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By

,
KIRAN H G
RAGHUNANDAN H S
RAJESH S
VINITESH K V





A
B
S
T
R
A
C
T

KEYWORDS: CNC EDM, CNC
WEDM, Taguchi method, DOE,
Orthogonal array
C
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INTRODUCTION
DESIGN OF EXPERIMENT
TAGUCHI METHOD
EXPERIMENTRAL AND SLECTION
OF PROCESS PARAMETERS
EXPERIMENTRAL OBSERAVATION
EXPERIMENTRAL RESULTS AND
ANALYSIS TAGUCHI METHOD
CONCLSIONS
REFERENCES
INTRODUCTION
EDM is an electro-thermal
non-traditional machining
process, where electrical
energy is used to generate
electrical spark and material
removal mainly occurs due to
thermal energy of the spark


The work material is
removed by a series of sparks
that cause localized melting
and evaporation of the
material
EDNC 32H MAKINO high precision CNC
EDM

EDM is mainly used to machine difficult-to-
machine materials.
The electrode is made from electrically conductive
material.
Dielectric fluid should be nonconductor of electricity
EDNC 32H MAKINO high precision CNC EDM

WIRE CUT ELECTRO
DISCHARGE MACHINING
(WEDM),


WEDM is electro-thermal
mechanisms to cut electrically
conductive material.


WEDM has become the
essential part of many
manufacturing process
industries, which need variety,
precision and accuracy
FA10S MITSUBISHI high precision CNC
WEDM
DESIGN OF EXPERIMENT


 Design of Experiments (DOE) refers to planning, designing
and analyzing an experiment so that valid and objective
conclusions can be drawn effectively and efficiently.


 The input variables are called Factors and the output
variables are called Response.




THE ADVANTAGES OF DESIGN OF
EXPERIMENTS ARE

 Numbers of trials is significantly reduced.
 Optimal setting of the parameters can be found
out.
 Qualitative estimation of parameters can be made.
 Experimental error can be estimated.
 Inference regarding the effect of parameters on
the characteristics of the process
DR. GENI CHI TAGUCHI
 Dr. Genichi
Taguchi was
Born in Japan,
1924. He is an
Electrical
Engineer and
Worked during
1950’s to
improve Japan’s
post-WWII
telephone
communication
system And also
called Father of
the
“Taguchi
Method” and
“Robust
Engineering

HE SUGGESTED THAT
THE DESIGN PROCESS
SHOULD BE SEEN AS
THREE STAGES
1
• SYSTEM DESIGN
2
• PARAMETER
DESIGN
3
• TOLERANCE
DESIGN
In this present work, the Taguchi method has been used to
plan the experiments for parameter design and subsequent
analysis of the data collected
PARAMETER DESIGN
 Parameter design determines the most appropriate,
optimizing set of parameters identifying the settings of
each parameter which will minimize variation from the
target performance
 The selection of control factors (parameters) and their
“OPTIMAL” levels
 The objective is to make the
“IMPROVEMENT OF QUALITY”
 The “ OPTIMAL ” parameter levels can be determined
through experimentation



INITIATING STEPS
1. PROBLEM
IDENTIFICATION
2. BRAIN
STORMING
SESSION
(Identify:- Factors
,Factors settings ,
Possible Interaction
, Objectives)
3.
EXPERIMENTAL
DESIGN
(Choose orthogonal
arrays, Design
Experiment )
4. RUN EXPERIMENT
5. ANALYZE RESULTS
6.CONFIRMATION RUNS
EXPERIMENTRAL AND SLECTION OF PROCESS
PARAMETERS FOR CNC EDM
INPUT FACTORS FOR CNC EDM

1) VOLTAGE (V)
2) CURRENT (I)
3) PULSE ON TIME (TON)
RESPONSES MEASURED FOR EDM

1) MATERIAL REMOVAL RATE (MRR),
2) MACHINING TIME


Array Selector

TABLE 1:- LEVEL VALUES OF INPUT FACTOR
Symbols Testing
parameters
Level1 Level2 Level3
A Voltage (V) 6 7 5
B Current(I) 2 3 4
C Pulse ON
time(T
on
)
35 40 45

Orthogonal Arrays represent a versatile class of
combinational arrangements useful for conducting
experiments.
ORTHOGONAL ARRAYS

