Grinding with Ball Mill Systems

EDM

Ball Mill

Ball Mill

2

HGRS

Tikaria_Mill Workshop

SEPT-07

What is a End Discharge Mill (EDM)?
Air outlet
2st Compartment
Intermediate diaphragm

(Fine Grinding)

1st Compartment
(Coarse Grinding)
Mill feed arrangement
Mill discharge
Drive

Gearbox with pinions
Air inlet
3

HGRS

Tikaria_Mill Workshop

SEPT-07

EDM
EDM =
End Discharge Mill
Product discharge
at mill end

4

HGRS

Tikaria_Mill Workshop

SEPT-07

Overview 5 HGRS Tikaria_Mill Workshop SEPT-07 .Elements of Ball Mill .

Mill Drive Concepts Drive Concepts for Ball mills Girth gear Drives Girth gear units Central drives Single pinion concept (< 2'500 kW) Single drive with two pinions (< 5'000 kW) Two-way power splitting reducer (< 6'000 kW) Double-pinion concept (< 5'000 kW) Double drive with four pinions (< 10'000 kW) Planetary gear reducer (< 12'000 kW) 6 HGRS Tikaria_Mill Workshop SEPT-07 .

planets surface-hardened  Annulus through-hardened Planets Gear coupling Drive arrangement HGRS Sun pinions Tikaria_Mill Workshop 7 SEPT-07 .Example Planetary Gear Drive Planetary gear reducer concept MAAG  Two gear stages with three planets  All shafts with friction bearings Annulus  Pinions.

Gear Box Internals Parallel shaft gear reducer (two way power branch)  All gears surface-hardened and ground  All shafts with roller bearings  Key point:: Face load distribution of the LS-gear stage Low speed gear stage Bearings with excentric sleeves to optimise the face load distribution 8 HGRS Tikaria_Mill Workshop SEPT-07 .

Potential Technical Problems Drive Girth gear drives . Face load distribution 6. Girth gear is through hardened only. Centre distances variable 5. Alignment of the drive trains 3.Fundamental Problems 5 2 3 1 4 5 6 7 1. Axial/radial runout 2. fatigue strength is limited  Dynamic behaviour  A lot of individual rotating masses risk of resonance vicinities  Torsional/structural vibrations  Pinion shaft bending vibrations 9 HGRS Tikaria_Mill Workshop SEPT-07 . Uneven power splitting 4. Sealing of the girth gear 7.

Gearboxes Gear reducer Polysius Combiflex Planetary Gear HGRS Tikaria_Mill Workshop 10 SEPT-07 .

Potential Damages Drives Breakage damage (pinions)  Cause: Inadequate transverse load distribution. brittle material Fatigue breakage Initial damage: Pitting on the pitch line Secondary damage: Tooth breakage 11 HGRS Tikaria_Mill Workshop SEPT-07 .

Potential Problems Drive Single pinion drive (2’300 kW)  Breakage failure of the pinion in the gear reducer  Heavy (active) pitting on the drive pinion  Possible Cause: 1 .Inadequate load distribution (1) .Overload of the tooth flanks (2) 2 1 2 12 HGRS Tikaria_Mill Workshop SEPT-07 .

for drying with heat generator) 13 HGRS Tikaria_Mill Workshop SEPT-07 .g.Mill Bearing Advantages slide shoe bearings: No size and capacity limitation of the mill Simple design of wear plates Far higher limit of gas temperature at mill inlet (e.

Feed Arrangements for Ball Mills (Slurry mill) Preferred design today 14 HGRS Tikaria_Mill Workshop SEPT-07 .

Feed Arrangement (Example Step Feeder) Material feed Ventilation air  Advantages    Good mill ventilation Easy to maintain Simple design 15 HGRS Tikaria_Mill Workshop SEPT-07 .

Elements of Ball Mill – Overview (Internals) External elements Mill feed arrangement Head liners Mill head Grinding Shell liners media Mill shell Intermediate diaphragm Mill bearing Retention ring Mill discharge arrangement Mill drive Discharge diaphragm Internal elements 16 HGRS Tikaria_Mill Workshop SEPT-07 .

Overview Internal Elements A Coarse grinding compartment B Intermediate diaphragm C Fine grinding compartment D Discharge diaphragm E Grinding media F Retention ring 17 HGRS Tikaria_Mill Workshop SEPT-07 .

Liners for Coarse Grinding 18 HGRS Tikaria_Mill Workshop SEPT-07 .

5 ho 19 HGRS Tikaria_Mill Workshop SEPT-07 . h0  Rule of thumb: h must be greater than 50 [mm] h 1st chamber lining at end of lifetime h > 0.Lifting Height Requirements (1st Chamber)  This criteria has to be confirmed case by case through evaluation of the coarse grinding.

Classifying Liner for Fine Grinding (2nd Chamber) Rotation sense 20 HGRS Tikaria_Mill Workshop SEPT-07 .

Head Liners 21 HGRS Tikaria_Mill Workshop SEPT-07 .

Open Diaphragm (Drying Chamber Diaphragm) 22 HGRS Tikaria_Mill Workshop SEPT-07 .

Intermediate Diaphragm 2nd Compartment Fine Grinding Intermediate diaphragm 1st Compartment Coarse Grinding 23 HGRS Tikaria_Mill Workshop SEPT-07 .

Function of Intermediate Diaphragm 24 HGRS Tikaria_Mill Workshop SEPT-07 .

