Central Processing Unit
• BRAIN of Computer • Also known as Processor • Reads & executes program instructions, performs calculations • Responsible for storing & retrieving information from different medias • Also handles information from one part of the computer to another • Its major two components are CU(control unit) & ALU(arithmetic logical unit)

What do CPU do?
• CPU carries out instructions and tells the rest of the computer system what to do. • This is done by the Control Unit of the CPU which sends command signals to the other components of the system.

• Also performs arithmetic calculations and date
manipulation by a part of the CPU known as the Arithmetic Logic Unit. • Holds date and instructions which are in current use. These are kept in the main store or Memory.

Components of CPU

• Directs entire computer system to carry out stored program instructions • Uses instruction contained in instruction register to decide which circuits need to be activated. • Co-ordinates activates of other two units as well as all peripheral & auxiliary storage devices linked to computer • Instructs ALU which arithmetic or logical operation to be performed • Specialized electronic circuitry in CU decode program instructions held in main memory. • Each instruction is read from memory into instruction register. The process of reading an instruction is often referred to as fetchexecute process.

Arithmetic Logic Unit
• Arithmetic logic unit executes arithmetic and logical operations • Arithmetic operations include addition, subtraction, multiplication and division • Logical operations compare numbers, letters and special characters. • Performs logic functions such as AND, OR and Not. • The accumulator is used to accumulate results • It is place where answers from many operations are stored temporarily before operations are to performed by the ALU

Accumulator General Purpose Register

Memory Unit
• Holds data and instructions for processing • Although it is closely associated with the CPU, in actual fact is separate from it • Memory associated with the CPU is also called primary storage, primary memory • Also known as main storage, internal storage and main memory • When we load software from a floppy disk, hard disk or CDROM, it is stored in the Main Memory. • Each devices uses different types of memory in different ways.

Types of Memory
There are two basic types of computer memory inside the computer, RAM and ROM.

• Stand for Random Access Memory • Main Storage & place where programs & software we load gets stored • When CPU runs a program, it fetches program instructions from RAM & carries them out • Stores the results of calculations • RAM can have instructions READ & WRITTEN by the CPU • When we switch a computer off, whatever is stored in the RAM gets erased. • Considered “random access” because you can access any memory cell directly if you know the row and column that interest at that cell

Dynamic RAM Static RAM

Each memory cell looses its charge quickly It must be refreshed hundreds of times to prevent data from being lost

It doesn’t need to be refreshed continually Faster, larger & expensive Uses special area of memory “Cache”

• Stands for Read Only Memory • CPU can only fetch or read instructions from ROM • ROM comes with instructions permanently stored inside & these instructions cannot be overwritten by CPU • ROM memory is used for storing special sets of instructions which computers needs when it starts up • When we switch computer off, contents of ROM do not get erased but remain stored permanently • Also known as firmware is an integrated circuit programmed with specific data when it is manufactured • Used not only in computers, but in most other electronic items as well.

(Programmable Rom)

(Electrically Erasable ROM)

(Erasable ROM)

• A technology based on the memory subsystem of your computer • Main purpose of a cache is to accelerate your computer while keeping the price of the computer low • A cache has some maximum size that is much smaller than the larger storage area. It is possible to have multiple layers of cache • It is use of a faster but smaller memory type to accelerate a slower but larger memory type • A lot of subsystems in a computer; cache can be put between many of them to improve performance.