The standard two level and three level arrays are:
•Two level arrays: L4, L8, L12, L16, L32
•Three level arrays: L9, L18, L27
TAGUCHI L9 ORTHOGONAL ARRAY DESIGN MATRIX IS
SELECTED FROM ARRAY TABLE
Exp.
No.
Factor
1
Factor
2
Factor
3
01 1 1 1
02 1 2 2
03 1 3 3
04 2 1 2
05 2 2 3
06 2 3 1
07 3 1 3
08 3 2 1
09 3 3 2
EXP
NO
PARAMETERS
LEVEL
VOL
TAG
E
CUR
RENT
PULSE
ON
TIME
1 6 2 35
2 6 3 40
3 6 4 45
4 7 2 40
5 7 3 45
6 7 4 35
7 5 2 45
8 5 3 35
9 5 4 40
SLECTION OF MATERI AL FOR EDM OF ALLOY
STEEL(SK-5) MATERI AL HAS BEEN CONSI DER USI NG
COPPER ELECTRODE
Dia Of Electrode :
9.4mm
EXPERIMENTRAL OBSERAVATION & CALCULATION
OF VARIOUS RESPONSE FACTORS BASED ON
TAGUCHI L9 ORTHOGONAL ARRAY

EXP
NO
PARAMETER
LEVELS
MACHI
NING
TIME 1
In secs
MACHI
NIG
TIME 2
In secs
MRR 1
In
mm
3
/sec
MRR2
In
mm
3
/sec VOLTA
GE
CURR
ENT
PULSE
ON
TIME
1 6 2 35 92 94 0.2008 0.151
1
2 6 3 40 79 83 0.2426 0.199
4
3 6 4 45 45 43 0.3281 0.309
7
4 7 2 40 38 34 0.2962 0.303
6
5 7 3 45 49 46 0.3321 0.341
6
6 7 4 35 69 70 0.2097 0.198
7
7 5 2 45 68 67 0.2434 0.224
7
8 5 3 35 96 97 0.1352 0.135
9
9 5 4 40 73 70 0.1864 0.180
5
 Taguchi's emphasis on minimizing deviation from target
led him to develop measures of the process output that
incorporate both the location of the output as well as the
variation. These measures are called signal to noise ratios.

 The signal to noise ratio provides a measure of the impact
of noise factors on performance.
SIGNAL TO NOISE RATIO
 There are 3 Signal-to-Noise ratios of common
interest for optimization of Static Problems
SMALLER-
THE-BETTER
NOMINAL-
THE-BEST
LARGER-
THE-BETTER
n = 10 Log10 [ square of mean/ variance ]
NOMINAL-THE-BEST
This case arises when a specified value is MOST desired,
meaning that neither a smaller nor a larger value is desirable
CALCULATION OF SIGNAL TO NOISE RATIO FOR
MRR AND MT

EXP NO
PARAMETER LEVELS SN
RATIO for
MT
SN
RATIO for
MRR
VOLTAGE CURREN
T
PULSE
ON TIME
1 6 2 35
36.359
4
13.8276
2 6 3 40 29.138
8
18.0704
3 6 4 45 29.858
8
28.4448
4 7 2 40 22.0952 36.8242
5 7 3 45 27.001
7
45.1361
6 7 4 35 39.850
0
29.1000
7 5 2 45 39.596
4
24.8895
8 5 3 35 42.700
8
26.5849
9 5 4 40 30.554
0
53.5758
Response Table for Signal to Noise Ratios for MT
LEVEL VOLTAGE IN
V
CURRENT IN
AMP
PULSE ON
TIME
1 37.6162 32.6788 39.6364
2 31.7912 32.9521 27.2640
3 29.6429 33.4194 32.1499
Δ 7.9733 0.7406 12.3724
RANK 2 3 1


Therefore, PULSE ON TIME has the maximum effect on MACHINING
TIME

Response Table for Signal to Noise Ratios for MRR
LEVEL VOLTAGE IN
V
CURRENT IN
AMP
PULSE ON
TIME
1 35.02 25.18 23.17
2 20.11 29.93 36.16
3 37.02 37.04 32.82
Δ 16.91 11.86 12.99
RANK 1 3 2
Therefore VOLTAGE has the largest effect on MATERIAL
REMOVAL RATE.

