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# HEAT

EXCHANGERS
Prepared by
FKK, UITM

HEAT EXCHANGERS
A heat exchanger is used to exchange heat between two fluids of
different temperatures, which are separated by a solid wall.
Applications in heating and air conditioning, power production,
waste heat recovery, chemical processing, food processing,
sterilization in bio-processes.
Heat exchangers are classified according to flow arrangement and
type of construction.
In this chapter we will learn how our previous knowledge can be
applied to do heat exchanger calculations, discuss methodologies for
design and introduce performance parameters.

## Heat Exchanger Types

1) Parallel Flow hot and cold fluids enter at the same end, flow in the same
direction and leave at the same end.

Parallel Flow

Counterflo

## Heat Exchanger Types

2) Counter Flow hot and cold fluids enter at opposite ends, flow in
opposite directions and leave at opposite ends.

l Flow

Counterflow

## Heat Exchanger Types

3) Cross Flow hot and cold fluids perpendicular to each other
Finned Tubular Heat Exchanger (Both fluids unmixed)
the fins inhibit motion in a direction (y) that is transverse to the main flow in a direction (x)
fluids temperature varies with x and y.
Unfinned Tubular Heat Exchanger (one fluid mixed and the other unmixed)
Fluid motion mixing in the transverse direction
temperature variations are primarily in the main-flow direction

Finned-Both Fluids
Unmixed

## Unfinned- One Fluid Mixed

the Other Unmixed

## Heat Exchanger Types

4) Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

Two Tube Passes

Four Tube Passes

## Heat Exchanger Types

6) Compact Heat Exchangers

Widely used to achieve large heat rates per unit volume, particularly when one
or both fluids is a gas.
Characterized by large heat transfer surface areas per unit volume (>700
m2/m3), small flow passages, and laminar flow.

## Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient

The overall heat transfer coefficient defined in terms of the total
thermal resistance to heat transfer between two fluids
The coefficient was determined by accounting for conduction and
convection resistance between fluids separated by composite plane
and cylindrical walls, respectively
The overall heat transfer coefficient can be expressed as
1 = 1 = 1
c = cold
UA UcAc UhAh
h = hot
For tubular heat exchanger:
Conduction resistance in the wall
Convection resistance of the fluids at the inner and outer tube
surfaces
1
1
ln( Do / Di )
1

UA hi Ai
2kL
ho Ao

1
1
1

UA U i Ai U o Ao

Ai Di L

i = inner

Ao Do L

0 = outer

Fouling
Heat exchanger surfaces are subject to fouling by fluid impurities,
rust formation, or other reactions between the fluid and the wall
material.
The deposition of a film or scale on the surface can greatly increase
the resistance to heat transfer between the fluids.
An additional thermal resistance : The Fouling factor, Rf.
Depends on operating temperature, fluid velocity and length of
service of the heat exchanger.
Typical values in Table 11.1.
For unfinned tubular heat exchangers :

## R "f ,i ln(Do / Di ) R "f ,o

1
1
1

UA hi Ai
Ai
2kL
Ao
ho Ao
Rf,i = fouling factor of inner surface
Rf,o = fouling factor of outer surface

## Fin (extended surface) effects

Fins reduce the resistance to convection heat transfer, by increasing
surface area.
For finned tubular heat exchanger :

1
1
1

UA
U c Ac
U h Ah

R "f ,c

R "f , h

1
1

Rconduction

(o hA) c
(o A) c
(o A) h
(o hA) h
o = overall surface efficiency / temp. effectiveness

## OVERALL SURFACE EFFICIENCY

The quantity o is termed the overall surface efficiency or temp.
effectiveness of a finned surfaces
The heat transfer rate is :
q = o h A (Tb - T)

o = 1 Af (1 f)
Ah

f = tanh (mL)
,
mL

## Af = fin surface area

= N (2L + t)
Ah = Af + (Do 16t)
L = fin length
f = efficiency of single fin
m = (2h/kt)1/2
t = fin thickness

