Flow of signal

• So you have a sensor, now to process data
taken from a sensor you will need a processing
unit and that is your controller.

sensor

controller

Motor
driver

• It’s a 8-bit Atmel AVR microcontroller based development board. .What is Arduino? • In a simple language we can say that it is a programmable open source platform whose output can be changed according to different conditions of input.

Why Arduino? • Very easy to learn as syntax is similar to C • Open source software support • Ready to implement projects based on arduino are easily available • Inbuilt analog to digital converters are available • Large library support .

Arduino .

Why Arduino? • Very easy to learn • Open source software support • Ready to implement projects based on arduino are easily available • Inbuilt analog to digital converters are available • Large library support .

•Basic code .

What are problems of basic code? • • • • Used only 3 sensor Rapid switching of motors may harm drivers We don’t have control over radius of turn Machine will run on zig-zag path that will reduce the speed drastically .

. the system can become unstable .PID ProportionalA high proportional gain results in a large change in the output for a given change in the error. the control action may be too small when responding to system disturbances. If the proportional gain is too high. and a less responsive or less sensitive controller. If the proportional gain is too low. In contrast. a small gain results in a small output response to a large input error.

since the integral term responds to accumulated errors from the past. it can cause the present value to overshoot the setpoint value .PID IntegralThe integral term accelerates the movement of the process towards setpoint and eliminates the residual steady-state error that occurs with a pure proportional controller. However.

large control action stemming from the derivative term. . is seldom used in practice.because of its inherent sensitivity to measurement noise. which goes under the name of derivative kick. however.Derivative action.PID DerivativeDerivative action predicts system behavior and thus improves settling time and stability of the system.If this noise is severe enough. This problem can be ameliorated to a degree if the measured error is passed through a linear low-pass filter or a nonlinear but simple median filter. sudden changes in the measured error (which typically occur when the set point is changed) cause a sudden. the derivative action will be erratic and actually degrade control performance. Large.