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PowerPoint Slides
to accompany

Electric Machinery
Sixth Edition

A.E. Fitzgerald
Charles Kingsley, Jr.
Stephen D. Umans

Chapter 5
Synchronous Machines

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5.1 INTRODUCTION TO POLYPHASE SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES


Two types:
1-Cylindirical rotor: High speed, fuel or gas fired power plants

p n
p
fe

n
2 60 120
To produce 50 Hz electricity
p=2, n=3000 rpm
p=4, n=1500 rpm

2-Salient-pole rotor: Low speed, hydroelectric power plants


To produce 50 Hz electricity
p=12, n=500 rpm

p=24, n=250 rpm

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5.1 INTRODUCTION TO POLYPHASE SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES


How does a synchronous generator work?
1- Apply DC current to rotor winding
(field winding)
2- Rotate the shaft (rotor) with constant
speed.
3- Rotor magnetic field will create flux
linkages in stator coils and as a result
voltage will be produced because of
Faradays Law.
Why is impossible to rotate a synchronous motor when it is
connected to 50 Hz electric power?
Because before connecting to supply, the shaft speed of rotor is
zero. If the motor is two-pole, when it is connected to 50 Hz
supply it suddenly needs to rotate 3000 rpm. This is impossible
for large synchronous motors.

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5.1 INTRODUCTION TO POLYPHASE SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES


How is DC current applied to the rotor?
1- Slip Rings

Note: Magnetic field of rotor


can also be produced by
permanent magnets for
small machine applications

2- Brushless Excitation System:


Excitation supplied from ac exciter and solid rectifiers. The
alternator of the ac exciter and the rectification system are on the
rotor. The current is supplied directly to the field-winding without
the need to slip rings.

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5.1 INTRODUCTION TO POLYPHASE SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES

R FF sin RF
22

Steady-state torque equation

R : Resultant air - gap flux per pole


FF : mmf of the dc field winding

RF : electrical phase angle between RF and FF

Torque-angle characteristic.
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5.1 INTRODUCTION TO POLYPHASE SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES


Synchronous generators
work in parallel with the
interconnected system.
Frequency and voltage are
constant.
The behivor is examined
based on a generator
connected to an INFINITE BUS.

Generator

Infinite bus

f : constant
V : constant

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5.2 SYNCHRONOUS-MACHINE INDUCTANCES; EQUIVALENT CIRCUTS

a L aaia L abib L acic L af i f


b Lbaia Lbbib Lbcic Lbf i f
c L ca ia L cbib L ccic L cf i f
f L faia L fbib L fcic L ff i f
Self inductances:
Fundamental component

L aa L bb L cc Laa 0 Lal
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L ff L ff 0 L fl

Leakage flux
component

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5.2 SYNCHRONOUS-MACHINE INDUCTANCES; EQUIVALENT CIRCUTS

Mutual inductances:

L ab Lba

2
1
L ac Lca Lbc Lcb Laa0 cos
Laa0
3
2

L af L fa Laf cos me

p
me m et e0
2

L af L fa Laf cos(et e 0 )

2
Lbf L fb Laf cos(et e0 )
3
2
Lcf L fc Laf cos(et e0 )
3
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5.2 SYNCHRONOUS-MACHINE INDUCTANCES; EQUIVALENT CIRCUTS

a

b
c

f
Laf

i
1
2 a
Laa0
Laa0 Lal
Laf cos(et e0 ) i
2
3 b
1
1
2 ic
Laa0
Laa0
Laa0 Lal
Laf cos(et e0
)
2
2
3 i f

2
2
cos(et e 0 ) Laf cos(et e 0 ) Laf cos(et e0
)
L ff 0 L fl

3
3

Laa0 Lal

For balanced system

1
Laa0
2

1
Laa0
2
1
Laa0
2

Laf cos(et e 0 )

ia ib ic 0

1
a ( Laa0 Lal )ia Laa0ia L af i f
2
3
a ( Laa0 Lal ) ia L af i f
2

a Ls ia L af i f
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Ls : Defined as synchronous inductance.

It is the effective inductance seen by phase a


under steady state balanced conditions.

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5.2.4 EQUIVALENT CIRCUTS


Terminal voltage for phase a

da
d ia d (Laf i f )
d ia
va Raia
Raia Ls

Raia Ls
eaf
dt
dt
dt
dt

L af Laf cos(et e 0 )
eaf e Laf I f sin(et e 0 )

In complex form:
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E af j

Eaf

e L af I f
2

e L af I f

e j e 0

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5.2.4 EQUIVALENT CIRCUTS

Motor:

Generator:

Va Ra Ia j X s Ia E af

Va E af Ra Ia j X s Ia

Synchronous Reactance
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Synchronous-machine equivalent circuit showing airgap and leakage components of synchronous reactance
and air-gap voltage.
Figure 5.4

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Open-circuit characteristic of a synchronous machine.


Figure 5.5

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Typical form of an open-circuit core-loss curve.


Figure 5.6

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Open- and short-circuit characteristics of a synchronous


machine.
Figure 5.7

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Phasor
diagram for
short-circuit
conditions.
Figure 5.8

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Open- and
short-circuit
characteristics
showing
equivalent
magnetization
line for saturated
operating
conditions.
Figure 5.9

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Typical form of short-circuit load loss


and stray load-loss curves.
Figure 5.10

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(a) Impedance interconnecting two voltages;


(b) phasor diagram.
Figure 5.11

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Equivalent-circuit representation of a synchronous


machine connected to an external system.
Figure 5.12

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Example 5.6. (a) MATLAB plot of terminal voltage vs.


for part (b). (b) MATLAB plot of Eaf vs. power for part (c).
Figure 5.13

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Equivalent circuits and phasor diagrams for Example 5.7.


Figure 5.14

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Characteristic form of synchronous-generator


compounding curves.
Figure 5.15

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Capability curves
of an 0.85 power
factor, 0.80
short-circuit ratio,
hydrogen-cooled
turbine generator.
Base MVA is rated
MVA at 0.5 psig
hydrogen.
Figure 5.16

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Construction
used for the
derivation of a
synchronous
generator
capability curve.
Figure 5.17

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Typical form of synchronous-generator V curves.


Figure 5.18

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Losses in a
three-phase,
45-kVA,
Y-connected,
220-V, 60-Hz,
six-pole
synchronous
machine
(Example 5.8).
Figure 5.19

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Direct-axis air-gap fluxes in a salient-pole


synchronous machine.
Figure 5.20

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Quadrature-axis air-gap fluxes in a salient-pole


synchronous machine.
Figure 5.21

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Phasor diagram of a salient-pole synchronous generator.


Figure 5.22

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Phasor diagram for a synchronous generator showing


the relationship between the voltages and the currents.
Figure 5.23

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Relationships between component


voltages in a phasor diagram.
Figure 5.24

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Generator phasor diagram for Example 5.9.


Figure 5.25

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Salient-pole synchronous machine and series impedance:


(a) single-line diagram and (b) phasor diagram.
Figure 5.26

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Power-angle characteristic of a salient-pole synchronous


machine showing the fundamental component due to
field excitation and the second-harmonic component due
to reluctance torque.
Figure 5.27

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(a) Single-line diagram and (b) phasor diagram for motor


of Example 5.11.
Figure 5.28

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Schematic
diagram of a
three-phase
permanentmagnet ac
machine. The
arrow indicates
the direction
of rotor
magnetization.
Figure 5.29

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