152 views

Uploaded by vissusamurai

capillary pressure hysteresis, capillary end effect

- CapillaryPressureAndRelativePermeabilityPetrophysicalReservoirModels
- Capillary pressure using nmr
- Fluid Saturation and Capillary Pressure
- Capillary Pressure
- Capillary Pressure
- Chapter 10 Relative Permeability
- Capillary Pressure
- Capillary Pressure and Saturation Height
- Chapter7-Capillarypressure
- A Method of Averaging Capillary Pressure Curves
- _Saturation and Capillary Pressure in Reservoir Rocks
- Development of a Modified Capillary Pressure J
- Capillary Pressure and Rock Wettability Effects on Wireline Formation Tester Measurements.pdf
- 6.CapillaryPressure
- Kovalchuk Capillary Pressure Studies Under Low Gravity Conditions 2010
- Capillary Function and the Leverett Function
- Relative Permeability Ppt
- Relative Permeability
- Core Laboratories - Formation Evaluation and Petrophysics
- 3.3 Capillary Pressure

You are on page 1of 27

Capillary Pressure

Hysteresis

&

Capillary End effect

Name: Nalluri Viswanath

CAPILLARY PRESSURE HYSTERESIS

• Capillary pressure curves show a marked hysteresis

depending on whether the curve is determined under a

drainage process or an imbibition process.

• After completing measurements of capillary pressure for

primary drainage, the direction of saturation change can be

reversed, and another capillary pressure relationship can be

measured—it is usually called an imbibition relationship.

• The primary drainage and imbibition relationships generally

differ significantly for a gas/water system. This difference is

called capillary pressure hysteresis.

• At any wetting phase saturation,

the drainage capillary pressure is

higher than the imbibition

capillary pressure.

• At a capillary pressure of zero, the

spontaneous imbibition curve

terminates at a wetting phase

saturation that may or may not

correspond to the true residual

non-wetting phase saturation

depending on the wettability of

the rock.

Cycles of capillary pressure

measurements.

Capillary pressure hysteresis can be explained in a variety of ways.

1. Energy considerations

2. Contact Angle

3. Displacement

4. Pore structure

Energy considerations

• It was shown from energy considerations that more work is required

for a non-wetting phase to displace a wetting phase than for a

wetting phase to displace a non-wetting phase.

• This means that at any level of saturation, more work is required

during the drainage capillary pressure measurement than during the

imbibition measurement.

• So the capillary pressure on the drainage cycle will be greater than on

the imbibition cycle to displace the same volume of fluid.

Contact Angle

• During drainage, the wetting phase recedes from the porous

medium and the contact angle is the receding contact angle,

θR.

• During imbibition, the wetting phase advances into the

porous medium and the contact angle is the advancing

contact angle, θA.

• Since θR is less than θA, 2σcosθR /rm, the drainage capillary

pressure, is larger than 2σcosθA /rm, the imbibition capillary

pressure at the same saturation state.

Displacement

• When the capillary pressure experiment is reversed to

measure the spontaneous imbibition curve, the pressure in

the non-wetting phase is reduced to allow the wetting phase

to be imbibed.

• As the wetting phase is imbibed into the rock, some non-

wetting phase will be trapped in certain pores.

• This trapping causes the wetting phase saturation on the

imbibition curve to be less than on the drainage curve at the

same capillary pressure.

Pore Structure

• During drainage, the pore is initially full of the wetting fluid at a

capillary pressure. Next, the capillary pressure is increased to a higher

value to drain some of the wetting fluid.

• Next, we consider the imbibition process. At c, the capillary pressure

is high at a wetting phase saturation of nearly zero. After the wetting

fluid has been imbibed to the equilibrium level, the imbibition

capillary pressure will be approximately the same as the drainage

capillary pressure of Drainage capillary pressure, because the mean

curvature of the interfaces at c and d are about the same.

