James Tooley, Newcastle University

Justified roles for the state
Funding

Regulation

Provision

Two decades’ work
Filling in that table

Justified roles for the state
Funding

Regulation

Provision

Evidence for the proposition
 Grassroots Privatisation

 Historical

Gulf of Kutch

Lagos, Nigeria

27

South Sudan

Sierra Leone

Somaliland

95% confidence interval.
Parameter
Base Case
Constant
Pupil Variance
School Variance
-2*log likelihood:
Final Model(3)
Fixed Part
Constant
School Coefficients
For Profit
Non Profit
School Assisted by Gov't
Low Cost
School Basic Facilities Factor
Class Mean Standardised IQ
Teachers Experience
Children in Class
School Advanced Facilities
Pupil Coefficients
IQs
Pupil is a Girl
Age
Mother's Education Factor
Mother is Housewife
Mother is Professional
Father's Education Factor
Household Modern Wealth
Total Family Members
Interaction Terms
profiq
nprofiq
profage
profsex
lowcostgirl
Pupil Variance
School Variance
-2*log likelihood:

Estimate

Standard
Error

Sig at 5%

Min

Max

99.5
134.17
57.216
22951.06

0.705
3.588
7.933

*
*
*

98.1182
127.1375
41.66732

100.8818
141.2025
72.76468

49.895

8.91

*

32.4314

67.3586

6.84
7.386
-3.778
4.151
0.17
0.178
0.137
0.041
0.127

1.613
1.782
1.541
2.147
0.05
0.06
0.052
0.023
0.069

*
*
*

3.67852
3.89328
-6.79836
-0.05712
0.072
0.0604
0.03508
-0.00408
-0.00824

10.00148
10.87872
-0.75764
8.35912
0.268
0.2956
0.23892
0.08608
0.26224

0.062
-3.936
-0.479
0.044
1.002
1.564

0.04
0.5
0.173
0.024
0.45
0.918

-0.0164
-4.916
-0.81808
-0.00304
0.12
-0.23528

0.1404
-2.956
-0.13992
0.09104
1.884
3.36328

0.04
-0.051

0.026
0.022

-0.01096
-0.09412

0.09096
-0.00788

0.193
0.093
-0.618
1.827
2.298
123.077
27.729
22627.84

0.049
0.049
0.356
0.962
1.781
3.289
4.228

0.09696
-0.00304
-1.31576
-0.05852
-1.19276
116.6306
19.44212

0.28904
0.18904
0.07976
3.71252
5.78876
129.5234
36.01588

*
*
*

*
*
*

*
*

*
*

Predicted standardised scores
115

110

105

100

95

90

85

80

Government

Assisted Non-profit Assisted For profit

Non-profit

Boys

Girls

For profit

Low cost non-profit Low cost for profit

Doe Community:
Fees are higher in private…
Total fees

7000

6000

5000

4000

3000

2000

1000

0

Government

Private

Mean total education costs
18000
16000
14000
12000
10000
8000
6000
4000
2000
0
Fees total per annum

Other costs total per annum

Government

Combined fees and other costs

Private

Sending a child to government school is 75% the cost of sending to private

39

300,000 low cost private
schools across India

80,000 low cost private
schools across Anglophone
West Africa

Pay-As-You-Learn
Education
Doing Good and Doing Well

Every Child Matters

@james_tooley

@james_tooley

Punjab Private Schools Organisation

Stanford Social Innovation Review
 “We don’t want you to shy away from being an

advocate for low cost private schools.... But, in the
developed world we believe that the government
is responsible for providing educational
opportunities to all citizens. Why shouldn’t one
expect the same of governments in the developing
world?”

Historically, we
needed the state to
get education going
Completely untrue

Historical issues – Professor E.G. West

The Galloping Horses
 Newcastle Commission (1861) – in England, only 4.5%

of the school-aged population not in school
 Forster’s Education Act (1870) – explicitly to ‘fill in the
gaps’ left by private provision. Explicitly not for
universal state provision.

Privatisation
 Two models

The Supplicant
Model
Vouchers, charter schools,
free schools, etc.

Voucher and similar programmes – US to date

Number of
Age
5 to 17 years

children
53,760,195

"School Choice" programs - demand side

% of 5 to 17

reforms
Voucher programs

years
104,919

0.20%

151,165

0.28%

Education savings accounts

362

0.00%

Total demand-side reforms

256,446

0.48%

Charter schools

2,300,000

4.28%

Total "School Choice" programs

2,556,446

4.76%

Tax-credit scholarship programs

"School Choice" programs - supply side
reforms

Spontaneous order education – US to date

Number of
children
Age
5 to 17 years

(2013)
53,760,195

% of 5 to
17 years
Total "School Choice" programs

2,556,446

4.76%

Private schools

6,000,000

11.16%

Homeschooling

1,500,000

2.79%

Total Self-organising/spontaneous order

7,500,000

13.95%

Self-organising/spontaneous order "school

choice"

RATIO of "school choice" to "School Choice"

2.9

Just Do It

Grassroots
privatisation,
chains of
private schools,
education
learning giants

Education Brands
From India and China