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**When a force is applied to a structure, the components
**

of the structure change slightly in their dimensions and

are said to be strained. Devices to measure these small

changes in dimensions are called strain gages.

.0014. Thus. Micro-strain is the actual strain multiplied by 106.0014. As a result it is common to talk about strain in units of micro-strain . a strain of 1400 𝜇strain is an actual strain of 0. is the normal stress and E is a property of the material called the modulus of elasticity (also called Young's modulus). In most structures the values of strain are usually very small.1 Strain has units of inches per inch or millimeters per millimeter and hence is dimensionless. Hooke's law. for example. a low-strength steel will yield (take a permanent deformation) at a strain of only about 0.Figure 8.

we must determine the relationship between the strain and the change in resistance.1. The resistance of a wire such as that shown in Figure 8.For a wire to function as a strain gage.. is known as the transverse strain ε. Solid mechanics provides the following relationship between the axial and the transverse strain: .is given by This equation can be logarithmically differentiated to obtain This equation can also be logarithmically differentiated to obtain dD/D.

the transverse dimension decreases. and the change in resistivity of the wire. strain. At this point. it is useful to define the strain gage factor. S: . ν is a property of the material known as Poisson's ratio ν the minus sign indicates that as the wire becomes longer. The relationship between the change in resistance of the wire.Here.

be glued to the structure] .[This backing can. in turn.

the voltage drop across .Using Ohm's law again.

This means that there is a single strain gage and three fixed resistors. . this becomes This analysis is what is known as a quarter-bridge circuit.Creating a common denominator. This arrangement is common when many strain gages are applied to a structure.

.

.

.

.

Devices that use the Doppler effect with laser light. They are used by police to measure vehicle velocities. are commonly used to measure fluid velocities and are described in Chapter 10. the radar beam places essentially no load on the measured system. called laser-Doppler velocimeters. Doppler velocity measurements can also be made using laser-generated light beams. and they are often used to measure velocities in sports. . For most engineering applications.where λ is the wavelength of the incident radio waves. Doppler radar velocitymeasuring devices are readily available commercially.

wikipedia.http://en.org/wiki/Doppler_effect .

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