STATISTICAL

QUALITY
CONTROL
(S.Q.C.)
PRESENTED BY-:
Vaibhav Karnawat (121416008)
Vikas Patil (121416010)
Swanand Pisat (1214160)
Shrinivas Shirnewar(121416011)

CONTENTS-:
Meaning…………….
Definitions …………
Characteristics………
Causes of variations……….
Methods of S.Q.C………..
Process Control-:
Control Chart………..
Purpose & uses of control charts……….
Types of control charts………
Control charts for variables-:
Chart……
R Chart ……
σ Chart………

Control chart for attributes-:
p-chart…………
np-chart…......
C-Chart…………
Product Control/Acceptance Sampling-:
Meaning…………..
Definition………….
Risks in Acceptance Sampling-:
Producer‟s Risk……….
Consumer‟s Risk……….
Types of Sampling Inspection plans-:
Single Sampling plan………
Double Sampling Plan……..
Multiple Sampling Plan…….
Advantages of S.Q.C……………
Limitations of S.Q.C…………….

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT -:
Mrs. Dhere Mam our Advance Mathematics
lecturer, without her guidance &
suggestions this work is not possible…..

MEANING-:
 Manufacturer Refers to the use of statistical
techniques in controlling the quality of goods.

 Means of establishing & achieving quality
specification, which requires use of tools &
techniques of statistics.

DEFINITION-:
“Statistical quality control can be simply defined as
an economic & effective system of maintaining &
improving the quality of outputs throughout the
whole operating process of specification,
production & inspection based on continuous
testing with random samples.”
By-:
YA LUN CHOU

DEFINITION-:
“Statistical quality control should be viewed as a kit
of tools which may influence decisions to the
functions of specification, production or
inspection.
By-:

EUGENE L. GRANT

CHARACTERISTICS OF S.Q.C.-:
 Designed to control quality standard of goods
produced for marketing.
 Exercise by the producers during production to
assess the quality of goods.
 Carried out with the help of certain statistical
tools like Mean Chart, Range Chart, P-Chart, CChart etc.
 Designed to determine the variations in quality
of the goods & limits of tolerance.

CAUSES OF VARIATIONS IN
QUALITY-:
1.

ASSIGNABLE CAUSES-: It refers to those
changes in the quality of the products which can
be assigned or attributed to any particular
causes like defective materials, defective
labour, etc.

2. CHANCE CAUSES-: These causes take place as
per chance or in a random fashion as a result of
the cumulative effect of a multiplicity of several
minor causes which cannot be identified. These
causes are inherent in every type of production.

METHODS OF S.Q.C.-:
1.

PROCESS CONTROL-: Under this the quality of
the products is controlled while the products
are in the process of production.

The process control is secured with the
technique of control charts. Control charts are
also used in the field of advertising, packing etc.
They ensures that whether the products
confirm to the specified quality standard or not.

CONTROL CHARTS-:
A control chart is a time plot of a statistic, such as a sample mean, range,
standard deviation, or proportion, with a center line and upper and lower
control limits. The limits give the desired range of values for the statistic.
When the statistic is outside the bounds, or when its time plot reveals certain
patterns, the process may be out of control.
Value
This point is out of the control limits

UCL
3

Center
Line

3

LCL
Time

A process is considered in statistical control if it has no assignable causes,
only natural variation.

PURPOSE & USES OF CONTROL
CHARTS-:
1. Helps in determining the quality standard of the
products.
2. Helps in detecting the chance & assignable
variations in the quality standards by setting two
control limits.
3. Reveals variations in the quality standards of the
products from the desired level.
4. Indicates whether the production process is in
control or not.
5. Ensures less inspection cost & time in the
process control.

TYPES-:

Types of
Control Charts

Control Charts
for Variables

Chart

R-Chart

Control Charts
for Attributes

σ-Chart

p-Chart

np-Chart

C-Chart

CONTROL CHARTS FOR VARIABLES

CHART/ MEAN CHART-: This chart is
constructed for controlling the variations in the
average quality standard of the products in a
production process.

