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jpg)

adapted from http://www.labinitio.com (nz302.jpg)

Today’s lecture is brought to you by the letter P.

http://www.labinitio.com (nz288.jpg)

Announcements

There is lots of nice math in chapter 32! This lecture calls

your attention to those parts of the chapter that you need to

know for exams. Keep this lecture in mind when you study

chapter 32.

** Exam 3 is the second Tuesday after Spring Break. I will need
**

to know by the Wednesday after Spring Break of any students

who have special needs different than for exam 2.

Exam 3 will cover material through the end of today’s lecture.

Material presented in lecture during the first week after Spring

Break will be covered on the final exam.

Review and Note! These say “integrate over a surface (which has an area) that encloses (and defines) some volume:” q encl 0 E dA 0 B dA These say “integrate over a line (which has a length) that encloses (and defines) some surface:” B ds = μ 0 I dB E ds = .dt Note: All of these mean “average:” <S> Saverage Sav Savg .

rarely in the course of human events have so many starting equations been given in so little time . Momentum and Radiation Pressure of an Electromagnetic Wave. Energy Carried by Electromagnetic Waves.Today’s agenda: Electromagnetic Waves.

These time-varying electric and magnetic fields can propagate through space. Also a changing electric field gives rise to a magnetic field. . and the magnetic field due to a constant current.We began this course by studying fields that didn’t vary with time—the electric field due to static charges. In case you didn’t notice—about a half dozen lectures ago things started moving! We found that changing magnetic field gives rise to an electric field.

E 0 B 0 dB ×E=dt 1 dE B= 2 +μ 0 J c dt .Electromagnetic Waves Maxwell’s Equations q enclosed E dA o d B E ds dt B dA 0 dΦE B ds=μ0Iencl +μ 0ε0 dt These four equations provide a complete description of electromagnetism.

Production of Electromagnetic Waves Apply a sinusoidal voltage to an antenna. y x z direction of propagation . The fields do not instantaneously permeate all space. but propagate at the speed of light. which extend throughout space. The accelerated charges produce sinusoidally varying electric and magnetic fields. Charged particles in the antenna oscillate sinusoidally.

available on-line: http://www. .php?topic=35 Here is a movie.edu.y x direction of propagation z This static image doesn’t show how the wave propagates.ntnu.phy.tw/ntnujava/index. Here is an animation.

but are not mechanical waves (they need no medium to vibrate in). the magnitudes of E and B (of the wave shown) depend only upon x and t.Electromagnetic waves are transverse waves. electromagnetic waves can propagate in free space. A collection of such waves is called a plane wave. y x z direction of propagation . and not on y or z. At any point. Therefore.

and Emax and Bmax are the electric and magnetic field amplitudes f = = c. k You can verify this by direct substitution.Manipulation of Maxwell’s equations leads to the following Equations on this slide are for waves plane wave equations for E and B: propagating along x-direction. t) 2B z 2B z (x. 2E y x 2 = 0 0 2E y (x. = 2f .t) = 0 0 2 x t 2 t 2 These equations have solutions: Ey =Emax sin kx .t Bz =Bmax sin kx . Emax and Bmax in these notes are sometimes written by others as E0 and B0.t where 2 k= . .

t Emax E 1 = = =c= . Bmax B k 0 0 At every instant.t =Bmax cos kx . . the ratio of the magnitude of the electric field to the magnitude of the magnetic field in an electromagnetic wave equals the speed of light.You can also show that E y B z =x t Emax k cos kx .

y direction of propagation x z Emax (amplitude) E(x.t) .

Ey =Emax sin kx . Emax and Bmax are the electric and magnetic field amplitudes.t Electromagnetic waves travel through empty space with the speed of light c = 1/(00)½.Summary of Important Properties of Electromagnetic Waves The solutions of Maxwell’s equations are wave-like with both E and B satisfying a wave equation. .t Bz =Bmax sin kx .

The latter property says that EM waves are transverse waves.Summary of Important Properties of Electromagnetic Waves The components of the electric and magnetic fields of plane EM waves are perpendicular to each other and perpendicular to the direction of wave propagation. Emax E = = =c Spring 2012: B max B k slide 19 next . y x direction of propagation z The magnitudes of E and B in empty space are related by E/B = c.