## HEAT EXCHANGER ANALYSIS : LOG MEAN

TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE (LMTD)
Expression for convection heat transfer
for flow of a fluid inside a tube:

c p ( Tm ,o Tm ,i )
qconv = m
For case involving constant surrounding
fluid temperature:
To Ti

lm
q U As Tlm
ln(To / Ti )
In a two-fluid heat exchanger, consider
the hot and cold fluids separately:
qh m h c p,h (Th ,i Th ,o )

qc m c c p ,c (Tc,o Tc,i )

q UA Tlm
Need to define U and Tlm

EXCHANGER

T2

T1

Thi

EXCHANGER

Parallel Flow

Thi
Tho

T1

T2

Tlm

T1 Th,i Tc,i
T2 Th,o Tc,o

Tho

Tco

q UA Tlm

T2 T1

ln(T2 / T1 )

Counterflow

T1

Tco

Tci

T2

T1

T2

q UA Tlm
Tlm

T2 T1
ln(T2 / T1 )

Tci

T1 Th,i Tc ,o
T2 Th,o Tc ,i

## HEAT EXCHANGER ANALYSIS : THE EFFECTIVENESS

NTU METHOD (- NTU METHOD)
LMTD is used when the fluid inlet temperatures are known and the
outlet temperature are specified or readily determined.
NTU is used when only the fluid inlet temperature are known
Effectiveness of a heat exchanger, is defined as the ratio of the actual
heat transfer rate for a heat exchanger to the maximum possible heat
transfer rate
= q
qmax
qmax is the maximum heat transfer rate that could possibly be delivered
by the heat exchanger
qmax = Cmin (Thi Tci)
Cmin is equal to Cc or Ch whichever is smaller
Cc < Ch
,
qmax = Cc (Thi Tci)
Ch < Cc
,
qmax = Ch (Thi Tci)
Cc = mcCPc
Heat capacity rates
Ch = mhCPh

= Ch (Thi Tho)
Cmin (Thi Tci)

= Cc (Tco Tci)
Cmin (Thi Tci)
must be in the range 0 1

if Cc < Ch

if Ch < Cc

## For any heat exchanger it can be shown that

= f (NTU , Cmin/Cmax)
NTU = f ( , Cmin/Cmax)
where Cmin/Cmax is equal to Cc/Ch or Ch/Cc
The number of transfer units (NTU) is a dimensionless parameter
that is widely used for heat exchanger analysis
NTU = UA
Cmin

## Effectiveness NTU relations for a variety of heat exchangers are

summarized in Table 11.3 and Table 11.4, where Cr is the heat capcity
ratio
Cr = Cmin/Cmax
Effectiveness, NTU relations for a variety heat exchangers also
are represented graphically in Figures 11.10 through Figure 11.15

PROBLEM 11.14
A shell and tube exchanger (two shells, four tube passes) is used to
heat 10,000 kg/h of water (cp = 4195 J/kg.K) from 35c to 120c
with 5000 kg/h pressurized water (cp = 4660 J/kg.K) entering the
exchanger at 300c. If the overall heat transfer coefficient is 1500
w/m2.K, determine the required heat exchanger area. (Assume
counter flow).
a) LMTD method (A = 4.61 m2)
b) -NTU method (A = 4.75 m2)

## Multipass and Cross-Flow Heat

Exchangers
To account for complex flow conditions in multipass,
shell and tube and cross-flow heat exchangers, the logmean temperature difference can be modified:
The appropriate form of Tlm is obtained by applying a
correction factor to the value of Tlm that would be
computed under the assumption of counterflow
conditions.

Tlm FTlm,CF
T1 Th,i Tc ,o
T2 Th,o Tc ,i

## Multipass and Cross-Flow Heat

Exchangers
To design a shell and tube heat exchanger
with one shell and any multiple of tube
passes (two, four, etc.).

F > 0.8
If F < 0.8, shell and tube heat exchanger
with two shell and any multiple of tube
passes (four, eight, etc.) can be used