(Crude Oil Production)


Extraction of Vegetable Oils
Basic approaches :
 Mechanical Oil Extraction
- cold pressing means no heat applied
- hot pressing - external heat is applied
 Solvent Extraction
- organic solvent (hexane, isopropyl alchool)
- supercritical solvent (carbondioxide)

Mechanical oil extraction
Mechanical oil extraction (expression) is a solidliquid phase seperation method which is applied
to cooked seed flakes.
It can be executed by batch, mainly hydraulically,
and by continous, mainly mechanically, working

Screw presses;
In oil industry, screw presses (expellers) are
mostly utilized for expression. The main
parts of continous-screw press are;
 Seed feeder,
 Cone-shaped cage
 Adjustable cone for press-cake outlet
 Worm (pressure and feed)

Cooked seed flakes

Screw pressAdjustable cone for presscake outlet
Cone shaped pressure
Main worm shaft


Crude oil

The oil passes between the bars an flows out of the cage.The cage is made of a number of special stell bars which let liquids pass through.This permits easy control of the thichnesses of cakes and of the degree of pressure to which the cooked flakes are subjected. The cone moves along the shaft of the expeller and the space between the worm and cone can be regulated.The seeds enter the barrel and falls on the helical pressure worm. . between worm and cage is gradually reduced and the seed flakes are subjected to increasing pressure.During movement in the barell.

Screw Press .

Shaft Arrangement-Screw Press .

Cage Arrangement— French Press .

Solvent extraction of the cake would not be economical. In the case of soybeans. The process is relatively simple and not capital-intensive. because of the bulk of material which must be processed. Furthermore. Even the most powerful presses cannot reduce the level of residual oil in the press-cake below 3 to 5%. In the case of oil-rich seeds such as sesame or peanuts this may still be acceptable. however. expellers are available for much smaller capacities. Expellers can be used with almost any kind of oilseeds and nuts. a 5% residual oil level in the cake represents an oil loss of about 25%. While the smallest solvent extraction plant would have a processing capacity of 100-200 tons per day. . from a few tons per day and up. Such two stage processes (pre-press/solvent extraction) are now widely applied . most of the oil left in the cake can be recovered by a stage of solvent extraction. The main disadvantage of the screw-press process is its relatively low yield of oil recovery.Advantages and disadvantages of the expeller process.

In this respect. The first is the poor storage stability of the press-cake. At any rate. . The quality of the meal is therefore a factor of particular importance in the selection of a processing method for soybeans. Furthermore. expeller press-cake is not suitable for applications requiring a meal with high protein solubility.the extreme temperatures prevailing in the expeller may impair the nutritive value of the meal protein. due to its high oil content. the expeller process has several disadvantages. mainly by reducing the biological availability of the amino acid lysine.

Crude oil production (mechanical expression) Cooked flakes Screw press Crude oil + seed particles Crude oil seed particles Cake (4-6%oil) .

Crude oil production (pre-pressing extraction + solvent extraction) Cooked flakes Screw press Crude oil Oily cake (10-16% oil) Cake (0.5% oil) Solvent extraction Crude oil .

. this being solvent aided extraction. exhaustive removal of the oil present in the cake by mechanical means alone is imposible. therefore. The residual oil in cake .Solvent extraction (solid-liquid extraction-leaching) The lowest levels of residual oil after pressing are 3-8%. only be removed by a different approach.

Single stage leaching miscella V1 Solvents V0 Seed flakes + solvents Cake L1 flakes L0 L0 + V0 = L1 + V1 .

B+C B+C .Ideal equilibrium A+C B A : inert solid B : solvent C : oil A .

a process of solid-liquid extraction. basically. Basic principles of solvent extraction: The extraction of oil from oilseeds by means of non-polar solvents is. The transfer of oil from the solid to the surrounding oilsolvent solution ( miscella ) may be divided into three steps: * diffusion of the solvent into the solid * dissolution of the oil droplets in the solvent * diffusion of the oil from the solid particle to the surrounding liquid .

equilibrium is reached when the concentration of oil in the miscella within the pores of the solid is equal to the concentration of oil in the free miscella. Due to the relative inertness of the non-oil constituents of the oilseed.Due to the very high solubility of the oil in the commonly used solvents. the step of dissolution is not a rate limiting factor. These considerations lead to a number of practical conclusions: . obviously. The driving force in the diffusional processes is. the gradient of oil concentration in the direction of diffusion. outside the solid.

because this would impair the flow of solvent around the particles and would make the separation of the miscella from the spent solid extremely difficult. much can be gained by reducing the size of the solid particle. thus reducing one dimension to facilitate diffusion. Yet. without impairing too much the flow of solvent through the solid bed or contaminating the miscella with an excessive quantity of fine solid particles. . The oilseeds are rolled into thin flakes. the raw material cannot be ground to a fine powder.* Since the rate-limiting process is diffusion.