.Possible Homework Hints (may not be needed every semester) The speed of light in a nonconducting medium other than a vacuum is less than c: 1 v= m0 0 where is the relative dielectric constant (remember it from capacitors?) and m is called the “relative permeability” of the medium. 1 Because c = 0 0 c . and replace 0 by 0 and 0 by m0. but you have permission to use them for tomorrow’s homework (if needed): use v for the wave speed. you can show that v = m These equations are not on your equation sheet.

Possible Homework Hints Satellite: (may not be needed every semester) mv 2 GmMearth F= = R R2 2R v= T Solve the above to get the distance R of the satellite from the center of the earth. Gravitational force of sun: GmMsun F= R2 .38x106 m to get the height of the satellite above the ground. then subtract 6.

Possible Homework Hints (may not be needed every semester) For problem 32. You don’t need to calculate this height.53. the satellite orbits at a height of 2. just use the number above .02x107 m above the ground.

Today’s agenda: Electromagnetic Waves. Momentum and Radiation Pressure of an Electromagnetic Wave. Energy Carried by Electromagnetic Waves. .

. Thus.Energy Carried by Electromagnetic Waves Electromagnetic waves carry energy. *J. The rate of flow of energy in an electromagnetic wave is described by a vector S.* S= 1 E B 0 The magnitude S represents the rate at which energy flows through a unit surface area perpendicular to the direction of wave propagation. 1884. Poynting. The direction of S is along the direction of wave propagation. and as they propagate through space they can transfer energy to objects in their path. The units of S are J/(s·m2) =W/m2. called the Poynting vector. S represents power per unit area. H.

0 c 0 These equations for S apply at any instant of time and represent the instantaneous rate at which energy is passing through a unit area. .y E B z For an EM wave E B =EB EB so S = . 0 1 S = E B 0 S c x Because B = E/c we can write E2 cB2 S= = .

so 2 2 EmaxBmax Emax cBmax I = Saverage = S = = = 20 20c 20 Notice the 2’s in this equation. This equation is the same as 32-29 in your text. using c = 1/(00)½. The time average of sin2(kx .t) is ½.EB E2 cB2 S= = = 0 0 c 0 EM waves are sinusoidal. Ey =Emax sin kx .t Bz =Bmax sin kx .t EM wave propagating along x-direction The average of S over one or more cycles is called the wave intensity I. .

energy power time I= S = = area area average average Note: Saverage and <S> mean the same thing! .The magnitude of S is the rate at which energy is transported by a wave across a unit area at any instant: energy power time S= = area area instantaneous instantaneous Thus.

Energy Density The energy densities (energy per unit volume) associated with electric and magnetic fields are: 1 B2 uB = 2 0 1 uE = 0E2 2 Using B = E/c and c = 1/(00)½ we can write E 1 B2 1 c uB = = 2 0 2 0 2 1 0 0E2 1 = = 0E2 2 0 2 1 1 B2 2 uB = uE = 0E = 2 2 0 remember: E and B are sinusoidal functions of time .

The total energy density is equal to the sum of the energy densities associated with the electric and magnetic fields: B2 2 u = uB +uE = 0E = 0 . in a given volume the energy is equally shared by the two fields. the instantaneous energy density associated with the magnetic field equals the instantaneous energy density associated with the electric field. Hence.1 1 B2 2 uB = uE = 0E = 2 2 0 For an electromagnetic wave.

Spring 2012: slide 29 next . we again get a factor of ½ from the time average of sin2(kx .t).2 B u = uB +uE = 0E2 = 0 When we average this instantaneous energy density over one or more cycles of an electromagnetic wave. uB = . 2 1 1 Bmax 2 uE = 0Emax . and 4 4 0 2 B 1 1 2 max u = 0Emax = 2 2 0 2 2 1 Emax 1 cBmax Recall Saverage = S = = so we see that S = c u . 2 0 c 2 0 The intensity of an electromagnetic wave equals the average energy density multiplied by the speed of light.

23 “…also calculate the energy density due to the electric and magnetic fields…” …this means calculate the average energy densities 1 2 uE = 0Emax . 4 0 Not assigned this semester. .Homework Clarification Problem 32. 4 2 1 Bmax uB = .