 R-CHART-: This chart is constructed for
controlling the variations in the dispersion or
variability of the quality standards of the
products in a production process.

EXAMPLE-:
Sample No.

Weights

1
2
3
4
5

20
12

21
15

20

15 10 11 14
18 10 8 22
19 17 10 13
12 19 14 20
19 26 12 23

Conversion factors for n=5, A2 =0.577, D3 =0,
D4=2.115

SOLUTION-:
Sample
no.

Weights (X)

Total
Weights
(ΣX)

=(ΣX/5)

Range
R=(L-S)

1
2
3
4
5

20

15 10 11 14
12
18 10 8 22
21
19 17 10 13
15
12 19 14 20
20 19 26 12 23

70
70
80
80
100

14
14
16
16
20

10
14
11
8
14

K=5

Σ

=80

ΣR=57

Grand

= Σ /K = 80/5=16

Grand Chart
Grand = 16 (Central line)
Control limits-:
UCL = Grand + A2
= 16 + 0.577 x 11.4
= 22.577
LCL = Grand - A2
= 16 – 0.577 x 11.4
= 9.423

= ΣR/K = 57/5 = 11.4

Range Chart
= 11.4 (Central line)
Control limits-:
UCL = D4.
= 2.115 x 11.4
= 24.09
LCL = D3.
= 0 x 11.4

=0

σ Chart-: This chart is constructed to get a better picture of the
variations in the quality standard in a process than that is obtained
from the range chart provided the standard deviation(σ) of the
various samples are readily available.

Example-: Quality control is maintained in a factory with the help of
standard deviation chart. Ten items are chosen in every sample. 18
samples in all were chosen whose ΣS was 8.28. Determine the three
sigma limits of σ- chart. You may use the following-:
n = 10, B3 = 0.28, B4 = 1.72, K = 18.
Solution-:

= ΣS/K = 8.28/18 = 0.46

UCL = B4.

LCL = B3.

= 1.72 x 0.46

= 0.28 x 0.46

= 0.7912

= 0.1288

Control Charts for Attributes-:
 p-chart-: This chart is constructed for
controlling the quality standard in the average
fraction defective of the products in a process
when the observed sample items are classified
into defectives & non-defectives.
 np-chart-: This chart is constructed for
controlling the quality standard of attributes in
a process where the sample size is equal & it is
required to plot the no. of defectives (np) in
samples instead of fraction defectives (p).

Example-:
Sample No.

Size of sample
(n)

No. of
defectives (d)

Fraction
defectives (d/n)

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

5
3
3
6
5
6
8
10
10
4

0.05
0.03
0.03
0.06
0.05
0.06
0.08
0.1
0.1
0.04

K = 10

Σd = 60

= Total no. of defectives/Total no. of units =
60/1000 = 0.06
»q̅ = 1- = 1- 0.06 = 0.94
= 0.06 (central line)

UCL = + 3√ . q̅/n
= 0.06 + 3√0.06x0.94/100
= 0.1311
LCL = - 3 √ . q̅/n
= 0.06 - 3 √ 0.06x0.94/100
= -0.0111 = 0

Example-:

An inspection of 10 samples of size 400 each from 10 lots reveal the
following number of defectives:
17, 15, 14, 26, 9, 4, 19, 12, 9, 15

Calculate control limits for the no. of defective units.
Solution-: n = 400, k (No. of samples) = 10, Σd (total no. of defectives) =
140

n = Σd/k = 140/10 = 14
Now,

= n /n = 14/400 = 0.035,

»q̅ = 1-

= 1- 0.035 = 0.965

n = 14 (central line)

UCL= n + 3√ n q̅
̅ = 14 + 3√400x0.035x0.965
= 25.025

LCL= n - 3√ n q
= 14 - 3√400x0.035x0.965
= 2.975

C-Chart-:
This chart is used for the control of
no. of defects per unit say a piece of
cloth/glass/paper/bottle which may
contain more than one defect. The
inspection unit in this chart will be a single
unit of product. The probability of
occurrence of each defect tends to remain
very small.

