- product/service
- how measured?
Developing a Workflow Analysis
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Organizational Structure
Organization structure provides a cross-
sectional overview of the static
relationship between individuals and units
that create the outputs.
Two important dimensions of structure
are:
1. Centralization
2. Departmentalization
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Structural Configuration
(susunan)
Functional
functional
departmentalization
high level of centralization
high efficiency
inflexible
insensitive to subtle
differences across
products, regions, and
clients
Divisional
workflow
departmentalization
low level of centralization
semi-autonomous
flexible and innovative
sensitive to subtle
differences across
products, regions, and
clients
low efficiency
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The Importance of Job
Analysis to HR Managers
Job Analysis
Work Redesign
HR Planning
Selection
Performance
Appraisal
Job Evaluation
Career Planning
Training and
Development
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The Importance of Job
Analysis to Line Managers
Managers must have detailed information
about all the jobs in their work group to
understand the work-flow process.
Managers need to understand the job
requirements to make intelligent hiring
decisions.
Managers must clearly understand the
tasks required in every job.
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Job Analysis Information
Job Description is a list
of tasks, duties, and
responsibilities (TDRs)

Job Specification is a list
of knowledge, skills,
abilities, and other
characteristics (KSAOs)
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Sample Job Description
Job Title: Maintenance Mechanic
General Description of Job: General maintenance and
repair of all equipment used in the operations of a
particular district. Includes the servicing of company
used vehicles, shop equipment, and machinery used on
job sites.
1. Essential duty (40%) Maintenance of Equipment
2. Essential duty (40%) Repair of Equipment
3. Essential duty (10%) Testing and Approval
4. Essential duty (10%) Maintain Stock

Nonessential functions: Other duties assigned
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Job Analysis Methods
Position Analysis
Questionnaire (PAQ)


Fleishman Job Analysis
System (FJAS)

Occupational Information
Network (O*NET)
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Job Dimensions and Job Tasks
of a University Professor
Teaching
prepares and
presents lecture
material in
class
Research
prepares research
reports for
publication in
journals
Service
serves on
departmental
committees as
needed
Consulting
performs
work for
external
organizations
Advising
gives career
counseling advice
to students
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Job Design
Job design
Job redesign
Four approaches used in job design are:
mechanistic approach
motivational approach
biological approach
perceptual-motor approach
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Mechanistic Approach
Has its roots in classical industrial engineering.
Focuses on designing jobs around the concepts
of:
task specialization
skill simplification
repetition
Scientific management
is one of the earliest mechanistic approaches
sought to identify the one best way to perform the
job through the use of time-and-motion studies
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Motivational Approach
The motivational approach to job design focuses
on the job characteristics that affects
the psychological meaning
motivational potential of job design.
A focus on increasing job complexity through:
job enlargement
job enrichment
the construction of jobs around sociotechnical
systems.
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Job Characteristics Model
Core Job Dimensions

Skill Variety

Task Identity

Task Significance

Autonomy

Feedback
Psychological States

Meaningful Work

Responsibility
for Outcome

Knowledge
of Results
Work Outcomes

High Motivation

High Quality of Work

High Satisfaction

Low Absenteeism
and Turnover
A model of how job design affects employee reaction is the
Job Characteristics Model.
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Biological Approach
Comes primarily from the sciences of
biomechanics, or the study of body
movements
Ergonomics
The goal of this approach is to minimize
the physical strain on the worker.
Focuses on outcomes such as:
physical fatigue
aches and pains
health complaints
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Perceptual-Motor Approach
Has its roots in the human-factors
literature.
Focuses on human mental capabilities
and limitations.
The goal is to design jobs that do not
exceed people's mental capabilities.
Tries to improve reliability, safety, and
user reactions by designing jobs in a way
that reduces the information processing
requirements of the job.
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Trade-Offs among Different
Approaches to Job Design
Job Design Approach Positive Outcomes Negative Outcomes
Motivational


Mechanistic


Biological



Perceptual-Motor
Higher job satisfaction
Higher motivation
Greater job involvement
Lower absenteeism
Decreased training time
Higher utilization levels
Lower likelihood of error
Less chance of mental overload
and stress
Less physical effort
Less physical fatigue
Fewer health complaints
Fewer medical incidences
Lower absenteeism
Higher job satisfaction
Lower likelihood of error
Lower likelihood of accidents
Less chance of mental overload
and stress
Lower training time
Higher utilization levels

Increased training time
Lower utilization levels
Greater likelihood of error
Greater chance of mental overload
and stress
Lower job satisfaction
Lower motivation
Higher absenteeism


Higher financial costs because
of changes in equipment or
job environment


Lower job satisfaction
Lower motivation