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By: Cathy Yang

 Chemists had been searching or a
precise classification scheme of the
known elements at that time.
 The history of the periodic
table reflects over a century of
growth in the understanding of
chemical properties. The most
important event in its history
occurred in 1869, when the table was
published by Dmitri Ivanovich
Mendeleev, who built upon earlier
discoveries by scientists such
as Antoine-Laurent de
Lavoisier and John Newlands.
 The modern Periodic Table is largely
based upon Mendeleev’s model.
 The Periodic Table is an arrangement of elements based on their atomic number,
electron configurations, and recurring chemical similarities.
 Elements are presented in order of increasing atomic number.
 Different tables give different
information, but they will
usually include:
 The atomic number, referring
to how many protons an
atom of the element has.
Oxygen’s atomic number is 8,
so it has 8 protons.
 The chemical symbol of the
element and its name. For
example, the chemical
symbol of Oxygen is O.
 The atomic mass, the
“weight” of the atom
calculated by adding the
number of protons with the
number of neutrons.
 The standard periodic table has 18 columns and 7 rows with two rows
of elements below that.
 Groups, or families are
organized in columns with
elements with similar
chemical properties going
in a vertical line numbered
1 to 18.
 Four significant groups
 Group 1: the Alkali metals
 Group 2: the Alkaline
Earth Metals
 Group 17: the Halogens
 Group 18: the Noble gases

 Periods are organized in
rows with increasing
atomic numbers going left
to right and top to bottom,
and are numbered 1 to 7.
 The elements in a period
do not share similar
chemical properties.
 The first element in a
period is always an
extremely active solid and
the last element in a period
is always an inactive gas.

 The Periodic Table can also be organized by categories.
The elements can be conveniently classified according
to their shared physical and chemical properties into
the major categories of metals, metalloids, and non-

 Hydrogen is located above the
Alkali family, but is not a
member of it. Hydrogen can be
classified as its own family.
 It is in gas form at room
 It has one proton, one electron,
and only one energy level.
 Hydrogen requires two
electrons to fill its valence
 Hydrogen is the most
abundant element in the
Universe, making up ¾ of all
 Found in the first column
of the Periodic Table.
 The atoms of Alkali metals
have one valence electron.
 They’re shiny, extremely
reactive, and are malleable.
 They react violently with
 They’re never found
independently in nature
since they’re combined
with another element.
 They’re never found uncombined with another
element in nature.
 They have two valence electrons.
 They’re reactive, but not as reactive as the Alkali

 Contains the metals that
are the most familiar to
people, such as: copper,
tin, zinc, iron, nickel, gold,
and silver.
 They’re good conductors of
heat and electricity.
 Their compounds are
usually brightly colored
and often used to color
 Transition elements usually
have 1 or 2 valence
 Transition elements have similar chemical properties
with other metals, but their properties do not fit in
with any other family.
 Many transition metals chemically combine with
oxygen to form oxides.

 Halogens have seven
valence electrons, making
them the most active non-
 They’re never found by
themselves in nature.
 Atoms only need to gain
one electron to completely
fill their valence shells.
 They react with Alkali
metals to form salts.
 Noble Gases are colorless
gases that are completely
 They’re inactive because their
outermost valence shell is
full, already having eight
valence electrons.
 They do not easily combine
with other elements to form
compounds, so the Noble
Gases are called inert.
 Noble Gases are found in
small amounts in the Earth’s

 The seventeen Rare Earth
Elements are composed of the
Lanthanide series plus
Scandium and Yttrium.
 Despite their name as Rare
Earth Elements, they are
relatively abundant in the
Earth’s crust.
 One element from the
Lanthanide series and most
elements from the Actinide
series are called trans-
uranium, which means
synthetic or man-made.
 Named after the first
element in the family,
 Elements have three
valence electrons.
 Includes a metalloid,
Boron, but the rest are
 Includes the most
abundant metal in the
Earth’s crust, Aluminum.
 Atoms have four valence
 Includes a non-metal,
Carbon, metalloids, and
 Carbon element is called
the “basis of life.”
 Organic chemistry is a
branch of chemistry
devoted to Carbon
 Named after the element
that makes up about 78%
of the atmosphere,
 Includes non-metals,
metalloids, and metals.
 Atoms have five valence
electrons and tend to
share electrons when
they bond.

 Named after Oxygen.
 Oxygen is the most
abundant element in the
Earth’s crust, making up
about 46.6% of the Earth’s
 It is extremely active and
combines with almost all
the elements.
 Atoms have six valence
 Most elements share
electrons when forming
 The table can also be deconstructed
into four rectangular blocks.
 Named according to the subshell in
which the “last” electron resides.
 s-block consists of the Alkali
metals and the Alkaline metals as
well as hydrogen and helium.
 p-block consists of groups 13 to 18,
contains all of the metalloids.
 d-block consists of 3 to 12,
contains all of the transition
 f-block, which is usually the two
rows below the rest of the table,
consists of the Lanthanides and

 The Periodic Table can be used to find:
 The number of protons
 Number of neutrons
 Number of electrons
 The valence electrons
 The electron configuration
 The number of shells
 The atomic number
 Mass number
 Atomic mass number
 Whether the element is a metal, non-metal, or metalloid
 Whether the element is a solid, liquid, or gas
 How reactive the element is
 The physical and chemical properties of the element
 The chemical bonding possibilities of the element, etc