# COURSE : EE602- CIRCUIT

ANALYSIS

Time-domain
ODE problems

Laplace

s-domain
algebra problems

Transform
(LT)
Difficult

Solutions of timedomain problems

Easy

Inverse
LT

Solutions of algebra
problems

2

 Find

differential equations that describe
system
 Obtain Laplace transform
 Perform algebra to solve for output or
variable of interest
 Apply inverse transform to find solution

Pierre-Simon 1749-1827 Where s    j  variable. is a complex 4 .The Laplace transform of a function f(t) is defined as F ( s )  L  f (t )     f (t )e dt  st 0 Laplace.

F(s) .t is real. where t is integrated and s is variable  Conversely F(s)  f(t). s is complex!  Inverse requires complex analysis to solve  Note “transform”: f(t)  F(s). t is variable and s is integrated  Assumes f(t) = 0 for all t < 0 * The Laplace transform is an integral information of a function f(t) from the time domain into the complex frequency domain.

• Some Laplace Transforms wide variety of function can be transformed Inverse Transform 1 L [ F ( s )]  f (t ) • Often requires partial fractions or other manipulation to find a form that is easy to apply the inverse .

Name Impulse f(t) 1 f (t )   0 F(s) t 0 t 0 1 Step f (t )  1 1 s Ramp f (t )  t 1 s2 Exponential f (t )  e at 1 sa Sine f (t )  sin(t ) 1  2  s2 .

Addition/Scaling L[af1 (t )  bf 2 (t )]  aF1 ( s )  bF2 ( s ) Differentiation d  L  f (t )  sF ( s )  f (0)  dt  Integration L  f (t)dt F s(s)  1s  f (t)dt t 0 t Convolution  f (t  τ)f (τ )dτ  F (s) F (s) 1 2 1 0 Initial-value theorem f (0 )  lim sF ( s ) Final-value theorem lim f (t )  lim sF ( s ) s  t  s 0 2 .

Laplace Transform of the unit step.   L[u (t )]  1e  0  st  1  st dt  e s  1  s ( )  s ( 0)  e e s 1  s   | 0 .

The Laplace transform of a unit impulse.  L[ (t )]    (t )e  st dt 0  s ( 0) e 1 .

The Laplace transform of a exponential function   L[e  at u (t )]  e  at e  st dt 0    e 0  ( s  a )t  1 ( s  a )t dt   e sa 1  ( s  a )( )  ( s  a )(0)  e e sa 1  sa  0  .

e  st dt dv  sin t dt cos t v   f ( x) g ' ( x)dx  uv   vdu .The Laplace transform of a trigonometry function F ( s )  L[sin t ]    e  st sin t dt 0 ue  st du   s.

s  0 2   s  1 s2  . s   st    st   (e cos t ) /   e cos t  0  0   1  s ( ) s    st   s ( 0)  e cos  ()  e cos  (0)   e cos t    0   1 s   st s   st    (e sin t ) /   e sin t  0    0         2 F ( s)  F ( s)  2 .

then L af1 (t )  bf 2 (t )   aF1 (s)  bF2 (s) L af1 (t )  bf 2 (t )   a   0 e  st f1 (t )dt  b   0  aL f1 (t )  bL f 2 (t ) e  st f 2 (t )dt . the Laplace transform of f1(t) and f2(t). If F1(s) and F2(s) are respectively.

    e j t  e  j  t  1 1 j t  jt Lcos t   L   L e  L e  2 2   2 Euler's Rule e jt  e  jt sin t  j2 e jt  e  jt cos t  2  .

  1 1 1 1  j t  j t  Lcos t   L e  e    2 2  s  j  s  j  1  s  j  s  j   2 2  s  js  js  j 2 2  s s  2 2  1  2s     2 2  2  s    .

2.that is ramp function at e and u (t ) . t  0 . Obtain the Laplace transform of 2 t f (t )  (t )  2u (t )  3e . 3.1. Find the laplace transforms of these functions : r(t)tu(t) . Determine the Laplace transform of f (t )  cost u(t ) .

then L f (t  a ) u (t  a )    f (t  a ) u (t  a )e  st dt. a  0 0 But u (t  a )  0 for t  a and u (t  a )  1 for t  a. Hence L f (t  a ) u (t  a )    0 f (t  a ) e  st dt .If F ( s ) is Laplace transformof f (t ).

