# Magnetic Circuits

and Transformers
Discussion D10.1
Chapter 6

1

Ref: http://chem.il/~eugeniik/history/oersted.Hans Christian Oersted (1777 – 1851) X 1822 In 1820 he showed that a current produces a magnetic field.ch.huji.htm 2 .ac.

repel 3 .André-Marie Ampère (1775 – 1836) French mathematics professor who only a week after learning of Oersted’s discoveries in Sept. 1820 demonstrated that parallel wires carrying currents attract and repel each other. attract A moving charge of 1 coulomb per second is a current of 1 ampere (amp).

Michael Faraday (1791 – 1867) Self-taught English chemist and physicist discovered electromagnetic induction in 1831 by which a changing magnetic field induces an electric field. A capacitance of 1 coulomb per volt is called a farad (F) Faraday’s electromagnetic induction ring 4 .

Princeton University professor. L. Discovered selfinduction Built the largest electromagnets of his day Unit of inductance. is the “Henry” 5 .Joseph Henry (1797 – 1878) American scientist. and first Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution.

 = magnetic permeability Ampere's Law: Hl  Ni  H dl  i Magnetomotive force F  Ni reluctance F Rf 6 . Wb. in webers.Magnetic Fields and Circuits A current i through a coil produces a magnetic flux. f. f   B dA i f  BA + A v B = magnetic flux density in Wb/m2. N - B  H H = magnetic field intensity in A/m.

Wb. + N1 N2 v2 - f11  flux in coil 1 produced by current in coil 1 f12  flux in coil 1 produced by current in coil 2 f21  flux in coil 2 produced by current in coil 1 f22  flux in coil 2 produced by current in coil 2 f1  total flux in coil 1  f11  f12 f2  total flux in coil 2  f21  f22 7 . i2 i1 + v1 - Current entering "dots" produce fluxes that add. f.Magnetic Flux Magnetic flux. in webers.

Example of Lenz's law 8 Symbol L of inductance from Lenz .Faraday's Law i2 i1 + i v1 + N1 N2 - v2 - Total flux linking coil 1: 1  N1f1 d 1 df1  N1 Faraday's Law: induced voltage in coil 1 is v1 (t )  dt dt Sign of induced voltage v1 is such that the current i through an external resistor would be opposite to the current i1 that produces the flux f1.

flux is proportional to current di1 di2 v1 (t )  L11  L12 dt dt self-inductance mutual inductance 9 .Mutual Inductance i2 i1 + + v1 N1 N2 - v2 - Faraday's Law v1 (t )  N1 df1 df df  N1 11  N1 12 dt dt dt In linear range.

Mutual Inductance i2 i1 + + v1 N1 N2 - - di1 di2 v1 (t )  L11  L12 dt dt di1 di2 v2 (t )  L21  L22 dt dt L12  L21  M L2  L22 v1 (t )  L1 di1 di M 2 dt dt di1 di2 v2 (t )  M  L2 dt dt Linear media Let v2 L1  L11 10 .

v1. v2 across coil 2 df v1 N1 dt N1   v2 N 2 df N 2 dt v2 (t )  N 2 df dt N2 v2  v1 N1 11 .Ideal Transformer .Voltage AC i1 i2 + + v1 N1 N2 - df v1 (t )  N1 dt v2 Load - The input AC voltage. produces a flux 1 f v1 (t )dt  N1 f This changing flux through coil 2 induces a voltage.

N1i1  N 2i2 N1 i2  i1 N2 12 .Ideal Transformer . mmf v2 Load F  Ni - f The total mmf applied to core is F  N1i1  N 2i2  R f For ideal transformer.Current AC i1 i2 + + v1 N1 N2 - Magnetomotive force. the reluctance R is zero.

Ideal Transformer .Impedance AC i1 i2 + + v1 N1 v2 N2 - - Load V2 ZL  I2 N1 V1  V2 N2 Input impedance V1 Zi  I1 Load impedance 2  N1  Zi    ZL  N2  ZL Zi  2 n Turns ratio N2 I1  I2 N1 N2 n N1 13 .

14 .Power AC i1 i2 + + v1 N1 N2 - Load P  vi - Power delivered to primary Power delivered to load P2  v2i2 P1  v1i1 N2 v2  v1 N1 v2 N1 i2  i1 N2 P2  v2i2  v1i1  P1 Power delivered to an ideal transformer by the source is transferred to the load.Ideal Transformer .

V.com/displacement/lvdt/lvdt-principles.efunda.D.L.htm http://www.rdpelectronics. Linear Variable Differential Transformer Position transducer http://www.com/DesignStandards/sensors/lvdt/lvdt_theory.cfm 15 .T.

LVDT's are often used on clutch actuation and for monitoring brake disc wear LVDT's are also used for sensors in an automotive active suspension system 16 .