Intermediate diaphragm  Slot opening in 1st chamber  Material flow control system  Centre screen  Grates in the second chamber 25 HGRS Tikaria_Mill Workshop SEPT-07 .

Discharge diaphragm Discharge diaphragm 26 HGRS Tikaria_Mill Workshop SEPT-07 .

Discharge Diaphragm 27 HGRS Tikaria_Mill Workshop SEPT-07 .

55 Most used material.Material Quality and Application of Shell Liners Material Manganese Steel Low chromium alloy cast liners High chromium alloy cast liners Chemical Composition 12 – 14% Mn 2 – 3% Cr 12 – 15% Cr Hardness Remarks (HRC) 40 Recommended for small mills. Suitable for large and small mills 50 .42 Less deformation than manganese liners. Suitable for big and small mills (Notch impact strength 4 – 10 J/cm2) 28 HGRS Tikaria_Mill Workshop SEPT-07 . Deformation of liners for large mills (initial surface hardness 20 – 25 HRC) 40 .

Life Time of Shell Liners 29 HGRS Tikaria_Mill Workshop SEPT-07 .

Grinding Media Coarse grinding Ø 90 – 50 [mm] Fine grinding Ø 50 – 12 [mm] 30 HGRS Tikaria_Mill Workshop SEPT-07 .

Grinding in Ball Mill Fine grinding (2nd chamber) Cascading of grinding media A A Coarse grinding (1st chamber) Cataracting of grinding media 31 HGRS Tikaria_Mill Workshop SEPT-07 .

Ball filling degree (f) Power [%] 98 93 85 Typical range 75 20 25 30 35 40 .45 f [%] 32 HGRS Tikaria_Mill Workshop SEPT-07 .

Steps of Grinding Coarse Grinding Medium Grinding Fine Grinding 33 HGRS Tikaria_Mill Workshop SEPT-07 .

Coarse Grinding: Parameters for Optimising Efficiency parameters Power parameters      Filling degree Chamber length Mill diameter Liner design and condition Mill speed     Ball charge (filling degree & composition) Liner design Intermediate diaphragm settings Mill ventilation 34 HGRS Tikaria_Mill Workshop SEPT-07 .

7 [t/m3] Bulk weight of a grinding media charge in a two chamber mill with classifiying liner 35 HGRS Tikaria_Mill Workshop SEPT-07 .6 [t/m3] 4.4 [t/m3] 4.Grinding Media 4.

2 Holcim Standard for 1st Compartment 36 HGRS Tikaria_Mill Workshop SEPT-07 .0 100 Average ball weight [g] 1667 Spec.0 Total 100.0 25.0 80 35.0 35.0 25.0 15. media surface [m2 / t ] 10.0 70 25.0 60 15.Grinding Media (1st Compartment) 1.Compartment Ø Ball [mm] Weight [ t ] Percent [%] 90 25.

0 20 42.Compartment Ø Ball [mm] Weight [ t ] Percent [%] 50 20.0 10. media surface [m2 / t] 32.0 17 54.Grinding Media (2nd Compartment)  Holcim Standard for OPC > 3’200 [cm2/g].0 100 15 Total Average ball weight [g] 41 Spec.8 37 HGRS Tikaria_Mill Workshop SEPT-07 .0 25 32.0 40 20.0 10.0 27.0 200.0 30 32.0 21.0 16.0 16. closed circuit system 2.

Material Quality of Grinding Media 38 HGRS Tikaria_Mill Workshop SEPT-07 .

Specific Wear Rates of Grinding Media 39 HGRS Tikaria_Mill Workshop SEPT-07 .

Mill Efficiency [%R] acc. [cm2/g] Blaine Chamber 1 (coarse grinding) Blaine Value Chamber 2 (fine grinding) Sieve Residues mill length [m] [m] longitudinal sieving graph 40 HGRS Tikaria_Mill Workshop SEPT-07 .

Lifting Liners Effects Liner-Lifting : low high 41 HGRS Tikaria_Mill Workshop SEPT-07 .

Optimum Material Level 1st Chamber 42 HGRS Tikaria_Mill Workshop SEPT-07 .

Optimum Material level 2nd chamber 43 HGRS Tikaria_Mill Workshop SEPT-07 .

Mill Ventilation  Main Tasks Mill Ventilation:     Material transport Cooling Removal of fines Fluidisation of material 44 HGRS Tikaria_Mill Workshop SEPT-07 .

Cooling and Heating Possibilities Product Air Dust ladden air H2 O Hot gases Moist additive Hot clinker Cooling air H2O Cooling air Hot gases Product H2 O H 2O 45 HGRS Tikaria_Mill Workshop SEPT-07 .

lead to material agglomeration on balls and liners  The grinding is not any more done by balls against material but by material against material playing with: Clinker temperature  Mill ventilation  Water injection  Use of grinding aid (temporary solution because expensive)  46 HGRS Tikaria_Mill Workshop SEPT-07 .Fine Grinding and Mill Cooling PROBLEM SOLUTION  Insufficient mill cooling  Adapted mill cooling.

[°C] 2nd Comp. 47 HGRS Tikaria_Mill Workshop SEPT-07 . no water injection 130 120 Air from blower Air from blower H2O (Double) Rotary union 110 H2O co-current 1st counter current 100 co-current 90 80 2nd Comp.Water Injection Systems counter current 1st Product temp. H2O 1st Comp. Mill length H2O 2nd Comp.