As t  a. x  .If we let x  t  a then dx  dt and t  x  a. x  0 and as t  . Thus L f (t  a ) u (t  a )    f ( x) e s( xa) dx 0   e  as  f ( x) e  sx dx  e  as F ( s ) 0 so. L f (t  a) u (t  a)  e  as F ( s) .

Lcos t   s s  Using timeshiftproperty. 2 2 Lcos  (t  a) u (t  a)  e s  as s  2 2 .As examplewe know.

then  Le   at   f (t )  e  at f (t )e  st dt 0    f (t ) e ( s  a )t dt  F ( s  a) 0  Le  at  f (t )  F ( s  a) .If F ( s ) is Laplace transformof f (t ).

s Lcos wt   2 s 2 Usingfrequencyshiftproperty. sa  at L e cos wt  2 2 ( s  a)     .As examplewe know that.

du   se dt df and dv  dt  df (t ).Given that F(s) is the Laplace transformof f(t). the Laplace transformof its derivatives is.  df  L    dt    0 df  st e dt dt To integrateby thispart. let u  e . v  f (t ) dt -st -st .

Then.  df  L    f (t )e  st  dt    0   f (t )[ se  st dt] 0    0  f (0  )  s f (t )e  st dt 0  sF ( s)  f (0  ) L f ' (t )  sF ( s)  f (0  ) .

The Laplace transformof secondderivative is...  s 0 f n 1 (0  )   s F ( s )  s f (0 )  f ' (0 )  s  . d n f L n  dt  n n 1   n2 f ' (0  )  . d 2 f L 2  dt       sL f ' ( t )  f ' ( 0 )     s sF ( s )  f (0  )  f ' (0  )  s 2 F ( s)  sf (0  )  f ' (0  ) L f ' ' (t )  s 2 F ( s)  s f (0  )  f ' (0  ) We can obtain nth derivatives.

L[ sin t ]  sF ( s )  f (0  ) L[sin t ]    sF ( s )  f (0 )   1  1 s     s 2  1  2 2 2   s  s    .then f (0)  1 and f ' (t )   sin t.If we let f(t)  cos ωt.

dF(s)  ds   0   f (t )(te  st )dt  [tf (t )]e  st dt  L[tf (t )] 0 and frequencydifferentiationproperty becomes dF(s) L[tf (t )]   ds .If F (s) is Laplace transformof f(t). then  F(s)   f (t )e  st dt 0 Taking derivative with respectto s.

Repeatedapplication of thisequationleadto L[t n f (t )]  (1) n d n F(s) ds n 1 We know that L[e ]  sa Usingproperty of frequencyof derivative.  at L[te  at d  1  1 ]    ds  s  a  ( s  a ) 2 .

u  and dv  e  st  f (t )dt.If F (s) is Laplace transformof f(t) the Laplace transformof integralis  t t   L[ f (t )dt ]  [ f (t )dt ]e  st dt 0 0 0 t To integratelet.vdu s . v  . usingformulauv. du  f (t )dt 0  st  e dt.

hand side of equation.t  e  st L[ f (t )dt ]   f (t )dt     s 0 0  t     1 0  e  st f (t )dt  s  0  For the first term on right . evaluatingthe term t   yield zero due to e 10 and evaluatingat t  0 give  f(t)dt  0.thus s0 t  0 0   1  st 1 L[ f (t )dt ]  e f (t )dt  F ( s ) s s t  1 L[ f (t )dt]  F ( s) s 0 .

s t 1 1  1 L[ f (t )dt  L[t ]     2 s s  s 0  Thus Laplace transformof ramp functionis L[t ]  1 s2 .1 If we let f(t)  u (t ). and F(s)  .

and F(s)  t 2  t L[ t dt  L[ ]  2 0 L[t ]  2 2 s 3 1 1   2 s s  1 s2 . .If we let f(t)  t u (t ).

f 1  (0 )   f (t )dt  .Repeatedapplication n! n L[t ]  n 1 s Similarly. we can show t L[   1 1 1  f (t )dt ]  F ( s )  f (0 ) s s 0 where.usingintegration by part.

