Chris Lawrence

VP Sales & Marketing

AGENDA
• So what are

Chilled Ceilings & Beams ?
• Part 1 – Passive Systems


Chilled Ceilings
Chilled Sails
Passive Beams

• Part 2 – Active systems

Active Chilled Beams

• Part 3 - Reducing Energy



Space Humidity concerns
Design Considerations
Water System Design
Savings & LEED

• Part 4 - Solutions



All Air Core
6 Way
LoFlo
Overall 1st Costs

So What are Chilled
Ceilings & Beams?

A sensible cooling only device that uses chilled
water above the room dew point to remove heat
from the space.
They can be independent of, or combined with, a
method of introducing conditioned outside air to
the space to meet the ASHRAE 62 ventilation
requirements

Chilled Ceilings Radiant & Convective sensible cooling independent of Primary air delivery ASHRAE Engineering for the World We Live In .

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Chilled Ceiling Radiant Effect CW Supply 59-62°F CW Return 62-66°F 55% Convective 45% Radiant 76°F Dry Bulb 74°F radiant temperature (black bulb) .

Chilled Ceilings Advantages Design Issues • Excellent thermal comfort • Can Heat • Reduced space requirements – Will fit into 6-8” cavity • Self regulating – Simple controls • Low noise • Low maintenance • Low cooling output – 20 to 25 BTUH/FT2 100% coverage – 14 to 18 BTUH/FT2 70% coverage – Driven by surface area • Very High cost • Separate air system required • Needs many connections .

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ASHRAE Engineering for the World We Live In .Sails Sensible cooling independent of Primary air delivery.

Sails Operation Principle .

Sails
Operation Principle

Increased convection

Chilled Sails

Advantages

Design Issues

• Good thermal
comfort
• Reduced space
requirements
– Freely suspended
• Self regulating
– Simple controls
• Low noise
• Low maintenance

• Cooling output
– 40 to 50 BTUH/FT2
dependent of amount of ceiling used

• Separate air system
required
• High cost
• Can not heat
• Need good acoustic
treatment to avoid hard
spaces
• Many connections
• Aesthetics ?

average) Cooling capacity up to 40 Btuh/FT2 floor space (Sail . Self regulating simple two position controls Low noise Low maintenance ASHRAE Engineering for the World We Live In . could in installed in a 6” space.average) Very low ceiling cavities needed.Ceilings & Sails Summary Cooling & Heating (Ceiling only) Very High thermal comfort especially on ceilings Cooling capacity up to 18 Btuh/FT2 floor space (Ceiling .

Passive Beams Buoyancy driven sensible cooling independent of Primary air delivery ASHRAE Engineering for the World We Live In .

Passive Chilled Beams Operation Principle Soffit Suspension rod Water coil Fabric skirt Perforate d tile .

Passive Chilled Beams Airflow Pattern .

Façade driven cooling .

Above the ceiling recessed .

Exposed .

Passive beams Advantages Design Issues • Good thermal comfort • Low terminal velocities • Self regulating – Simple controls • Low noise • Low maintenance • Ideal „top up‟ to UFAD especially at the façade • Cooling output – 40 to 50 BTUH/FT2 • Separate air system required • Need High free area ceilings • Can not heat • Need deep ceiling cavity and space above coil • Need separate return air passage for remove primary air volume .

Typical Installation ASHRAE Engineering for the World We Live In .

riser and plant sizes Water transports most of sensible cooling Self regulating simple two position controls Low noise Low maintenance ASHRAE Engineering for the World We Live In .Passive Beams Summary Cooling only Good thermal comfort Cooling capacity up to 50 Btuh/FT2 floor space Up to 450 BTUH per LF of beam Reduced ductwork.

This reduced the reduced performance by a further 20% Rule of Thumb Minimum 1/8” hole. any reduction in hole size or free area reduces output therefore it costs you more because you need more beams .Passive beams – Perforation beware! Perforation Free Areas Are critical to passive beam performance ! Painted ? Usually. approx 45% free area preferred. These turned out to be when painted a 1/12” hole which equated to 19% free area. perforated free areas are quoted prior to paint application ! On a recent project The tiles were specified 28% free area 1/10” hole.

