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and Transformers

Discussion D10.1

Chapter 6

1

Ref: http://chem.il/~eugeniik/history/oersted.Hans Christian Oersted (1777 – 1851) X 1822 In 1820 he showed that a current produces a magnetic field.ch.huji.htm 2 .ac.

repel 3 .André-Marie Ampère (1775 – 1836) French mathematics professor who only a week after learning of Oersted’s discoveries in Sept. 1820 demonstrated that parallel wires carrying currents attract and repel each other. attract A moving charge of 1 coulomb per second is a current of 1 ampere (amp).

Michael Faraday (1791 – 1867) Self-taught English chemist and physicist discovered electromagnetic induction in 1831 by which a changing magnetic field induces an electric field. A capacitance of 1 coulomb per volt is called a farad (F) Faraday’s electromagnetic induction ring 4 .

Princeton University professor. L. Discovered selfinduction Built the largest electromagnets of his day Unit of inductance. is the “Henry” 5 .Joseph Henry (1797 – 1878) American scientist. and first Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution.

= magnetic permeability Ampere's Law: Hl Ni H dl i Magnetomotive force F Ni reluctance F Rf 6 . Wb. in webers.Magnetic Fields and Circuits A current i through a coil produces a magnetic flux. f. f B dA i f BA + A v B = magnetic flux density in Wb/m2. N - B H H = magnetic field intensity in A/m.

Wb. + N1 N2 v2 - f11 flux in coil 1 produced by current in coil 1 f12 flux in coil 1 produced by current in coil 2 f21 flux in coil 2 produced by current in coil 1 f22 flux in coil 2 produced by current in coil 2 f1 total flux in coil 1 f11 f12 f2 total flux in coil 2 f21 f22 7 . i2 i1 + v1 - Current entering "dots" produce fluxes that add. f.Magnetic Flux Magnetic flux. in webers.

Example of Lenz's law 8 Symbol L of inductance from Lenz .Faraday's Law i2 i1 + i v1 + N1 N2 - v2 - Total flux linking coil 1: 1 N1f1 d 1 df1 N1 Faraday's Law: induced voltage in coil 1 is v1 (t ) dt dt Sign of induced voltage v1 is such that the current i through an external resistor would be opposite to the current i1 that produces the flux f1.

flux is proportional to current di1 di2 v1 (t ) L11 L12 dt dt self-inductance mutual inductance 9 .Mutual Inductance i2 i1 + + v1 N1 N2 - v2 - Faraday's Law v1 (t ) N1 df1 df df N1 11 N1 12 dt dt dt In linear range.

Mutual Inductance i2 i1 + + v1 N1 N2 - - di1 di2 v1 (t ) L11 L12 dt dt di1 di2 v2 (t ) L21 L22 dt dt L12 L21 M L2 L22 v1 (t ) L1 di1 di M 2 dt dt di1 di2 v2 (t ) M L2 dt dt Linear media Let v2 L1 L11 10 .

v1. v2 across coil 2 df v1 N1 dt N1 v2 N 2 df N 2 dt v2 (t ) N 2 df dt N2 v2 v1 N1 11 .Ideal Transformer .Voltage AC i1 i2 + + v1 N1 N2 - df v1 (t ) N1 dt v2 Load - The input AC voltage. produces a flux 1 f v1 (t )dt N1 f This changing flux through coil 2 induces a voltage.

N1i1 N 2i2 N1 i2 i1 N2 12 .Ideal Transformer . mmf v2 Load F Ni - f The total mmf applied to core is F N1i1 N 2i2 R f For ideal transformer.Current AC i1 i2 + + v1 N1 N2 - Magnetomotive force. the reluctance R is zero.

Ideal Transformer .Impedance AC i1 i2 + + v1 N1 v2 N2 - - Load V2 ZL I2 N1 V1 V2 N2 Input impedance V1 Zi I1 Load impedance 2 N1 Zi ZL N2 ZL Zi 2 n Turns ratio N2 I1 I2 N1 N2 n N1 13 .

14 .Power AC i1 i2 + + v1 N1 N2 - Load P vi - Power delivered to primary Power delivered to load P2 v2i2 P1 v1i1 N2 v2 v1 N1 v2 N1 i2 i1 N2 P2 v2i2 v1i1 P1 Power delivered to an ideal transformer by the source is transferred to the load.Ideal Transformer .

V.com/displacement/lvdt/lvdt-principles.efunda.D.L.htm http://www.rdpelectronics. Linear Variable Differential Transformer Position transducer http://www.com/DesignStandards/sensors/lvdt/lvdt_theory.cfm 15 .T.

LVDT's are often used on clutch actuation and for monitoring brake disc wear LVDT's are also used for sensors in an automotive active suspension system 16 .

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