If F (s) is Laplace transformof f(t). then  F(s)   f (t )e  st dt 0 Taking integralwith respectto s.   s  F ( s )ds   0  st   s 0  e f (t )  st f (t ) f (t )( ) dt  [ ]e dt  L[ ] t t t and frequencydifferentiationproperty becomes   f (t ) L[ ]  F ( s )ds t s .

and F(s)  f (t ) L[ ] t  1  s | 1 s 1  s  s s 1 2   2 ds  s ds s  1( 1  s 1 ) 1 s 2 . .If we let f(t)  t u (t ).

Find the laplace transforms of these functions: 2 t a ) f (t )  2te 1 4  3t b) f (t )  t e 2 c) f (t )  5e 2t cos 3t d ) f (t )  4e 5t sin t .1.

denoted by L1[ F ( s)] is given by C  j 1 st f (t )  L [ F ( s)]  F ( s ) e ds(t  0)  2  j C  j 1 where C is a real constant。 Note: The inverse Laplace transform operation involving rational functions can be carried out using Laplace transform table and partial-fraction expansion. .Definition：Inverse Laplace transform.

1 a) L [ ]  1 s s  1  b) L  2  sin t 2 s   1  1 1  3  1 1  c) L  2  sin 3t  3L  2 2 s  9 s 3  3 1   1   t 5 5 1  5  1  3  e d )L  L  1  3    3s  1  3 s     3   .

2!  2 e) L [ 3 ]  3L  21   3t s s  1 1  3!  1 3 1  3  f ) L  4   L  31   t s  2 s  2 1 6 1  1  7s  s  1  g )L  2  7 cos 2t   7L  2 2 s  4 s  2   2   1  1 3t 4 1 3t 4 1 h) L   2L  2 e t  e t 5 5 4! 12  s  3   s  3  1 .

 Where . Suppose F(s) has a general form of : N ( s) F ( s)  D( s ) N(s) – numerator polynomial D(s) – denominator polynomial  N(s)=0 are called zeros of F(s). while D(s)=0 are called poles of F(s).

 If

F(s) has a simple poles, then D(s) become a
product of factor:
N ( s)
F ( s) 
s  p1 s  p2 ...s  pn 

 For

all s = -p1,-p2,…,-pn are the simple poles.
kn
k1
k2
F ( s) 

 ... 
s  p1 s  p2
s  pn

 k1,k2,…,kn

- are known as residues of F(s)

 If

we multiply bothside with (s + p1)

s  p1 F (s)  k1
 Since

s  p1  k n

s  p1  k 2

 ... 
s  p2

pi ≠ pj, setting s = -p1

s  p1 F (s) s p

1

 Thus

s  pn

 k1

in general form,
ki  s  pi F (s) s  pi

 Since

the inverse transform of each terms,

f (t )  k1e

 p1t

 k2e

 p2t

 ...  k n e

 pn t

2s  3
Example 14 : F(s) 
s s  3
k1
k2
2s  3

s ( s  3)
s
s 3
multiplybothside with s ,
2s  3
k1 
s 3
k1  1

s 0

sk 2
2s  3
 k1 
s 3
s 3

2 s  3 ( s  3)k1 multiplybothsidewith s  3.   k2 s s 2s  3 k2  s 3 s k2  1 2s  3 1 1 Hence   ss  3 s s  3 1  2s  3  1  1  1 L  L      s s  3 s s  3     from table. f (t )  1  e 3t .

  k2  ss  3 s s3 s 2  12 k2  s s  3 k 2  8 s  2 .  k1   s  2s  3 s2 s3 s 2  12 k1  s  2s  3 k1  2 s 0  s  2 k 3 s 2  12 s  2 k1 multiplybothsidewith s  2.s 2  12 Example 15 : F(s)  s s  2 s  3 k3 k1 k2 s 2  12    s s  2 s  3 s s  2 s  3 sk 3 sk 2 s 2  12 multiplybothsidewith s .

s 2  12 k3  ss  2 k3  7 Hence.multiplybothsidewith s  3. 1 f (t )  1  8e  2t  7e 3t . s 2  12 s  3k1 s  3k 2    k3 ss  2 s s2 s  3 s 2  12 1 8 7    ss  2s  3 s s  2 s  3  s 2  12  8 7  1  1 L   L     s s  2 s  3  ss  2s  3  from table.

 k2 s  p  2  k1 s  p  1  F1 ( s) F1(s) is the remaining part of F(s) [does not have a pole at s = -p]. kn  s  p F (s) s  p n . Suppose F(s)  F(s) has n repeated poles at s = -p kn s  p  n  k n 1 s  p  n 1  Where  .  Determine kn as...