Passive beams – Return air passage • Passive beams need a return air passage to feed the coil. • As important. the removal of the fresh or conditioned air must have a Separate return route if the return is via the celling cavity/void. typically the same area as the coil. Better to have a ducted return! . split 50-50 along the 2 long sides of the beam.

Reducing Energy • • • • Space Humidity concerns Design Considerations Water System Design Savings & LEED Part 4 .Solutions • • • • All Air Core 6 Way LoFlo Overall 1st Costs .AGENDA • Part 2 – Active systems • Active Chilled Beams Part 3 .

So What are Chilled
Ceilings & Beams?

A sensible cooling only device that uses chilled
water above the room dew point to remove heat
from the space.
They can be independent of, or combined with, a
method of introducing conditioned outside air to
the space to meet the ASHRAE 62 ventilation
requirements

Chris Lawrence
VP Sales & Marketing

Active
Beams
Sensible cooling combined with primary air
delivery

ASHRAE
Engineering for the World We Live In

Active Chilled Beam Operation Principle .Horizontal coil Primary air nozzles Primary air plenum Suspended ceiling Heat exchanger .

Active Chilled Beam Operation Principle .Vertical coils Primary air supply Slab Suspended Ceiling .

Active Chilled Beam Airflow Pattern 2-way .

Active Chilled Beams 2 way .

Active Chilled Beams 1 Way perimeter (Concealed) ASHRAE Engineering for the World We Live In .

Thermal Comfort Perimeter CFD Good air movement throughout the room with ≈ 3-4:1 entrainment ratios Uniform temperatures and no drafts by thorough mixing of the primary and room air .

Active Chilled Beams 1 Way perimeter (Concealed) .

Active beams Advantages Design Issues • All services in celling. lower slab to slab • Cooling output – to 100 Btuh/FT2 . beam outputs up to 1800 Btuh/LF • Can be 2 or 4 pipe • Can heat • Need more primary air than minimal fresh are. integrated cooling. suggest .3 cfm/SF • Primary air controls dew point . ventilation and heating • Lower pressure than traditional induction systems • Self regulating – Simple controls • Low maintenance • Fiber tile ceilings • Lower ceiling cavity.

.Rule # 1 • The Design with the fewest number of chilled beams will be the lowest 1st cost install. therefore performance matters.

Performance matters .

Reducing energy ASHRAE Engineering for the World We Live In .

Heat Removal Active Chilled Beam concept Airflow requirement reduced by 70% 70% of sensible heat removed by chilled beam water coil 30% of sensible heat removed by air .

.Chilled Water • On a Mass Flow Rate Basis:- • 1 lbs of chilled water (6°Δt) transports 4x more cooling energy than 1 lbs of air (20°Δt) • As water weighs 800 times that of air • On a Volume Flow Rate Basis:- • 1 FT³ of chilled water transports 1000 more cooling energy than 1 FT³ of air (20 Δt) • Transportation Energy Transportation of a ton of cooling by air requires 7 to 10 times more energy than by chilled water.

S.publication prepared for U. Department of Energy .Fan Energy Use in Buildings “Energy Consumption Characteristics of Commercial Building HVAC Systems” .

Heat Removal Ratio Airflow requirement reduced by 70% Airside Cooling 30% Waterside Cooling 70% 70% of sensible heat removed by chilled beam water coil .

you could be installing a very expensive diffuser .Rule # 2 • If your not reducing the air volume in a space by 25%.

you don’t have to use them everywhere. .Rule # 3 • Even if your using chilled beams on your design.

Water = Efficient Transport 10” 1 Ton of Cooling requires 550 CFM of air or 4 GPM of water ¾” diameter water pipe .

‘Water’ is a better cooling medium. than air ! ‘Water’ takes less energy to transport than air ! .

So a room ‘BTU/h is still a BTU/h’. lights and equipment still give off heat and so do people. solar gain is still a gain. however .Room Load is still Room load Chilled Ceilings & Beams do not lower the heat load of a space. .

Only enough ‘chilled Water’ is Chilled to 45°F to dehumidify the reduced primary airflow requirement. So less energy is used to produce the beams ‘chilled water’ at 58°F .saving energy .

We need less primary air. Improving IAQ & Ventilation effectiveness . making 100% DOAS ideal and cost effective.