USES-:
The following are the field of application of C-Chart-:

Number of defects of all kinds of aircraft final
assembly.

Number of defects counted in a roll of coated paper,
sheet of photographic film, bale of cloth etc.

ACCEPTANCE SAMPLING-:
Meaning-:
Another major area of S.Q.C. is “Product Control” or
“Acceptance Sampling”. It is concerned with the inspection
of manufactured products. The items are inspected to
know whether to accept a lot of items conforming to
standards of quality or reject a lot as non- conforming.

DEFINITION-:
“ Acceptance Sampling is concerned with the decision to
accept a mass of manufactured items as conforming to
standards of quality or to reject the mass as nonconforming to quality. The decision is reached through
sampling.”
By-:

SIMPSON AND KAFKA

Risks in Acceptance sampling-:
1.

Producer‟s risk-: Sometimes inspite of good quality, the
sample taken may show defective units as such the lot
will be rejected, such type of risk is known as producer‟s
risk.

2. Consumer‟s Risk-: Sometimes the quality of the lot is not
good but the sample results show good quality units as
such the consumer has to accept a defective lot, such a
risk is known as consumer‟s risk.

Types of Sampling Inspection Plan-:
Single Sampling Plan-: Under single sampling plan, a sample of
„n‟ items is first chosen at random from a lot of N items.
If the sample contains, say, „c‟ or few defectives, the lot is
accepted, while if it contains more than „c‟ defectives, the
lot is rejected („c‟ is known as „acceptance number‟).

Single Sampling Plan-:
Count the no. of
defectives,
„d‟ in the sample of size
„n‟

Is „d‟ ≤ „c‟

If yes, then accept the
lot

If no, then reject the lot

Double Sampling Plan-:
Under this sampling plan, a sample of „n1‟ items is first
chosen at random from the lot of size „N‟. If the
sample contains, say, „c1‟ or few defectives, the lot is
accepted; if it contains more than „c2‟ defectives, the
lot is rejected. If however, the number of defectives
in the sample exceeds „c1‟, but is not more than „c2‟, a
second sample of „n2‟ items is taken from the same lot.
If now, the total no. of defectives in the two samples
together does not exceed „c2‟, the lot is accepted;
otherwise it is rejected. („c1‟ is known as acceptance
no. for the first sample & „c2‟ is the acceptance no. of
both the samples taken together)

Double Sampling Plan-:

Count the no.
of defectives,
d1in the first
sample of size
n1
Is d1 ≤ c1 ?

If yes, accept
the lot
If No, then
check
If c1 ≤ d1 ≥ c2
?

Draw another
sample of size
n2
Count the no.
of defectives
d2 in this
sample
Is d1 + d2 ≤ c2

If No,then
reject the lot

If yes, then
accept the lot.

Multiple Sampling Plan-:
Under this sampling plan, a decision to accept or reject a lot
is taken after inspecting more than two samples of small
size each. In this plan, units are examined one at a time &
after examining each unit decision is taken. “However,
such plan are very complicated & hence rarely used in
practice.”

ADVANTAGES OF S.Q.C.-:
 Helpful in controlling quality of a product

 Eliminate Assignable causes of variation
 Better quality at lower inspection cost
 Useful to both consumers & producers

 It makes workers quality conscious
 Helps in earn goodwill
 It leads to more uniform quality of production

Benefits of Statistical Quality Control-:
1) It provides a means of detecting error at inspection.
2) It leads to more uniform quality of production.
3) It improves the relationship with the customer.
4) It reduces inspection costs.
5) It reduces the number of rejects and saves the cost of material.

6) It provides a basis for attainable specifications.
7) It points out the bottlenecks and trouble spots.
8) It provides a means of determining the capability of the
manufacturing process.
9) It promotes the understanding and appreciation of quality
control.

LIMITATIONS-:
 Does not serve as a „PANACEA‟ for all quality evils.
 It cannot be used to all production process.
 It involves mathematical & statistical problems in the
process of analysis & interpretation of variations in
quality.
 Provides only an information services.

THANK YOU!!