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IAEA Training Material on Radiation Protection in Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology

RADIATION PROTECTION IN
DIAGNOSTIC AND
INTERVENTIONAL RADIOLOGY
L 5: Interaction of radiation with matter

IAEA
International Atomic Energy Agency

Topics







Introduction to the atomic basic structure
Quantities and units
Bremsstrahlung production
Characteristic X Rays
Primary and secondary ionization
Photo-electric effect and Compton scattering
Beam attenuation and half value thickness
Principle of radiological image formation
IAEA

5: Interaction of radiation with matter

Overview
• To become familiar with the basic
knowledge in radiation physics and image
formation process.

IAEA

5: Interaction of radiation with matter

IAEA Training Material on Radiation Protection in Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology

Part 5: Interaction of radiation with
matter
Topic 1: Introduction to the atomic basic structure

IAEA
International Atomic Energy Agency

Electromagnetic spectrum
E
1.5

0.12 keV 1

3 eV

IR light

8000 4000

10

102

103

104

X and  rays

UV

100

10

1

0.1

IR: infrared, UV = ultraviolet
IAEA

keV

5: Interaction of radiation with matter

0.01 0.001
Angström

6 10-19 C) • neutrons with no charge (neutral) • number of nucleons = mass number A • The extranuclear structure • Z electrons (light particles with electric charge) • equal to proton charge but negative • The atom is normally electrically neutral IAEA 5: Interaction of radiation with matter .The atomic structure • The nuclear structure • protons and neutrons = nucleons • Z protons with a positive electric charge • (1.

IAEA Training Material on Radiation Protection in Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology Part 5: Interaction of radiation with matter Topic 2: Quantities and units IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency .

001 C IAEA 5: Interaction of radiation with matter .Basic units in physics (SI system) • • • • • Time: 1 second [s] Length: 1 meter [m] Mass: 1 kilogram [kg] Energy: 1 joule [J] Electric charge: 1 coulomb [C] • Other quantities and units • Power: 1 watt [W] (1 J/s) • 1 mAs = 0.

672 10-27 kg IAEA 5: Interaction of radiation with matter .Quantities and units • electron-volt [eV]: • • • • 1.603 10-19 J 1 keV = 103 eV 1 MeV = 106 eV 1 electric charge: 1.6 10-19 C mass of proton: 1.

Atom characteristics A.1 keV Tungsten A = 183 Z = 74 EK= 69.6 keV IAEA 5: Interaction of radiation with matter .5 keV Uranium A = 238 Z = 92 EK= 115.6 eV Carbon A = 12 Z=6 EK= 283 eV Phosphor A = 31 Z = 15 EK= 2. Z and associated quantities • • • • • Hydrogen A=1 Z=1 EK= 13.

IAEA Training Material on Radiation Protection in Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology Part 5: Interaction of radiation with matter Topic 3: Bremsstrahlung production IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency .

IAEA 5: Interaction of radiation with matter .Electron-nucleus interaction (I) • Bremsstrahlung: • radiative energy loss (E) by electrons slowing down on passage through a material •  is the deceleration of the incident electron by the nuclear Coulomb field •  radiation energy (E) (photon) is emitted.

Electrons strike the nucleus N N Bremsstrahlung spectrum E E n(E) n1E1 n2E2 n3E3 n1 n2 n3 E1 E2 IAEA Emax E1 E3 E2 E3 5: Interaction of radiation with matter .

Electron-nucleus interaction (II) • With materials of high atomic number • the energy loss is higher • The energy loss by Bremsstrahlung • > 99% of kinetic E loss as heat production. it increases with increasing electron energy • X Rays are dominantly produced by Bremsstrahlung IAEA 5: Interaction of radiation with matter .

Bremsstrahlung continuous spectrum • Energy (E) of Bremsstrahlung photons may take any value between “zero” and the maximum kinetic energy of incident electrons • Number of photons as a function of E is proportional to 1/E • Thick target  continuous linear spectrum IAEA 5: Interaction of radiation with matter .

Bremsstrahlung spectra dN/dE (spectral density) E0 E From a “thin” target dN/dE E0 E From a “thick” target E0= energy of electrons. E = energy of emitted photons IAEA 5: Interaction of radiation with matter .

X Ray spectrum energy • Maximum energy of Bremsstrahlung photons • kinetic energy of incident electrons • In X Ray spectrum of radiology installations: • Max (energy) = Energy at X Ray tube peak voltage E Bremsstrahlung 50 100 150 200 IAEA Bremsstrahlung after filtration keV keV 5: Interaction of radiation with matter .

Ionization and associated energy transfers • Example: electrons in water • ionization energy: 16 eV (for a water molecule • other energy transfers associated to ionization • excitations (each requires only a few eV) • thermal transfers (at even lower energy) • W = 32 eV is the average loss per ionization • it is characteristic of the medium • independent of incident particle and of its energy IAEA 5: Interaction of radiation with matter .

