Seminar Project

TEAMWORK

Why Teams in this Course?
♦ You will work on teams in your careers
– How many have already?

♦ Recruiters look for team skills
– Surveys of employers

♦ Better functioning teams produce better results ♦ A skill that needs practice ♦ Senior project is coming!!!!

Power of Teams
♦ Complex problems that require innovation

are best solved by teams. ♦ Creative collaboration – The process of shared creation where two or more individuals come together to solve a problem in a way that neither could have though of on their own. ♦ Innovation is the only competitive advantage left.

♦ Teamwork Quotes and Proverbs
Teamwork: Simply stated, it is less me Teamwork doesn't tolerate the and more we. inconvenience of distance Teamwork is the fuel that allows common people to attain uncommon results. The whole is greater than the sum of the parts. None of us is as smart as all of us.

We must all hang together, or assuredly, we shall all hang separately. Coming together, sharing together, working together, succeeding together.

Coming together is a beginning. Keeping together is progress. Working together is success

Definition of Team
♦ Team – A group of people who work together to achieve a common purpose. – Practice five tenets of cooperative learning ♦ Group – Collection of individuals – No common purpose – Do not follow five tenets

Five Tenets
♦ Positive interdependence
– Rely on each other to accomplish goals – If a member fail to do their part all suffer

♦ Individual Accountability
– For individual work – Understanding all parts of final product

Five Tenets Continues
♦ Face-to-face promotive interaction – Mutual feedback – Give and take guidance – Challenge on another ♦ Appropriate use of teamwork skills – Leadership, Communication, Conflict management and Decision making ♦ Regular assessment of team functioning – Periodically asses functioning of the team

Effective teamwork
Firms are constantly looking out for strategies that will help them to cope with complexity and competition. Greater dynamism in the economic and social environment has prompted many firms to review their resource deployment and productivity strategies

Effective Team performance requirments:
♦ It needs people with technical expertise. ♦ It needs people with the problem solving and

decision making skills to be able to identify problems, generate alternatives, evaluate those alternatives and make competent choices. ♦ Teams need people with good listening, feedback; conflict resolution and other inter personal skills.

Characteristics of effective teams
♦ Effectiveness:

Ansoff(1972) :effectiveness is a strategic concept which relates to the exploitation of profit potential in an organization Johnson and Scholes (1989) :effectiveness is a measure of the way which resources can be used in an organization

Characteristics of effective teams
♦ Efficiency:

Hofer and Schendal (1986)efficiency is the actual ratio of outputs to inputs Johnson and Scholes (1989): efficiency is a measure of how well resources have been utilized while effectiveness is the ability to harmonize that capability with the external environment.

Empirical studies of teamwork
there have been many studies conducted on the way that groups and their members behave and interact. compared to individuals, groups produce more solutions, and better solutions, to problems. Some subsequent empirical studies, summarized in: ♦ increasing extent of teamwork and team briefings ♦ collaboration and decision making in groups ♦ communication and rivalry ♦ evaluation of quality circles

Extent of team working, team briefings and feedback
♦ teamwork has become more widespread ♦ supported by the Industrial Research Society (IRS)

(1995) and Incomes Data Services (IDS) (1992) who add that most large organizations in their study used team briefings ♦ managers who are trained to give feedback in team situations can facilitate more effective teams.

Collaboration and decision-making
♦ Group collaboration can lead to more innovative

and riskier decisions than those taken by individuals and this is known as the “risky shift” phenomenon. ♦ In certain circumstances, the decisions taken by groups are more conservative. ♦ Increased complexity in business has led to greater use of group problem-solving techniques.

Communication and rivalry
♦ The way that groups interact and learn is seen as

important ♦ There is a direct relationship between the quality of communication and group performance ♦ effectiveness is related to the extent to which groups learn, particularly from failure to win in intergroup rivalry ♦ Applicable to hospitality operations where departmental communication affects the quality of the product offering and customer satisfaction

Quality circles and management attitudes
♦ Since the 1980s, Japanese firms have been

particularly successful in positively harnessing employee involvement, originally through the medium of quality circles ♦ business improvements from quality circles are unsustainable in the longer term, primarily because of interventions made by middle management ♦ quality circles can work in some organizations

A systems model of effective teams
♦ Elton Mayo : effectiveness of work groups resides

in the degree of motivation, co-ordination and unity of purpose ♦ A team may be regarded as an open system which interacts with its environment in the process of transforming inputs to outputs. ♦ systems theory provides a discipline of thinking which “provides insights into problems which were previously obscure and illogical”

A systems model of effective teams
♦ teamwork can be studied in a three-stage sequence

in which the vital transformational processes are termed “throughputs”

♦ The model maps the criteria by which effective

teams may be recognized, and identifies those inputs and throughputs which lead to successful outputs

INPUTS

THROUGHPUTS

OUTPUTS

Climate group configuration

Processes Cohesiveness Communication Decision-making Task activities Maintenance activities

Task performance Individual outputs Other outputs

♦ Inputs: Inputs are those factors which are often

controlled or influenced by management, and include climate and group configuration.
♦ Climate:

Climate is a social psychological concept which refers to the organizational ambience in which teams work

♦ Group configuration: Configuration factors are

important to an effective team. These include size, the membership balance and the blend of talent

♦ Team processes: Effective teams share clear and

well understood goals which are accepted by members
♦ Cohesiveness: Cohesion in effective teams is

optimized.
♦ Communication: Communication must be clear,

accurate and be honest and open

♦ Decision making: The characteristics of effective

decision making in teams are that it should be conducted according to established procedures which should be known to all
♦ Task activities: Task activities are those which

enable the team to manage itself effectively
♦ Maintenance activities: Effective teams are those

which are aware of internal forces and monitor and review them

♦ Outputs:
Successful outputs are those outcomes which satisfy organizational or personal goals, or which are compared to pre-determined criteria. The success of outputs may be assessed by a number of stakeholders, including the organization itself and the people within it, shareholders, suppliers and media commentators
 Task performance  Individual outputs  Other outputs

Task performance
♦ May be judged on a number of criteria include

quality and productivity

♦ Teams which perform tasks well are able to create

more time and to reduce schedule delays and cost overruns

Individual outputs
♦ Another outcome of successful team performance

is personal satisfaction and development of team members
♦ Greater frequency of meetings may lead to

increased social interaction and feelings of warmth and respect as well as care and concern in the group

Other outputs
♦ Member satisfaction may result in tangible and

less tangible rewards ♦ Tangible rewards and recognition lead to positive reinforcement and a greater likelihood of repeating the desirable behavior ♦ Stott and Walker (1995): organizational support and rewards should be distributed to the team and not to individuals ♦ Other less tangible outputs of effective teams include the capacity to face mistakes openly and learn from them

Conclusion
♦ Teamwork is an umbrella term which is often

understood to represent the degree of co-operation that exists in teams or between teams, but more empirical research is needed to articulate the components of effective teamwork, particularly in service contexts.
♦ One approach towards unpacking this complex

concept is through the descriptive systems model

♦ while specially formulated teams perform useful

functions, management should focus on improving the team processes of naturally occurring work groups
♦ effective teamwork can be measured by individual

and group outputs which are a product of inputs and throughputs
♦ This research should incorporate the values and

attitudes of team leaders and members who seem to exert the greatest influence on team development and ultimate effectiveness

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