• However, the wetting phase saturation at d is considerably lower than

at b. Thus, at the same capillary pressure, the wetting phase

saturation for imbibition is less than for drainage. This is hysteresis.

Pore Structure

Drainage and imbibition capillary pressure curves showing the type of fluid

produced

Capillary Imbibition

a) Consider a reservoir consisting of two layers with different

permeabilities and capillary pressure curves as shown in figure.

b) Initially, both layers are in capillary equilibrium at their

respective irreducible water saturations.

c) Water flooding the two layers.

Capillary Imbibition

Capillary End Effect

• During steady-state, immiscible displacement in the bulk of the core

plug there is a constant saturation and the capillary pressure

corresponds to it.

• At the outflow face, however, the capillary pressure is zero and hence

the wetting phase saturation is one.

• Therefore, whatever the wetting phase saturation is in the bulk core,

at the outflow end face it approaches 1. we observe more wetting

phase coming out than it would be according to the bulk saturation

condition. This is called "end capillary effect".

Mathematical Analysis of Capillary End

Effect

• Darcy's law for the wetting and non-wetting phases is given by

• (7.42) (7.43)

• Let us define the relative permeability's of the wetting and non-

wetting phases as

• (7.44) (7.45)

• Eqs.(7.42) and (7.43) can be written in terms of the relative

permeabilities as

• (7.46) (7.47)

• Capillary equilibrium gives (7.48)

• Assuming incompressible fluids, then (7.49)

• the saturation constraint gives (7.51)

• Subtracting Eq.(7.46) from (7.47) and rearranging gives

(7.52)

• Substituting Eqs.(7.48) and (7.49) into (7.52) gives upon rearrangement

• (7.53)

• Let the true fractional flow of the wetting phase be defined as

• (7.54)

• Let an approximate fractional flow of the wetting phase be defined as

• (7.55)

• Both f

w

and F

w

are functions of saturation. Substituting Eqs.(7.54)

and (7.55) into (5.53) gives the true fractional flow of the wetting

phase as

• (7.57) (7.58)

• Let the spontaneous imbibition capillary pressure curve be given in

terms of its Leverett J-function as

• (7.59)

• Substituting Eqs.(7.58) and (7.59) into (7.57) gives the true fractional

flow of the wetting phase as

• (7.60)

• The term in the inner bracket on the right side of Eq.(7.60) is a

dimensionless number

• (7.61)

• Substituting Eq.(7.61) into (7.60) gives

• (7.62)

• Let the dimensionless time be defined as

• (7.63)

• Substituting Eq.(7.63) into (7.50) gives the continuity equation for the

wetting phase as (7.64)

• Substituting Eq.(7.62) into (7.64) gives

• (7.66)

• Let us examine in detail the fractional flow of the wetting phase at the

outlet end of the core. Applied to the outlet end of the core, Eq.(7.62)

can be written as

• (7.67)

• J

+

is the J-function inside the porous medium, J

−

is the J-function

outside the porous medium and δx

D

is a small distance in the

neighborhood of the outlet end of the porous medium

• (7.69)

• Depending on the values of N

cap

, k

rnw

, and J

+

, it is possible for the

following inequality to prevail during the displacement:

• (7.70)

• IF (7.71)

• Then (7.72)

• at the outlet end of the core. Because the fractional flow of the

wetting phase is zero at the outlet end of the core, the wetting phase

cannot flow out of the core but instead will accumulate there raising

the wetting phase saturation to an abnormal level. This is the capillary

end effect phenomenon at work.

• How can capillary end effect be eliminated from the experiment? The

condition for eliminating the capillary end effect is obtained from

Eq.(7.69) as

• (7.75) or (7.76)

• Thus, N

cap

should be as small as possible in the experiment to

eliminate capillary end effect.

• The only means to control N

cap

in the experiment is through the

injection rate, q. Examination of Eq.(7.61) shows that N

cap

can be

made small by the use of a high injection rate in the experiment.