IAEA Training Material on Radiation Protection in Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology Part 5: Interaction of radiation with matter Topic 4: Characteristic X Rays IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency .

…) by ionization e.Spectral distribution of characteristic X Rays (I) • Starts with ejection of e.from L or M shell fall into the vacancy created in the k shell Energy difference is emitted as photons A sequence of successive electron transitions between energy levels Energy of emitted photons is characteristic of the atom IAEA 5: Interaction of radiation with matter .mainly from k shell (also • • • • possible for L. M.

Spectral distribution of characteristic X Rays (II) Energy (eV) K1 100 .11000 .2800 .20 .70 .69510 80 P O N M L 6 5 4 3 2 40 L L 20 K 0 IAEA K2 60 0 K2 L 10 20 K1 30 40 5: Interaction of radiation with matter 50 60 70 80 (keV) .590 .

IAEA Training Material on Radiation Protection in Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology Part 5: Interaction of radiation with matter Topic 5: Primary and secondary ionization IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency .

Stopping power • • • • • • Loss of energy along track through both collisions and Bremsstrahlung The linear stopping power of the medium S = E / x [MeV.cm-1] • • E: energy loss x: element of track for distant collisions: the lower the electron energy. the higher the amount transferred most Bremsstrahlung photons are of low energy collisions (hence ionization) are the main source of energy loss except at high energies or in media of high Z IAEA 5: Interaction of radiation with matter .

Linear Energy Transfer • Biological effectiveness of ionizing • • radiation Linear Energy Transfer (LET): amount of energy transferred to the medium per unit of track length of the particle Unit: e. [keV.g.m-1] IAEA 5: Interaction of radiation with matter .

IAEA Training Material on Radiation Protection in Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology Part 5: Interaction of radiation with matter Topic 6: Photoelectric effect and Compton scattering IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency .

Photoelectric effect • • • • • Incident photon with energy h  all photon energy absorbed by a tightly bound orbital electron • • ejection of electron from the atom Kinetic energy of ejected electron: E = h .EB Condition: h > EB (electron binding energy) Recoil of the residual atom Attenuation (or interaction) coefficient  photoelectric absorption coefficient IAEA 5: Interaction of radiation with matter .

Factors influencing photoelectric effect • Photon energy (h) > electron binding energy EB • The probability of interaction decreases as h increases • It is the main effect at low photon energies • The probability of interaction increases with Z3 (Z: atomic number) • High-Z materials are strong X Ray absorber IAEA 5: Interaction of radiation with matter .

Compton scattering • Interaction between photon and electron • h = Ea + Es (energy is conserved) • Ea: energy transferred to the atom • Es: energy of the scattered photon • momentum is conserved in angular distributions • At low energy. most of initial energy is scattered • ex: Es > 80% (h) if h <1 keV • Increasing Z  increasing probability of interaction. Compton is practically independent of Z in diagnostic range • The probability of interaction decreases as h increases IAEA 5: Interaction of radiation with matter .

Compton scattering and tissue density • Variation of Compton effect according to: • energy (related to X Ray tube kV) and material • lower E  Compton scattering process  1/E • Increasing E  decreasing photon deviation angle • Mass attenuation coefficient  constant with Z • effect proportional to the electron density in the medium • small variation with atomic number (Z) IAEA 5: Interaction of radiation with matter .

IAEA Training Material on Radiation Protection in Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology Part 5: Interaction of radiation with matter Topic 7: Beam attenuation and Half value thickness IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency .

Exponential attenuation law of photons (I) • Any interaction  change in photon energy and or direction • Accounts for all effects: Compton. photoelectric.m-3]: material density IAEA 5: Interaction of radiation with matter .kg-1]: mass attenuation coefficient •  [kg.… • • dI/I = . dx Ix = I0 exp (- x) • I: number of photons per unit area per second [s-1] • : the linear attenuation coefficient [m-1] •  / [m2.

Attenuation coefficients Linear attenuation depends on: • characteristics of the medium (density ) • photon beam energy Mass attenuation coefficient:  / [m2kg-1] • •  / same for water and water vapor (different )  / similar for air and water (different µ) IAEA 5: Interaction of radiation with matter .

Attenuation of an heterogeneous beam • Various energies  No more exponential attenuation • Progressive elimination of photons through the matter • Lower energies preferentially • This effect is used in the design of filters  Beam hardening effect IAEA 5: Interaction of radiation with matter .

Half Value Layer (HVL) • • • • • • • • HVL: thickness reducing beam intensity by 50% Definition holds strictly for monoenergetic beams Heterogeneous beam  hardening effect I/I0 = 1/2 = exp (-µ HVL) HVL = 0.693 / µ HVL depends on material and photon energy HVL characterizes beam quality  modification of beam quality through filtration  HVL (filtered beam)  HVL (beam before filter) IAEA 5: Interaction of radiation with matter .

