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Liliane Luwaga MOH

Presentation outline

Message development process
Issue selection
Selection of channel
Type of materials
Audience segmentation
The 7 Cs
Characteristics of effective communication

Health Education helps people make informed
choices about their health
Health information must be presented in an
understandable form
The same ideas/facts can be conveyed in different
The choice of presentation depends on the
audience and method of communication
NB: Effective communication requires a method

A message is a statement that contains the
substance of what is to be communicated to
an identified audience
Defines the issue
States the problem solution
Describes the action needed
Gives the benefit

Message development
Message development is a process
Messages are developed within the Strategic
communication framework
Messages have to be targeted
Effective messages are often based on research
Messages must be packaged appropriately

Message development process

Materials development is a collaborative and
participatory process
Conceptualisation is based on information
obtained from audience
Materials and message are pre-tested with the
target audience to ensure appropriateness
Material development combines art and

Selection of an issue

What is the health problem/issue?

Who is affected?
What do people know about the problem/issue?
What else do they need to know to take action?
Who should have this information?
Who else needs information to help the affected

Selection of packaging
How best can this message be communicated
to the selected target audience?
Choice is based on audience characteristics.
Literate or illiterate, children, adults, health
professional, policy makers, e.t.c.

Types of educational material

Print materials: Posters;
brochures/leaflets/fliers/pamphlets; booklets,
collaterals; newspaper announcements/articles,

newsletters; flipcharts, press releases/statements

Electronic materials video films; radio spots and

radio announcements,

Audience segmentation
Primary the most affected
Secondary have an influence on
the primary audience
Tertiary- can influence policy

The Seven Cs of Effective

Communication occurs when a message is
transmitted and received.
An effective message should meet the seven Cs
Command attention
Cater for the heart and head
Clarify the idea being communicated
Communicates a benefit
Create trust
Calls for action

Command attention
-Only messages that are noticed and remembered
can be effective.
-Effective messages should attract attention and elicit comment
while at the but remain sensitive to cultural context, social
values, and political priorities.
If you love them, plan for them (Philippines Slogan).

Cater to the heart and head

Messages must appeal to the audience.
A message that arouses emotion is effective
because people learn better when their
emotions are aroused.
Emotional appeals usually involve story telling
reflecting the situation and the feeling of an

Clarify the idea

A message should convey a single important
idea and make it clear so that the target
audience can understand it.

Communicate a benefit
People need a strong motive to adopt change
such as a personal benefit.
Benefits range from - good health, beauty, sex
appeal, financial security, or a happier life.

Create trust
A message that people will act on willingly must come from
sources that they trust. If the promise of a future benefit
does not come from a credible source people will not believe

E.g. Most health messages are attributed to the Ministry of

Health to establish trust of the target audience.
This is a message from the Ministry of Health.

Call for action

Once convinced that the promised benefit is worth pursuing,
people need to know how to act on this benefit-where to go,
whom to call, what to buy e.t.c.
Directives should be clearly stated. Without a specific cue to
action, people may hear, understand, and even approve of a
message but still take no action.

Repetition of a message is essential.
A message that is repeated many times, perhaps with
variations but always with basic consistency becomes familiar
and people come to recognize and understand it without
having to stop to think.
As it gains recognition it also reaches wider and more diverse
A good message should be used and reused until people know
what it stands for without seeing the name of the product.

Characteristics of effective messages

Appropriate language

Content consistent with format

Credible messenger
Tone and language consistent with the message
(serious, humorous etc)

Key take home messages

Format -One key message concept
Guidelines simple text

Issue: e.g. High incidence of child battering

Solution: Putting a law in place will stop this evil
Communication objective: e.g. To reduce incidences of child
Target audience:
Primary: Local Leaders
Secondary: Parents, Teachers

Message: Join us to help stop this evil

Protect children from battering. They need your help to become
useful to your community and to themselves
Action: Enact a law on child battering
Benefit: A happy and prosperous community

Thanks for listening