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2 2

When Atoms Meet
3
Bonding Forces
 Electron – electron
repulsive forces
 Nucleus – nucleus
repulsive forces
 Electron – nucleus
attractive forces
Bonds
Forces that hold groups of atoms
together and make them function as a
unit.
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Metals and Nonmetals
5
Types of Chemical Bonding
1. Metal with nonmetal:
electron transfer and ionic bonding
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Three models of chemical bonding
Electron transfer
Ionic
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Types of Chemical Bonding
1. Metal with nonmetal:
electron transfer and ionic bonding
2. Nonmetal with nonmetal:
electron sharing and covalent bonding
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Three models of chemical bonding
Electron transfer Electron sharing
Ionic
Covalent
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Types of Chemical Bonding
1. Metal with nonmetal:
electron transfer and ionic bonding
2. Nonmetal with nonmetal:
electron sharing and covalent bonding
3. Metal with metal:
electron pooling and metallic bonding
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Three models of chemical bonding
Electron transfer Electron sharing Electron pooling
Ionic
Covalent Metallic
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9.1
• The outer shell electrons of an atom
• Participate in chemical bonding
1A 1 ns
1

2A
2 ns
2

3A
3 ns
2
np
1

4A
4 ns
2
np
2

5A
5 ns
2
np
3

6A
6 ns
2
np
4

7A
7 ns
2
np
5

Group # of valence e
-
e
-
configuration
Valence Electrons
12
G. N. Lewis
Developed the idea in
1902.
Lewis Structures
13
Nitrogen, N, is in Group 5A and therefore has 5 valence
electrons.
N :
.
.
.
:

N
. .
.
.
N :
.
.
:

N
. .
.
Place one dot per valence electron on each of the four
sides of the element symbol.
Pair the dots (electrons) until all of the valence electrons are
used.
Lewis Dot Symbols
14
Lewis Dot Symbols
15
The Octet Rule
Chemical compounds tend to form so that each
atom, by gaining, losing, or sharing electrons, has
eight electrons in its highest occupied energy
level.
The same number of electrons as in the nearest
noble gas
The first exception to this is hydrogen, which
follows the duet rule.
The second exception is helium which does not
form bonds because it is already “full” with its
two electrons
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Li + F Li
+
F
-
Ionic Bond
1s
2
2s
1
1s
2
2s
2
2p
5
1s
2
1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
[He] [Ne]
Li
1s 2s 2p
F
1s 2s 2p
+
Li
+

1s 2s 2p
F
-

1s 2s 2p
+
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Lattice energy (E) increases
as Q increases and/or
as r decreases.
cmpd lattice energy
MgF
2

MgO
LiF
LiCl
2957
3938
1036
853
Q= +2,-1
Q= +2,-2
r F < r Cl
Electrostatic (Lattice) Energy
E = k
Q
+
Q
-
r
Q
+
is the charge on the cation
Q
-
is the charge on the anion
r is the distance between the ions
Lattice energy (E) is the energy required to completely separate
one mole of a solid ionic compound into gaseous ions.
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A chemical bond in which two or more electrons are shared by
two atoms.
How should two atoms share electrons?
F F +
7e
-
7e
-

F F
8e
-
8e
-

F F
F F
Lewis structure of F
2

lone pairs lone pairs
lone pairs lone pairs
single covalent bond
single covalent bond
Covalent Bond
19
Distribution of electron density of H
2

H H
20
8e
-

H H O + + O H H O H H or
2e
-
2e
-

Lewis structure of water
Double bond – two atoms share two pairs of electrons
single covalent bonds
O C O or O C O
8e
-
8e
-
8e
-
double bonds
double bonds
Triple bond – two atoms share three pairs of electrons
N N
8e
-
8e
-

N N
triple bond
triple bond
or
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H
F
F H
A covalent bond with greater electron density around
one of the two atoms
electron rich
region
electron poor
region
e
-
rich e
-
poor
d
+
d
-

Polar Covalent Bond
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Electron density distributions in
H
2
, F
2
, and HF.
23
Electronegativities (EN)
The ability of an atom in a molecule to attract shared electrons to itself
Linus Pauling
1901 - 1994
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Covalent
share e
-