Photon interactions with matter Scattered photon Compton effect Secondary photons Fluorescence photon (Characteristic radiation) Annihilation photon Incident photons Non interacting photons Recoil electron Secondary electrons Photoelectron (Photoelectric effect) Electron pair E > 1.02 MeV IAEA (simplified representation) 5: Interaction of radiation with matter .

5 MeV) IAEA 5: Interaction of radiation with matter .Dependence on Z and photon energy • Z < 10  predominating Compton effect • higher Z increase photoelectric effect • at low E: photoelectric effect predominates in bone compared to soft tissue • (total photon absorption) • contrast products  photoelectric absorption high Z (Barium 56. Iodine 53) • use of photoelectric absorption in radiation protection ex: lead (Z = 82) for photons (E > 0.

IAEA Training Material on Radiation Protection in Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology Part 5: Interaction of radiation with matter Topic 8: Principle of radiological image formation IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency .

IAEA 5: Interaction of radiation with matter .X Ray penetration and attenuation in human tissues Attenuation of an X Ray beam: • air: negligible • bone: significant due to relatively high density (atom mass number of Ca) • soft tissue (e. muscle. ): similar to water • fat tissue: less important than water • lungs: weak due to density • bones can allow to visualize lung structures with higher kVp (reducing photoelectric effect) • body cavities are made visible by means of contrast products (iodine.. barium).g..

X Ray penetration in human tissues 60 kV .50 mAs IAEA 70 kV .50 mAs 80 kV .50 mAs 5: Interaction of radiation with matter .

X Ray penetration in human tissues Improvement of image contrast (lung) IAEA 5: Interaction of radiation with matter .

X Ray penetration in human tissues Improvement of image contrast (bone) IAEA 5: Interaction of radiation with matter .

X Ray penetration in human tissues 70 kV .50 mAs 70 kV .80 mAs 5: Interaction of radiation with matter .25 mAs IAEA 70 kV .

X Ray penetration in human tissues IAEA 5: Interaction of radiation with matter .

X Ray penetration in human tissues IAEA 5: Interaction of radiation with matter .

etc.Purpose of using contrast media • To make visible soft tissues normally transparent to X Rays • To enhance the contrast within a specific organ • To improve the image quality • Main used substances • Barium: abdominal parts • Iodine: urography. angiography. IAEA 5: Interaction of radiation with matter .

X Ray absorption characteristics of iodine.1 20 IAEA 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 5: Interaction of radiation with matter . barium and body soft tissue X Ray ATTENUATION COEFFICIENT (cm2 g-1) 100 10 1 (keV) 0.

30 keV) • The photoelectric effect predominates •  main contributor to image formation on the radiographic film IAEA 5: Interaction of radiation with matter . at low energies (E< 25 .Photoelectric absorption and radiological image • In soft or fat tissues (close to water).

1 Compton + Coherent Photoelectric 0.0 Total 0.X Ray ATTENUATION COEFFICIENT (cm2 g-1) Contribution of photoelectric and Compton interactions to attenuation of X Rays in water (muscle) 10 1.01 20 IAEA 40 60 80 100 120 5: Interaction of radiation with matter (keV) 140 .

01 IAEA Compton + Coherent Photoelectric 20 40 60 80 100 120 5: Interaction of radiation with matter (keV) 140 .0 Total 0.Contribution of photoelectric and Compton interactions to attenuation of X Rays in bone X Ray ATTENUATION COEFFICIENT (cm2 g-1) 10 1.1 0.

barium IAEA 5: Interaction of radiation with matter .X Ray penetration in human tissues • Higher kVp reduces photoelectric effect • The image contrast is lowered • Bones and lungs structures can simultaneously be visualized Note: body cavities can be made visible by means of contrast media: iodine.

Effect of Compton scattering Effects of scattered radiation on: • image quality • patient absorbed energy • scattered radiation in the room IAEA 5: Interaction of radiation with matter .

• Electrons and photons have different types of interactions with matter • Two different forms of X Rays production Bremsstrahlung and characteristic radiation contribute to the image formation process. IAEA 5: Interaction of radiation with matter . • Photoelectric and Compton effects have a significant influence on the image quality.Summary • The elemental parts of the atom constituting both the nucleus and the extranucleus structure can be schematically represented.

IL: Charles C. NY: John Wiley & Sons. Springfield. Introduction to radiological physics and radiation dosimetry. Cunningham JR. New York. Thomas. 1991.Where to Get More Information (1) • Part 2: Lecture on “Radiation quantities and Units” • Attix FH. Solution to selected problems form the physics of radiology 4th edition. 1986. • Johns HE. IAEA 5: Interaction of radiation with matter . 607 pp. ISBN 0-47101-146-0.

Malabar. IAEA 5: Interaction of radiation with matter . • Evans RD. Understanding Radiation. Kriege. Madison. ISBN 0-944838-62-6. 1995. FL: R. The atomic nucleus. WI: Medical Physics Publishing. 1982 (originally 1955) ISBN 0-89874-414-8.Where to Get More Information (2) • Wahlstrom B.E.