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Soil Liquefaction

Presented by
Liquefaction is a process by
%&ic& soil %&ic& are in saturated state
temporarily lose stren't& and be&a(e
as a (iscous liquid rat&er t&an a solid.
)&e types of sediments most
susceptible are clay*free deposits of
sand and silts+ occasionally, 'ra(el

Seismic %a(es i.e dynamic loadin' on

saturated 'ranular layers, distort t&e
'ranular structure, and cause loosely
packed 'roups of particles to collapse.

)&is increases t&e pore*%ater pressure

bet%een t&e 'rains.

)&us %&en pore*%ater pressure increases

and approac&es t&e %ei'&t of t&e
o(erlyin' soil, t&e 'ranular layer
temporarily be&a(es as a (iscous liquid
rat&er t&an a solid.
Soil 'rains in a soil deposit.
)&e &ei'&t of t&e blue
column to t&e ri'&t
represents t&e le(el of
pore%ater pressure in t&e
)&e len't& of t&e arro%s
represent t&e si.e of t&e
contact forces bet%een
indi(idual soil 'rains. )&e
contact forces are lar'e
%&en t&e pore%ater
pressure is lo%.
/bser(e &o% small t&e contact forces are because
of t&e &i'& %ater pressure. In an e0treme case, t&e
pore %ater pressure may become so &i'& t&at many
of t&e soil particles lose contact %it& eac& ot&er. In
suc& cases, t&e soil %ill &a(e (ery little stren't&,
and %ill be&a(e more like a liquid t&an a solid *
&ence, t&e name 1liquefaction1.
2e(elopment of sand boils3
Liquefaction is often accompanied by the development of
sand boils.
Seismically induced excess pore pressures are dissipated
predominantly by the upward flow of pore water.
= u, i.e z= u t&is implies iz = z
i=ic=/ w=(G-1)/(1+e)
In the field, soil conditions are rarely uniform so the escaping
pore water tends to flow at high velocity through localized
cracks or channels. Sand particles can be carried through
these channels and eected at the ground surface to form sand
Sand 4oil3 Ground %ater rus&in' to t&e
surface due to liquefaction
!ritical "oid 5atio
4e&a(ior of dense and loose soils in
monotonic strain controlled tria0ial tests
(after 6ramer, 788#$
CVR line in e-logp space

!ritical (oid ratio (aries

%it& e9ecti(e con-nin'

A critical (oid ratio (!"5$

line in e*lo'p: space
constitute t&e boundary
bet%een dilati(e and
contracti(e be&a(ior in
drained tria0ial
;lo% liquefaction surface(;LS$
E9ects of liquefaction3
It is not t&e occurrence of liquefaction t&at
is of prime importance, but its se(erity or
its capability to cause dama'e.

;lo% failures

Lateral spreads

Ground oscillation

Loss of bearin' stren't&

Increased lateral pressure on retainin'

Loss of bearin' stren't&
Lateral spread
Lique-ed soil e0erts
pressure on retainin'
Factors that governs liquefaction in

Eart&quake intensity and duration

Ground %ater table

Soil type(co&esionless soil$

5elati(e density of soil

Grain si.e distribution and particle s&ape

Loads from super structure

2raina'e condition

!on-nin' pressure
<iti'ation of liquefaction
<iti'ation tec&niques in(ol(e reducin'
t&e tendency of soil to 'enerate e0cess
pore %ater pressure durin' eart&quake
s&akin' as %ell as increasin' t&e stren't&
and sti9ness of t&e soil.
"ibro compaction3
=sed to densify clean, co&esionless
soils. )&e action of (ibrator alon' %it&
%ater >ettin' , reduces t&e inter ?
'ranular force bet%een soil particles,
allo%in' t&em to mo(e in to a denser
2eep soil mi0in' met&od3
It is t&e mec&anical blendin' of t&e in*situ
soil %it& cementitious materials. )&e
materials are lime , cement, @y as& or
combination of all.
2ynamic compaction3
It is performed by repeatedly droppin' a
&ea(y %ei'&t in a 'rid pattern on t&e
'round surface, %ei'&ts usually ran'e
from # to A0 tons.
Eart&quake drains3
)&e prefabricated drains are dri(en up to
t&e treatment dept& to maintain e0cess
pore %ater pressure less t&an #0B
Stone column
)&is consists of crus&ed coarse
a''re'ates of (arious )&ese
crus&ed a''re'ates are to be placed
into soil at di9erent inter(al t&rou'& out
t&e area of land %&ere liquefaction is to
be reduced.
It is a tec&nique %&ere by a slo%*@o%in'
%aterCsandCcement mi0 is in>ected under
pressure into o 'ranular soil. )&e 'rout
forms a bulb t&at displaces and &ence
densi-es , t&e surroundin' soil.
5eferences 3

Soil liquefaction by mike >e9eries and ken


Soil mec&anics by punmia

!ritical State Soil mec&anics ? sco-eld D




)&ank you ..