The effect of flake thickness on the efficiency of solvent extraction Solution extraction Diffussion extraction .

. Higher temperature means higher solubility of the oil. A number of processes have been proposed for increasing the porosity of oilseeds before solvent extraction. higher diffusion coefficients and lower miscella viscosity.* The rate of extraction can be increased considerably by increasing the temperature in the extractor. because such a structure facilitates diffusion as well as percolation. porous structure of the solid material is preferable. * An open.

. the rate of extraction can be increased somewhat by providing agitation and free flow in the liquid phase around the solid particles. in order to prevent extensive disintegration of the flakes. Too much agitation is to be avoided.* Although most of the resistance to mass transfer lies within the solid.

so that less energy is needed for keeping the solvent and the miscella warm. * High volatility (i. non-explosive. for the solvent and its residues. * Non-corrosive * Commercial availability in large quantities and low cost. so that less energy is needed for solvent recovery. * Yet. * Low specific heat. * Absolute absence of toxicity and carcinogenicity. * Low viscosity.Choice of solvents: An ideal solvent for the extraction of oil from oil seeds should possess the following properties: * Good solubility of the oil. * Non-inflammable. * Low latent heat of evaporation. low boiling point). .e. * Poor solubility of non-oil components. so that complete removal of the solvent from the miscella and the meal by evaporation is feasible and easy. so that extraction can be carried out at a somewhat high temperature to facilitate mass transfer. the boiling point should not be too low. * The solvent should be chemically inert to oil and other components of the seed flakes.

A typical commercial solvent for oil extraction would have a boiling point range (distillation range) of 65 to 70oC and would consist mainly of six-carbon alkanes. maximum nonvolatile residue. flash point. The quality parameters which make up the specifications usually include: boiling (distillation) range. hence the name "hexane“ by which these solvents are commonly used in oil extraction. maximum sulphur. maximum cyclic hydrocarbons. . colour and specific gravity.

. distilled and the solvent is recirculated through the extractor until the residual oil content in the batch of flakes is reduced to the desired level. The miscella is drained off.Types of Extractors Solvent extractors are of two types:  batch  continuous In batch processes. a certain quantity of flakes is contacted with a certain volume of fresh solvent.

Batch extractor Seed flakes solvent cake miscella .

both the oilseeds and the solvent are fed into the extractor continuously.In continuous extraction. . in counter-current fashion. The different available types are characterized by their geometrical configuration and the method by which solids and solvents are moved one in relation to the other.

Two different methods can be used to bring the solvent to intimate contact with the oilseed material:  percolation  immersion .

the solvent trickles through a thick bed of flakes without filling the void space completely. open tissue structure). This mode of contact is preferable whenever the resistance to diffusion inside the flake is relatively low (thin flakes with large surface area. . A film of solvent flows rather rapidly over the surface of the solid particles and efficiently removes the oil which has diffused from the inside to the surface.In the percolation method.

dense tissue structure). continuous phase of solvent. the solid particles are totally immersed in a slowly moving. Immersion works better with materials offering a greater internal resistance to oil transfer (thick particles. .In the immersion mode.

sealed vessel in which a slowly moving screen belt is installed. Yet the extractor is divided to distinct extraction stages by the way in which the miscella stream is advanced. The throughput rate of the extractor is adjusted by changing the belt speed.Percolation type extractor Belt extractors_(DE SMET extractor). Difficult percolation is compensated for by lowering bed height. There are no dividing baffles on the belt and the solid bed is one continuous mass. A damper attached to the hopper outlet acts as a feed regulating valve and maintains the solids bed on the belt at constant height. This height can be adjusted according to the expected rate of percolation of the miscella through the bed. Flaked oil seeds are fed on the belt by means of a feeding hopper. The extractor consists of a horizontal. .

carrying the highest concentration of oil (heavy miscella). It is sprayed on the flakes. . giving the spent flakes a last wash and removing some oil. This process of miscella collection. The resulting dilute micella is collected in a sectional hopper underneath the belt. pumping and spraying at the next section is repeated until the miscella leaves the hopper at the head-end of the extractor. from which it is pumped and sprayed again on the flakes at the next section in the direction opposite to belt movement.The solvent is introduced at the spent flake discharge end. percolates through the bed.

right after the discharge of spent flakes. and then again with fresh solvent. Washing with full miscella at the feed-end provides surface lubrication and prevents adhesion of the flakes to the surface of the screen. . The entire extractor vessel is maintained at a slight negative pressure so as to prevent leakage of solvent vapours to the atmosphere. just before the entrance of fresh flakes.Washing of the screen is essential to prevent clogging.The screen is washed with heavy miscella at the head-end.