Space Humidity Concerns ASHRAE Engineering for the World We Live In .

Independent Publications This years 2012 ASHRAE HVAC Systems and Equipment publication covers chilled beam basics Part of the European Commission ‘Energie’ program.Technical Note: Design Calculations Climatic Ceilings and Chilled beams . ISSO (Netherlands) (Federation Heating & & IDEA (Spain).Application of low (being worked temperature heating and high temperature cooling AHRI Test Standard on) ASHRAE Engineering for the World We Live In . REHVA Ventilation) Publication Climatic Ceilings . in partnership with COSTIC (France). BSRIA European (UK).

2.5 °C ( + 0.Extract From Independent ‘Energie’ Climatic Ceilings Passive + 0.1.7 °F) Relative to room air dew point .5 °C ( .9 °F ) Active .

1˚ Dew Point .64˚ Dew Point 75˚/70% RH 58˚ CWS 75˚/50% RH 55.

Condensation Consideration Condensation after 8. and Cost Stanley A.D.8F colder than the space DPT.. Not one droplet fell under these conditions Chilled Ceilings in Parallel with Dedicated Outdoor Air Systems: Addressing the Concerns of Condensation. Capacity. Mumma.E.5 hours on a chilled surface intentionally held 7. Ph. P. .

‘Active Chilled beams could be run at or below the room dew point. design at 2 to 3F above the dew point and control the moisture content of the primary air to control the room RH . but that’s crazy’! Be safe.

don’t use chilled beams ! . and your not in the middle of the desert.Rule # 4 • If you can not measure and control the space humidity.

Design Considerations ASHRAE Engineering for the World We Live In .

Building Suitability Building Characteristics that favor Active Chilled Beams • Zones with moderate-high sensible load densities ‒ Where primary airflows would be significantly higher than needed for ventilation • Buildings most affected by space constraints ‒ Hi – rises. existing buildings with induction systems • Zones where the acoustical environment is a key design criterion • Laboratories where sensible loads are driving airflows as opposed to air change rates • Buildings seeking LEED or Green Globes certification .

Building Suitability Characteristics that less favor Active Chilled Beams • Buildings with operable windows or “leaky” construction ‒ Beams with drain pans could be considered • Zones with relatively low sensible load densities • Zones with relatively low sensible heat ratios and low ventilation air requirements • Zones with high filtration requirements for the re-circulated room air • Zone with high latent loads .

Water System design ASHRAE Engineering for the World We Live In .

Secondary Loop Supply temperature monitor Secondary chilled water supply to beams T Primary chilled water supply S SCHW Pump Heat Exchanger Primary chilled water return Secondary chilled water return .

Dedicated Chiller To chilled beam zones Bypass Valve T Chilled water pump Cooling Tower 64°F Dedicated chiller Geothermal Heat 11+ COP Pump Geothermal Loop 58°F .

District Chilled Water Loops Tap into return pipe with heat exchanger and secondary loop • No demand in district loop GPM • Increases main chiller plant COP .

Waterside Economizer With mid-high 50ºFs chilled water temperature serving the Active Chilled Beams Reduce chiller energy consumption through: • Using a water side economizer to minimize the chiller operating hours serving the Active Chilled Beams .

Savings & LEED ASHRAE Engineering for the World We Live In .

Energy Savings Compared to VAV Source Technology Application US Dept. of Energy Report (4/2001) Beams/Radiant Ceilings General ASHRAE 2010 Technology Awards Passive Chilled Beams Call Center 41 ACEE Emerging Technologies Report (2009) Active Chilled Beams General 20 ASHRAE Journal 2007 Active Chilled Beams Laboratory 57 SmithGroup Active Chilled Beams Offices 24 *Compared to VAV % Saving* 25-30 .

000 sq ft • 2200 occupants • LEED design • Considered radiant ceilings and passive beam systems • Article in ASHRAE Journal. December 2009 . 350. Kentucky Case Study • Call center.Call Center.

Call Center. Kentucky Case Study • Real energy results based on comparison with another building on the same campus • Energy usage data collected over 1 year • Electrical energy consumption reduced by 41% • Natural gas consumption reduced by 24% .

S.publication prepared for U. Department of Energy .First Costs Compared to VAV “Energy Consumption Characteristics of Commercial Building HVAC Systems” .