2.n-1 s  p  s  p . evaluate the result a s = -p to get rid of other coefficients except kn-1  d n s  p F (s) k n1  ds  Repeating s  p this gives  1 d2 n    s  p F ( s) 2 2! ds k n2  mth   term becomes k nm  Where  1 dm n    s  p F ( s) m m! ds m = 1.…. multiply each term by (s+1)n and differentiate to get rid of kn. To determine kn-1.

Example 16 : Calculatev(t) given thatV(s)  10s 2  4 ss  1s  22 A 2 s 0 s  1s  2 10s 2  4  s  1s  22 4 (1)(2) multiplybothsidewith s  1. 10s 2  4 10s 2  4  14 (1)(1) 2 2  A sB sC sD   s  1 s  22 s  2 1   s  1A s  1C s  1D  B  2 2 s s  2 s  2 ss  2 10s 2  4  14 . B 10s 2  4 2 s  1 ss  2 ss  1s  22 A B C D     2 s s  1 s  2 s  2 multiplybothsidewith s .

2 2 2     10 s  4 s  2 A s  2 B multiplybothsidewith s  2 2 .  44 (2)(1)  s  2  2  22 d 10s 2  4     ds  s s  2     s 20s   10s 2  4 2 s  1 s 2 s  2 10s 2  4 s s  1s  2 2 s  2 s  2 52   13 4 1 14 22 13     2 s s  1 s  2  s2 2   10 s 4  14 22 13  1 1 1 L  L      2 2 s s  1 s  2 s  2  s s  1s  2    from table f (t )  1  14e t  22te  2t  13e  2t .    C  ( s  2) D s s  1 s s 1 10s 2  4 C s s  1 s  2   d s  22 V ( s) D ds  s  2 Hence.

 Complete the square by letting s  as  b  s  2s      s      2 2 2 2 2 2 . F(s) may have a general form F (s)  A1s  A2 s 2  as  b  F1 (s)  Where F1(s) remaining part of F(s) [does not have this pair of complex poles.

 We also let A1s  A2  A1 s     B1  Then F ( s)   From equation become A1 s     B1 s   2   2 s   2   2  F1 ( s) table f (t )  A1e t cos t  B1e t sin t  f1 (t ) .

H(s)  20 s  3s 2  8s  25 In thisexample.Example 17 : Find the inversetransformof the frequency domain function. A Bs  C H(s)    2 2 s  3 s  8s  25 s  3 s  8s  25 solution :  20    Algebraicmethod: multiplying both side by s  3 s 2  8s  25  20  As   8s  25  B s 20  A s 2  8s  25  Bs  C s  3 2 2   3  C s  3 .H ( s ) has a pair of complexpoles s 2  8s  25  0 or s  4  j 3.

Thus 2 2 s  10 2 2s  4   2 H(s)   2   s  3 s  8s  25 s  3 s  4 2  9 2 2s  4  2 3    2 2 s  3 s  4   3 3 s  4 2  32 Then. f (t )  2e 3t  2e  4t 2  4t cos 3t  e sin 3t 3 . C  10. B  2.Equation coefficients : s2 : 0  A  B  A  B s : 0  8 A  3 B  C  5 A  C  C  5 A constant: 20  25 A  3C  25 A  15 A  A  2 That is.

L f ' (t )   sF ( s )  f (0  ) or  dy     L  sL y  y ( 0 )   dx  L f ' ' (t )  s 2 F ( s )  s f (0  )  f ' (0  ) or d 2y L  2   s 2 L[ y ]  sy (0  )  y ' (0  )  dx  .

and taking the inverse of each term by using Table of Laplace .e. partial fractions.Procedure : Take the Laplace transform of both sides of the differential equation by applying the formula for the Laplace transforms of derivatives Put in the given initial conditions. i. Rearrange the equation to make L [y] the subject. where necessary. Determine y by using. y(0) and y’(0).

dy y(0)  10  2 y  12 dt  dy  L    2 L  y   L 12  dt  12 sY ( s)  10  2Y ( s)  s 12  s  2 Y (s)  10  s 10 12 Y ( s)   s  2 s ( s  2) 57 .

