Multiple Access Control

ALOHA Protocol
Presented by:
Manisha Kaura
M.Tech (ECE)

.Content  Introduction-MAC  Functions performed in MAC layer  MAC Address  Channel allocations  Static channel allocation  Queen theory  Dynamic channel allocation  ALOHA protocol  Advantages and disadvantages of ALOHA.

 The hardware that implements the MAC is referred to as a ‘medium access controller’.Introduction  The MAC sub layer provides addressing and channel access control mechanisms that make it possible for several terminals or network nodes to communicate within a multiple access network that incorporates a shared medium. Ethernet. e.g. .

Figure a Data link layer divided into two functionality-oriented sublayers Responsible for error and flow control Link Layer Control (LLC) Control Responsible framing and MAC address and Multiple Access Control .

 Control of access to the physical transmission medium.  Addressing of destination stations (both as individual stations and as groups of stations). .  Protection against errors. generally by means of generating and checking frame check sequences.  Conveyance of source-station addressing information.Functions performed in MAC layer  Frame delimiting and recognition.

a MAC address usually encodes the manufacturer's registered identification number. MAC addresses are used as a network address for most IEEE 802 network technologies. .If assigned by the manufacturer.  MAC addresses are most often assigned by the manufacturer of a network interface controller (NIC) and are stored in its hardware.MAC Address  It is a unique identifier assigned to network interfaces for communications on the physical network segment.

Channel allocations:  Static channel allocation  Dynamic channel allocation .

T=1/(µC-ʎ) Where T: Mean time delay C: Channel Capacity ʎ: average arrival rate of frame µ: average length of frame .Static Channel Allocation  Bandwidth divided into equal sized portions. very large and varying number of users. it is a poor fit.  For fewer. so no interference of users.  Poor fit can be proved by queen theory.

all channels are kept in a central pool and are assigned dynamically to new calls as they arrive in the system.Dynamic Channel allocation  In DCA schemes. It is fairly straightforward to select the most appropriate channel for any call based simply on current allocation and current traffic.  After each call is completed. . the channel is returned to the central pool. with the aim of minimizing the interference.

the sender waits for an acknowledgment for an amount of time (time out) equal to the maximum round-trip propagation delay If no ACK was received. .e. then 0. it gives up Channel utilization or efficiency or Throughput is the percentage of the transmitted frames that arrive successfully (without collisions) or the percentage of the channel bandwidth that will be used for transmitting frames without collisions ALOHA Maximum channel utilization is 18% (i. if the system produces F frames/s. sender assumes that the frame or ACK has been destroyed and resends that frame after it waits for a random amount of time If station fails to receive an ACK after repeated transmissions.ALOHA Protocol       A station that has data can transmit at any time After transmitting a frame.18 * F frames will arrive successfully on average without the need of retransmission).

Figure b Procedure for ALOHA protocol .

many collisions can occur  This causes low channel utilization. Disadvantage  If (M) nodes want to transmit. .  Simple to be implemented.  No master station is needed to control the medium.Advantages and Disadvantages of ALOHA protocols   Advantages  A node that has frames to be transmitted can transmit continuously at the full rate of channel (R bps) if it is the only node with frames.

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