Substituting Eq.(7.61) into (7.76) gives the condition for the injection

rate to eliminate capillary end effect as

• (7.78)

Experimental Evidence of Capillary End

Effect

• Perkins (1957) has presented experimental data that show capillary

end effect at work. He conducted waterfloods in laboratory cores at

two rates, one below the critical rate for capillary end effect and one

above the critical rate.

• The core was 12 inches in length and 1.25 inches in diameter.

• The oil and water viscosities were 1.8 and 0.9 cp.

• The low injection rate was 2.4 ft/day whereas the high injection rate

was 36 ft/day.

• The injected water was 0.1 normal sodium chloride solution.

• The core was instrumented with two current electrodes and nineteen

potential electrodes distributed along its length.

Wetting phase saturation profiles at low injection

rate

Wetting phase saturation profiles at high injection

rate

THANK YOU

- CapillaryPressureAndRelativePermeabilityPetrophysicalReservoirModelsUploaded bybienhoa78
- Capillary pressure using nmrUploaded byMahesh Gorle
- Fluid Saturation and Capillary PressureUploaded byRasheed
- Capillary PressureUploaded bywhateveroil
- Capillary PressureUploaded byamahaminer
- Chapter 10 Relative PermeabilityUploaded byAndrew Guo
- Capillary PressureUploaded byWilson Ramirez Zunini
- Capillary Pressure and Saturation HeightUploaded byMario Mallaviabarrena
- Chapter7-CapillarypressureUploaded bybripinkr
- A Method of Averaging Capillary Pressure CurvesUploaded byRosa K Chang H
- _Saturation and Capillary Pressure in Reservoir RocksUploaded bymhdstat
- Development of a Modified Capillary Pressure JUploaded byShaho Abdulqader Mohamedali
- Capillary Pressure and Rock Wettability Effects on Wireline Formation Tester Measurements.pdfUploaded byreborn2
- 6.CapillaryPressureUploaded byNur Syaffiqa Mohamad Ruzlan
- Kovalchuk Capillary Pressure Studies Under Low Gravity Conditions 2010Uploaded byLoglioGiuseppe
- Capillary Function and the Leverett FunctionUploaded bymartins victor
- Relative Permeability PptUploaded byanodlamj
- Relative PermeabilityUploaded byYinzhang
- Core Laboratories - Formation Evaluation and PetrophysicsUploaded byTarek
- 3.3 Capillary PressureUploaded byHind Lionne
- History MatchUploaded byGustaf
- ECLIPSE ConvergenceUploaded byBenSpurr
- Relative PermeabilityUploaded byArturo Vasquez
- Jensen et al. Statistics for Petroleum Engineers and Geoscientists (1997)Uploaded byСергей Шатров
- Introduction to Reservoir PetrophysicsUploaded byNwonye Chukwunoso
- CARBONATE ROCK WETTABILITY INTERPRETED FROM CAPILLARY PRESSURE AND IMBIBITION RESISTIVITY INDEX ANALYSESUploaded byari_si
- 05 Capillary PressureUploaded byMohamed Tarek
- MEASUREMENT OF CAPILLARY PRESSURE CURVES AT RESERVOIR CONDITIONSUploaded byari_si
- Reservoir SimulationUploaded bydaonguyencm10