A1 A2 12   s ( s  2) s s  2  12   12  A1  s   6    s( s  2)  s 0  s  2  s 0  12  12  A2  ( s  2)     6   s( s  2)  s 2  s  s 2 10 6 6 6 4 Y ( s)      s2 s s2 s s2 y (t )  6  4e 2 t 58 .

dy  2 y  12sin 4t dt y(0)  10 12(4) sY ( s)  10  2Y ( s)  2 s  16 10 48 Y ( s)   2 s  2 ( s  2)( s  16) B1s  B2 48 A   2 2 ( s  2)( s  16) s  2 s  16 59 .

2sin 4t 60 .4 B1s  B2   2 2 ( s  2)( s  16) s  2 s  16 48 2.8 B1  2.4 cos 4t  1.4e 2t  2.4s 4.4 2.4 10 2.4  s  16  s 2 20 48 2.48  48 A 2   2.4  B1  B2   (1)(17) 1 17 B2  4.8 Y ( s)    2  2 s  2 s  2 s  16 s  16 y (t )  12.4 B2   (2)(16) 2 16 48 2.

2 d y dy  3  2 y  24 2 dt dt y(0)  10 and y '(0)  0 24 s Y ( s)  10s  0  3 sY ( s)  10  2Y (s )  s 2 24 10s  30 Y ( s)   2 2 s( s  3s  2) s  3s  2 24 10s  30   s( s  1)( s  2) ( s  1)( s  2) 61 .

24 12 24 12    s ( s  1)( s  2) s s  1 s  2 10s  30 20 10   ( s  1)( s  2) s  1 s  2 12 4 2 F (s)    s s 1 s  2 t f (t )  12  4e  2e 2 t 62 .

Exercise 3 1. Find f(t) for each of the following functions a  6 s  26s  26 F s   s  1s  2s  3 b  16s  30s  500 F s   2 s s  2 s  50 2 2   c  F s   d  10s  105s  216s  104 F s   2 s  10s  16  400 s s  4s  5 2 3  2 2 63 .

 -3 dt .2. d2x dx -t  3  2x(t)  e for t  0 2 dt dt dx(0) and x(0)  2. Solve the following differential equation using Laplace transforms.

.

a) Resistor Time domain S-domain 66 .

b) Inductor Time domain S-domain 67 .

c) Capacitor Time domain i(t )  C S-domain dv(t ) dt 68 .

LAPLACE CIRCUIT SOLUTIONS di KVL : v S (t )  Ri(t )  L (t ) dt  di  VS ( s )  RI ( s )  LL    dt   di  L    sI ( s )  i (0)  sI ( s )  dt  .

t  0  R   .1   RI ( s )  LsI ( s ) s 1 I ( s)  s ( R  Ls ) K1 K2 1/ L I ( s)    s( R / L  s) s s R/L 1 K1  sI ( s ) | s  0  R 1 K 2  ( s  R / L) I ( s ) | s   R / L   R R    t 1 i (t )  1  e L .

i(t ) vS usingKVL : Ri (t )  v (t )  v s dv dv i (t )  C . so RC  v  vS dt dt  dv  RCL    V ( s )  VS ( s )  dt   dv  L    sV ( s )  v (0)  sV ( s )  dt  .

t0 .v S (t )  0. t  0  v(0)  0 1 v S  u (t )  VS ( s )  s 1 RCsV ( s )  V ( s )  s 1 1 / RC V (s)   s ( RCs  1) s ( s  1 / RC ) K1 K2 1 / RC V (s)    s ( s  1 / RC ) s s  1 / RC K1  sV ( s ) | s  0  1 K 2  ( s  1 / RC )V ( s ) | s  1 / RC  1 v(t )  1  e  t RC .

.

To the input voltage .Find the transfer function relating the capacitor voltage .

q(t)  Cv C (t ) d 2 v C (t ) dv C (t ) LC  RC  v C (t )  v (t ) 2 dt dt LCs 2 VC ( s )  RCsVC ( s )  VC ( s )  V ( s ) VC ( s ) 1 G(s)   V (s) LCs 2  RCs  1 1 LC G(s)  R 1 s2  s  L LC .di(t ) 1 L  Ri(t )  dt C  i(t )dt  v(t ) as q(t)   i(t)dt d 2 q (t ) dq(t ) 1 L R  q (t )  v (t ) 2 dt dt C output vC .