Polar Covalent
partial transfer of e
-

Ionic
transfer e
-

Increasing difference in electronegativity
Classification of Bonds
Difference in EN Bond Type
0 Covalent
 2 Ionic
0 < and <2 Polar Covalent
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Classify the following bonds as ionic, polar covalent,
or covalent: The bond in CsCl; the bond in H
2
S; and
the NN bond in H
2
NNH
2
.
Cs – 0.7 Cl – 3.0 3.0 – 0.7 = 2.3 Ionic
H – 2.1 S – 2.5 2.5 – 2.1 = 0.4 Polar Covalent
N – 3.0 N – 3.0 3.0 – 3.0 = 0 Covalent
Classification of Bonds
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1. Draw skeletal structure of compound showing what
atoms are bonded to each other. Put least
electronegative element in the center.
2. Count total number of valence e
-
. Add 1 for each
negative charge. Subtract 1 for each positive
charge.
3. Use one pair of electrons to form a bond (a single
line) between each pair of atoms.
4. Arrange the remaining electrons to satisfy an octet
for all atoms (duet for H), starting from outer atoms.
5. If a central atom does not have an octet, move in
lone pairs to form double or triple bonds on the
central atom as needed.
Rules for Writing Lewis Structures
27
Write the Lewis structure of nitrogen trifluoride (NF
3
).
Step 1 – N is less electronegative than F, put N in center
F N F
F
Step 2 – Count valence electrons N - 5 (2s
2
2p
3
) and F - 7 (2s
2
2p
5
)
5 + (3 x 7) = 26 valence electrons
Step 3 – Draw single bonds between N and F atoms.
Step 4 – Arrange remaining 20 electrons to complete octets
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Write the Lewis structure of the carbonate ion (CO
3
2-
).
Step 1 – C is less electronegative than O, put C in center
O C O
O
Step 2 – Count valence electrons C - 4 (2s
2
2p
2
) and O - 6 (2s
2
2p
4
)
-2 charge – 2e
-

4 + (3 x 6) + 2 = 24 valence electrons
Step 3 – Draw single bonds between C and O atoms
Step 4 - Arrange remaining 18 electrons to complete octets
Step 5 – The central C has only 6 electrons. Form a double bond.
2-
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More than one valid Lewis structures can be written for a
particular molecule
The actual structure of the carbonate ion is an average of the
three resonance structures
O C O
O
- -
O C O
O
-
-
O C O
O
-
-
Resonance
2- 2- 2-
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Exceptions to the Octet Rule
The Incomplete Octet
H H Be
Be – 2e
-

2H – 2x1e
-

4e
-

BeH
2

BF
3

B – 3e
-

3F – 3x7e
-

24e
-

F B F
F
3 single bonds (3x2) = 6
9 lone pairs (9x2) = 18
Total = 24
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Exceptions to the Octet Rule
Odd-Electron Molecules
N – 5e
-

O – 6e
-

11e
-

NO N O
The Expanded Octet (central atom with principal quantum number n > 2)
SF
6

S – 6e
-

6F – 42e
-

48e
-

S
F
F
F
F
F
F
6 single bonds (6x2) = 12
18 lone pairs (18x2) = 36
Total = 48
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Bond
Type
Bond
Length
(pm)
C-C
154
CC
133
CC
120
C-N
143
CN
138
CN
116
Covalent Bond Lengths
Bond Lengths
Triple bond < Double Bond < Single Bond
33
The energy required to break a particular bond in one mole of
gaseous molecules is the bond energy.
H
2 (g)
H
(g)
+ H
(g)
436.4 kJ
Cl
2 (g)
Cl
(g)
+ Cl
(g)
242.7 kJ
HCl
(g)
H
(g)
+ Cl
(g)
431.9 kJ
O
2 (g)
O
(g)
+ O
(g)
498.7 kJ
O O
N
2 (g)
N
(g)
+ N
(g)
941.4 kJ N N
Bond Energy
Bond Energies
Single bond < Double bond < Triple bond
Covalent Bond Energy
34
Contoh :
O C O

tot
= 0
H
2
O →
H
O
H
CO
2

Non polar
Polar
Molecular Shape
VSEPR

Valence Shell Electron-pair Repulsion
35
36
37
38
Frequency in Hz
3 x 10
20
3 x 10
16
3 x 10
12
3 x 10
8
3 x 10
4
Dissociation
Ionization
Vibration
Rotation
Light-Matter Interactions
39
Vibrational Modes of Water
Infrared light
40
Infrared Spectrum of Water
1000 1500 2000
Wavenumber (cm
-1
)
A
b
s
o
r
b
a
n
c
e

1000 2000 3000
Liquid
Gas
Reveal the interactions between molecules and their environments

41
Infrared Spectrum of Caffeine
1000 2000 3000
Wavenumber (cm
-1
)
A
b
s
o
r
b
a
n
c
e

Identification of compounds
42
Acknowledgment
Some images, animation, and material have been taken from the following sources:
Chemistry, Zumdahl, Steven S.; Zumdahl, Susan A.; Houghton Mifflin Co., 6th Ed., 2003;
supplements for the instructor
General Chemistry: The Essential Concepts, Chang, Raymon; McGraw-Hill Co. Inc., 4
th

Ed., 2005; supplements for the instructor
Principles of General Chemistry, Silberberg, Martin; McGraw-Hill Co. Inc., 1st Ed., 2006;
supplements for the instructor
NIST WebBook: http://webbook.nist.gov/
http://www.lsbu.ac.uk/water/vibrat.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caffeine
http://www.wilsonhs.com/SCIENCE/CHEMISTRY/MRWILSON/Unit%204%20Chemical%2
0Bonding%20Powerpoint1.ppt