SIMILARLY (WEDM) OF AL-6061 MATERIAL HAS
BEEN CONSIDER USING WEDM WITH A BRASS WIRE
ELECTRODE
Input Factors:-
Voltage (v)
Current (I
p
)
Voltage gap (V
g
)
Wire tension (WT)
EXPERIMENTRAL AND SLECTION OF PROCESS
PARAMETERS FOR CNC EDM
Responses measured:-
 Machining time (MT),
Cutting speed (CS)

LEVEL VALUES OF INPUT FACTORS
Symbols
Testing
parameters
Level1 Level2 Level3
A Voltage (V) 6 8 10
B Current(I) 4 7 9
C Voltage gap (V
g
) 55 58 60
D
Wire tension
(WT)
8 9 10
EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS AND CALCULATIONS OF VARIOUS
RESPONSE FACTORS BASED ON TAGUCHI L9 ORTHOGONAL
ARRAY
Calculation of Signal to Noise ratio for MT
EXP
NO
PARAMETER LEVELS MT1
In sec
MT2
In sec
SN
RATIO
VOLTAG
E (V)
CURRENT
(I)
VOLTAGE
GAP (V
G
)
WIRE
TENSION
(WT)
1 6 4 55 8 12.54 12.07 31.368
3
2 6 7 58 9 8.02 7.58 27.979
6
3 6 9 60 10 15.20 14.54 30.063
5
4 8 4 58 10 12.36 12.10 36.458
8
5 8 7 60 8 6.57 6.54 49.799
3
6 8 9 55 9 2.52 2.40 29.242
7
7 10 4 60 9 12.46 12.01 31.696
6
8 10 7 55 10 3.31 3.17 30.296
6
9 10 9 58 8 3.02 2.50 17.469
7
CALCULATION OF SIGNAL TO NOISE RATIO FOR CS
EX
P
NO
PARAMETER LEVELS CS1
In
mm/sec
CS2
In
Mm/sec
SN RATIO
VOLTAG
E (V)
CURREN
T
(I)
VOLTAGE
GAP
(V
G
)
WIRE TENSION
(WT)
1 6 4 55 8 1.3 1.32 39.3348
2 6 7 58 9 1.7 1.89 22.5043
3 6 9 60 10 0.5 1.27 3.3082
4 8 4 58 10 1.1 1.40 15.3430
5 8 7 60 8 2.9 2.46 18.6745
6 8 9 55 9 5.6 6.18 23.1335
7 10 4 60 9 1.3 1.34 33.3795
8 10 7 55 10 4.6 4.89 27.2830
9 10 9 58 8 5.4 6.10 21.2855
RESPONSE TABLE FOR SIGNAL TO NOISE RATIOS FOR MT
LEVEL VOLTAGE IN
V
CURRENT IN
AMP
VOLTAGE
GAP
WIRE
TENSION
1 29.8038 33.1745 30.3025 32.8791
2 38.5002 36.0251 27.3027 29.6396
3 26.4876 25.5919 37.1864 32.2729
Δ 12.0126 10.4332 9.8837 3.2395
RANK 1 2 3 4
RESPONSE TABLE FOR SIGNAL TO NOISE RATIOS FOR CS
LEVEL VOLTAGE
IN V
CURRENT
IN AMP
VOLTAGE
GAP
WIRE
TENSION
1 21.7157 29.3524 29.9171 26.4316
2 19.0503 22.8206 19.7109 26.3391
3 27.316 15.9090 18.4540 15.3114
Δ 8.2657 13.4434 11.4631 11.1202
RANK 4 1 2 3
CONCLUSION FOR CNC EDM

 The MACHINING TIME (MT) mainly affected by
PULSE ON TIME, VOLTAGE has less effect on it.
Current (I) has a least effect on MT.
 The MATERIAL REMOVAL RATE (MRR) is mainly
influenced by VOLTAGE, The effect of PULSE ON TIME
is less and Current has least effect on it.

Exp no. 4 is the OPTIMIZED PARAMETER for MT

Exp no. 1 is the OPTIMIZED PARAMETER for MRR

CONCLUSION FOR CNC WEDM
The MACHINING TIME (MT) mainly affected by
VOLTAGE , CURRENT &VOLTAGE GAP has less
effect on it. WIRE TENSION has a least effect on MT

The CUTTING SPEED (CS) is mainly influenced by
CURRENT, The effect of VOLTAGE GAP ,WIRE
TENSION is less and VOLTAGE has least effect on it.

Exp no. 9 is the OPTIMIZED PARAMETER for MT
Exp no. 3 is the OPTIMIZED PARAMETER for CS

REFERENCES

 Abbas, N.M., Solomon, D.G., Bahari, M. F. (2007), “A
review on current research trends in electrical discharge
machining (EDM)”, International Journal of Machine Tools
& Manufacture, 47, 1214–1228.

 Adler, Yu. P., Markova, E.V., Granovsky, Yu.V. (1975),“The
design of experiments to find optimal conditions”, Mir
Publishers, Moscow.

 Pandey P C , Shan H S, Modern Machining Processes, Tata
McGraw-Hill publishing Company Limited, New Delhi,
(1999).

 Phadke M.S, Quality Engineering Using Robust Design,
Prentice- Hall, Englewood Cliffs,NJ, (1989).
QUERIES