Quiz 8. .

find the amplitude of the electric and magnetic fields detected by a satellite 100 km from the antenna.00 10 m 4 5 2 = 7. .Example: a radio station on the surface of the earth radiates a sinusoidal wave with an average total power of 50 kW.96 10-7 W m2 Today’s lecture is brought to you by the letter P. Assuming the wave is radiated equally in all directions above the ground.00 10 W = 2 1. All the radiated power passes through the hemispherical surface* so the average power per unit area (the intensity) is Satellite R Station P power I= = 2 area average 2R 5. *In problems like this you need to ask whether the power is radiated into all space or into just part of space.

17 10-11 T 8 3 10 m s .45 10-2 V m = 8.45 10-2 V Emax Bmax = = c m 2.96 10-7 = 2.2 1 Emax I= S = 2 0 c Satellite R Emax = 20cI Station = 2 4 10-7 3 108 7.

Example: for the radio station in the example on the previous two slides.85 10 2.33 10 -15 J m3 .33 10 -15 J m3 -11 2 uB =1.17 10 uB = 4 4 10-7 uE =1. calculate the average energy densities associated with the electric and magnetic field. 1 2 uE = 0Emax 4 2 1 Bmax uB = 4 0 1 -12 -2 2 uE = 8.45 10 4 1 8.

. Momentum and Radiation Pressure of an Electromagnetic Wave. Energy Carried by Electromagnetic Waves.Today’s agenda: Electromagnetic Waves.

Momentum and Radiation Pressure EM waves carry linear momentum as well as energy. If we assume that EM radiation is incident on an object for a time t and that the radiation is entirely absorbed by the object. Today’s lecture is brought to you by the letter P. When this momentum is absorbed at a surface pressure is exerted on that surface. . then the object gains energy U in time t. Maxwell showed that the momentum change of the object is then: U p = (total absorption) c incident The direction of the momentum change of the object is in the direction of the incident radiation.

.If instead of being totally absorbed the radiation is totally reflected by the object. then the magnitude of the momentum change of the object is twice that for total absorption. and the reflection is along the incident path. incident reflected 2U p = c (total reflection along incident path) The direction of the momentum change of the object is again in the direction of the incident radiation.

Radiation Pressure The radiation pressure on the object is defined as the force per unit area: F P= A From Newton’s 2nd F 1 dp Law (F = dp/dt) we have: P = = A A dt U For total absorption.) . p = c dU 1 dp 1 d U 1 dt S = = So P = = A dt A dt c c A c incident (Equations on this slide involve magnitudes of vector quantities.

. This is not on your equation sheet but you have special permission to use it in tomorrow’s homework. if necessary.This is the instantaneous radiation pressure in the case of total absorption: S P= c For the average radiation pressure. Today’s lecture is brought to you by the letter P. replace S by <S>=Savg=I: Prad = S average c I = c Electromagnetic waves also carry momentum through space with a momentum density of Saverage/c2=I/c2.

I Prad = (total absorption) c incident absorbed Using the arguments above it can also be shown that: 2I Prad = (total reflection) c incident reflected .

4 kW/m2.9 10 N Caution! The letter P (or p) has been used in this lecture for power. The intensity (I or Saverage) of sunlight prior to passing through the earth’s atmosphere is 1. Power = IA = 1. and momentum! That’s because today’s lecture is brought to you by the letter P.Example: a satellite orbiting the earth has solar energy collection panels with a total area of 4.4 103 W m2 2 3 4.7 10-6 N m 2 m = 4.4 103 W c 3 108 m F =PradA = 4.6 kW Assuming total absorption of the radiation: Prad = Saverage c I = = 1.6 10 W =5. pressure.0 m =5.7 10 Pa 2 s -6 2 -5 4.0 m =1.0 m2. If the sun’s radiation is incident perpendicular to the panels and is completely absorbed find the average solar power absorbed and the average force associated with the radiation pressure. .

f = = c k 2 1 1 Bmax 2 u = 0Emax = 2 2 0 U 2U p = or c c I 2I Prad = or c c There are even more on your starting equation sheet.New starting equations from this lecture: 1 S = E B 0 2 2 1 Emax 1 cBmax Saverage = = 2 0 c 2 0 Emax E 1 = =c= Bmax B 00 1 1 B2 2 uB = uE = 0E = 2 2 0 2 k = . they are derived from the above! . = 2f .

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