- CopyofCognosProject Demo.txtUploaded byvissusamurai
- Cognos Demo Class ContentUploaded byvissusamurai
- Flow CapacityUploaded byvissusamurai
- Sulphur 1Uploaded byvissusamurai
- Word Basics Exercise Data FileUploaded byvissusamurai
- Simple FunctionsUploaded byvissusamurai
- Research Directions in Quantum Cryptography (1)Uploaded byvissusamurai
- Spreadsheets - Linear RegressionUploaded byvissusamurai
- log_2Uploaded byvissusamurai
- Simple FormulasUploaded byvissusamurai
- Hosts.umbrellaUploaded byFabsor Soral
- log_1_bkUploaded byvissusamurai
- Cognos 10 Report Studio.pdfUploaded byvissusamurai
- Jr f ApplicationformUploaded bynishchal_b29
- Flowin PipelineUploaded byvissusamurai
- Arhasan_cv Tamu ProffUploaded byvissusamurai
- ALAdwani ThesisUploaded byamir_hayfa
- redden_1974_spe5150Uploaded byhiva_goudarz
- Asymptotic Generalizations of the Lockhart Martinelli Method for Two Phase FlowsUploaded byjesus_frimont
- Shellandtubeheatexchangersdesign 150526020323 Lva1 App6891Uploaded byvissusamurai
- Flow Pattern in Horizontal and Vertical TubesUploaded bySrinivas Bobby
- Diseño de Gas liftUploaded byPipe Carrascal
- fundamental of heat exchanger designUploaded byabiy127
- SPE-20630-MS Two Phase Flow in Well BoreUploaded byvissusamurai
- SPE-20630-MS Two Phase Flow in Well BoreUploaded byvissusamurai
- Drlg266 Mod04 ReadingUploaded byvissusamurai
- CCNAUploaded byerkant007
- 105742885 Calculation of Pressure Traverse Using Beggs and BrillUploaded byvissusamurai
- 06163637Uploaded byvissusamurai

- Khaing_Su Wai AungUploaded bysyampnaidu
- Syllabus for SandI Certified Industrial CFD ProgramUploaded byDarshan B Rao
- (91481689) [Senior]Free and Forced Convection (Repaired)Uploaded byvenkiee
- Water Challenges in IndiaUploaded byFaisal Bhat
- Numerical Methods Two Phase FlowUploaded bywingnut999
- Lab 3 - Solids DeterminationUploaded byrahoznawroz
- Ch 6 Differential Analysis of Fluid Flow part II.pptUploaded byMujtaba Rizvi
- Effects of Beta Ratio and Reynold’s Number on Coefficient of Discharge of Orifice MeterUploaded byWanda Darmawan
- Maletín ECpH-meter GH_UK_ES_FR_DU_NL_1.1.pdfUploaded byGregorio Maisincho
- surfacetensUploaded byom
- SPE-78988-MSUploaded byJuan Zamora
- Hundred Years of the Boundary Layer – Some Aspects_TULAPURKARA (2005)Uploaded byjohansarache1986
- 06 Permeability TestUploaded byArif Azizan
- dimensionless number.docxUploaded byAchmad Faisal
- Sizing Steam Pipes & Steam VelocitiesUploaded byMacarthur B. Monsanto
- 1-Crane DA Presentation 2012 WRBA Rev2 9 12_JSUploaded bylosmoscasbr
- CE1208Uploaded byJayavignesh Reddy
- HYDROLOGYUploaded byRufus Cheng
- Desalination of Bore WaterUploaded byadalcayde2514
- The Urban Drainage Problem: Effects of New Development and Redevelopment on Local HydrologyUploaded byAaron Shaffer
- Tests on Asphalt Bitumen EmulsionUploaded byShabbir Ali
- cold flow hydrate technologyUploaded byAloisio Nunes
- ffsdfsdUploaded byryansaputra92
- RoughnessReviewFinal_July07Uploaded byLazaros Ntoanidis
- (1998)Parametric Study of Flow Around Rectangular Prisms Using LESUploaded byvenugopal_aero
- Tutorial 4 SolutionUploaded byIsaac Mering Ating
- Heat Transfer in the Food IndustryUploaded byJesus Rafael Zapata Alvarez
- VECTOR Turbine Bypass SystemsUploaded bySanjaySherikar
- Chapter 3 (a) -Convection Heat TransferUploaded bySuraya Johari
- NACA-RM-L55H09-Comparison of the Drag of a Fin-stabilized Body of Revolution and of a Complete Airplane Configuration as Obtained at Transonic Speeds in a Slotted Wind Tunnel and in Free FlightUploaded byDanielLaraFavela