5% oil) .Belt Extractor (DeSmet) Seed flakes high oil seed flakes Pure solvent Miscella Full miscella 25% oil Cake (0.

Continuous horizontal extractor .

Bollmann extractor .

Many are still in operation but they are less frequently found in more recent installations. The baskets can be moved vertically (bucket elevator extractors).Basket type. the flakes do not constitute a continuous mass but are filled into separate. Vertical bucket-chain extractors are among the first industrial solvent extractors constructed for continuous operation. or can be rotated around a vertical axis (roto-cell extractors). delimited elements (baskets) with perforated bottoms for draining.Sliding cell extractor (Lurgi) In this class of extractors. horizontally ( frame belt and sliding cell extractors). .

Sliding cell extractor (Lurgi) .

Roto-cell extractor (Reflex extractor-DeSmet) .

Rotocell extractor .

. Again the solvent flows countercurrent to the solid materials through the extractor.Hildebrandt extractor (immersion type) The solid material is extracted according to the immersion method. Screw conveyors are installed in the extractor for transporting the solid material.

Hildebrandt extractor .

Extraction unit (DeSmet) .

.Post-extraction operations Two streams leave the solvent extraction stage .  an oil-rich fluid extract (full miscella)  cake – meal (spent flakes) The next operations have the objective of removing and recovering the solvent from each one the two streams.

The modes of solvent vaporization include flash evaporation.5 tons of solvent must be removed by distillation.  efficient removal of the last traces of solvent from the oil  good operation safety. .Miscella distillation: Full miscella contains typically 30% oil. Thus.  minimal heat damage to the crude oil and its components. The characteristics of a good miscella distillation system are:  good energy economy. for every ton of crude oil some 2.a. Most manufacturers of solvent extractors also offer miscella distillation systems.  minimal solvent losses . vacuum distillation and steam stripping.

pipes etc.In general the evaporation is carried out in two or three stages. Miscella distillation . Distillation is the most energy consuming part of the total extraction process.) and heat transfer resistances. the miscella must be freed of solide meal particles with special closed filter presses before proceeding to distillation. .Miscella filtration . Because of the quality criteria for crude oils. mostly in long–tube type evaporators with a vapor head. but also to ensure the least possible fluid transport defects (clogging in pumps.

. to a large extent. Meal desolventizing: The spent flakes carry with them about 35% solvent.b. the quality of the meal and its derivatives. since it determines. The removal and recovery of this portion of the solvent is also one of the most critical operations in oil mill practice.

. to permit downward movement of the material .The most common type of desolventizertoaster consists of a vertical cylindrical stack of compartments or "pans". through the pans. The pan floors are equipped with adjustable-speed rotating valve. at the desirable rate. Spent flakes are fed at the top of the desolventizer-toaster. Each compartment is fitted with stirrers or racks attached to a central vertical shaft.

The rotating stirrers spread the material and provide the necessary mixing action. the pans are equipped with double bottoms acting as steam jackets. . hot live steam is injected into the mass through spargers. For direct steam heating.Two methods of heating are used:  direct steam heating  indirect steam heating For heating with indirect steam.

. It is also believed that the toasting effect accomplished by the combined action of heat and moisture enhances the palatability of the meal to animals. * The steam distillation effect is necessary in order to remove last traces of solvent from the meal. especially after a considerable proportion of the solvent has been removed and no fluid medium is available for heat transfer. Condensation of the steam adds moisture to the flakes. * The added moisture facilitates the protein denaturation reactions leading to the inactivation of trypsin inhibitor (for soybean cake). In this case.Direct steam is used for three reasons: * The transfer of heat from the heated surface of the pan floor to the oilseed material is slow and difficult. direct contact between the solid material and condensing steam is a more efficient method of heating.

Desolventizer .

Soybean oil production .

Sunflower oil production Sunflower seed Cleaning Dehulling foreign matter hulls Flaking Cooking Pressing crude oil Oily cake Solvent extraction cake l + solvent Miscella Distllation Crude oil Toaster solvent Cake solvent .

Cottonseed oil production Cottoseed Cleaning foreign matter Delinting lints Dehulling hulls Flaking Cooking Pressing crude oil Oily cake Solvent extraction cake l + solvent Miscella Distllation Crude oil Toaster solvent Cake solvent .

Rapeseed oil production Rape seed Cleaning foreign matter Flaking Cooking Pressing crude oil Oily cake Solvent extraction cake l + solvent Miscella Distllation Crude oil Toaster solvent solvent Cake .