Maintenance • No moving parts • No filter • No condensate pumps • No consumable parts • Up to 4 year inspection & clean • Easy maintenance access .

1 point • Controllability of Systems .LEED Certification • Optimize Energy Performance .individual temperature control (IEQ Credit 6.30% more outdoor air than ASHRAE 62 (IEQ Credit 2) .up to 19 points • Increased Ventilation .up to 48% (new) or 44% (existing)more efficient than ASHRAE 90.2) - 1 point • Thermal Comfort (Minimum 40 points needed for certification out of 100 maximum) .1 (EA Credit 1) .meet ASHRAE 55 (IEQ Credit 7.1) - 1 point .

Solutions to reduce cost ASHRAE Engineering for the World We Live In .

All Air Core ASHRAE Engineering for the World We Live In .

Interior Zones Induction Diffuser 277 cfm 48ºF 277 cfm 75ºF 555 cfm 60ºF .

26% reduction if temperature lowered from 55ºF to 48ºF Improved comfort through increased air movement in the low load interior zones Increased latent cooling capacity and improved humidity control .20% reduction if temperature lowered from 55ºF to 50ºF .Lower airflows and fan energy consumption in the interior VAV system through use of lower temperature primary air .

2 times latent capacity for same sensible capacity with 26% less primary air Latent 1408 Btuh .Latent 640 Btuh 2.

6 Way valve ASHRAE Engineering for the World We Live In .

2 or 4 Pipe Chilled Beams? •Higher coil performance 4 pipe performance is compromised 75% Cooling (12 pipes) 25% Heating (4 pipes) •Fewer or shorter beams •Lower hot water temperatures 90°F for 2 pipe 130°F for 4 pipe .

2-Pipe Beams and Terminal Heating Chilled Water Supply Terminal Heating Coil 2-Pipe Active Chilled Beams Hot Water Supply Hot Water Return S T Chilled Water Return S .

6-way valve .

6-way valve .

6-way valve • One valve per zone • 4-pipe to zone then 2-pipe to chilled beams • Half controls costs • Increased chilled beam performance • Increased energy efficiency .

LoFlo ASHRAE Engineering for the World We Live In .

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Advantages Reduced pipework Higher system Delta T Reduced pumping flow and horse power Increased flexibility Eliminate flow control valve and balancing valves Reduced commissioning Multiple water temperatures Increased capacity at chilled beam (no 4-pipe req.) Used in conjunction with 6 way valve LMB requires no maintenance One LMB for each zone (multiple ACB‟s) Simple cartridge replacement .

Disadvantages Power required to each LMB Requires low temperature water at thermal plant .

Overall st 1 cost ASHRAE Engineering for the World We Live In .

000 ft2. 7 floors • Consists of labs.8m facility (original estimate $20m) • 68. WI • New $15. lecture halls and classrooms • LEED Silver Certification • Completion fall 2011 .Viterbo School of Nursing.

HVAC First Costs Savings Compared to VAV • Smaller AHU‟s • Smaller ductwork • Controls ‒ Simple two position zone valves • Electrical infrastructure costs ‒ Increased pump HP more than offset by reduced fan HP .

000 compared to VAV .HVAC First Costs Increases Compared to VAV • More terminals (beams) • More distribution piping • More piping insulation ‒ Requirement depends on chilled water temperature and dewpoint Overall HVAC cost increase = $300.

Construction Costs Reduced height Floor heights reduced 10”-14” Overall height reduced by 6‟ .

424 $ 1.298 .522 $ 10.249 $ 5.500 $ 2.824 $ 8.000 $ Pricing provided by CD Smith Construction 245.500 $ 55.200 $ 97.Construction Costs Savings due to reduced height Building Component Structural Steel Masonry (int/ext) Fire-Proofing Steel Studs Air Barrier Overall cost Insulation Exterior Caulking Curtain Wall Stairs Exterior Drywall Elevators Electrical Total Cost Savings Savings $ 7.787 neutral $ 3.692 $ 600 $ 22.000 $ 30.

Viterbo School of Nursing. WI .

consider the overall 1st cost. not just the Mechanical vs VAV.Rule # 5 • When budgeting chilled beams. .

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