Cache Memory

L2 Cache

Types of Cache
• • • • L1/L2/L3 Cache RAM Cache Disk Cache Software Level Cache

Flash Memory
• Used for easy and fast information storage in such devices as digital cameras and home video game consoles • Used more as a hard drive than as RAM • Considered a solid state storage device • A few examples of Flash memory:  Computer’s BIOS chip  Compact Flash (Most often found in digital cameras)  Smart Media (most often found in digital cameras)  Memory Stick( most often found in digital cameras)  PCMCIA Type I and Type II memory cards (used as solid-state disks in laptops)  Memory cards for video game consoles

Virtual Memory
• Virtual memory look at RAM for areas that have not been used recently and copy them onto the hard disk • This frees up space in RAM to load the new application. • This copying happens automatically, you don’t even know it is happening and it makes your computer feel like that it has unlimited RAM space

• Buses have grown & evolved over years in an effort to match performance of all other computer components • A subsystem that transfers data between computer components inside a computer or between computers • A bus is capable of being parallel or a serial bus • Today all computers utilize two types of buses, an internal or local bus and an external bus • Computer or device's bus speed or throughput is always measured in bits per second or megabytes per second



• A high-speed point-to-point channel for attaching a video card to a computer's motherboard, primarily to assist in the acceleration of 3d computer graphics • AGP provides two major enhancements over PCI:  Faster performance  Direct access to system memory • AGP uses several techniques to achieve faster performance:

 AGP is a 32 bit bus with a clock rate of 66 megahertz  AGP uses pipelining to increases speed  AGP uses sideband addressing, which allows the graphic card to request and issue addressing information using eight additional address lines that are separate from the 32 bit path used to transfer date.

• The original PC bus operated at 4.77 MHz and was 8 bits wide meaning it could process 8 bits of date in each cycle • It improved to 16 bits at 8 MHz and officially became known as industry standard Architecture (ISA) • This bus design is capable of passing along date at a rate of up to 16 MBps. • When number of graphics acceleration operations need to be performed, these commands are sent from the VGA driver to the VGA card over the PCI bus.



Think of a motherboard as a scale model of a futuristic city with many modular plug-in buildings • Each using power from a co Multiple-lane highways of various circuit cards performing various functions all plug into many similar sockets on a common circuit board common electric . • Each circuit card performs a unique function in computer & gets it s power from the socket all system • Original IBM PC contained original PC motherboard, design premiered in 1982.

• For adding a new function to computer you bought a separate card and plugged it into one of the slots. • This approach was pioneered in the mass market by the Apple II machine. • By making it easy to add cards, Apple and IBM accomplished two huge things:  They made it easy to add new features to the machine over time  They opened the computer to creative opportunities of third party vendors.

• A multi layered printed circuit board


• Copper circuit paths called traces that resemble a complicated roadmap carry signals and voltages across the motherboard • Layered fabrication techniques are used so that some layers of a board can carry data for the BIOS, processor and memory buses while other layers carry voltage and ground returns without the paths short-circuiting at intersections. • The insulated layers are manufactured into one complete, complex sandwich. • Chips and sockets are soldered onto the motherboard.

• Modern Pentium class motherboards have a data bus with 64 bits. That is the width of the date highway that goes in and out of the processor • The Pentium processors, however, do use 32 bits registers to handle 32 bit instructions. • Bus speeds and widths have increased use to faster processors and the needs of multimedia applications • Typical bus names and widths are: Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) 8 or 16 bits Micro channel Architecture (MCA) 16 or 32 bits VESA Local Bus (VLB) 32 bits Peripheral component Interconnect (PCI) 32 or 64 bits Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP) 32 bits

Data Bus width

• The voice in your computer that lets you know when you’ve received a new email is made possible by the sound card • Before the arrival of sound cards Personal Computers (PCs) were limited to beeps from a tiny speaker on the motherboard. • In the late 1980 s sound cards ushered in the multimedia PC and took computer games to a whole different level. • In 1989 Creative labs introduced the Creative labs SoundBlaster@ Card Since then many other companies have introduced sound cards and Creative has continued to improve the Sound Blaster line

• A typical sound card has:

A digital signal processor (DSP) A digital to analog converter (DAC) An analog to digital converter (ADC) Read only memory (ROM) or Flash memory Musical instrument digital interface (MIDI)) Jacks A game port

• Sound cards may be connected to:
Headphones Amplified speakers Microphone Tape deck CD player Digital audiotape (DAT) CD-ROM drive An analog output device tape deck CD recordable (CD-R) etc…..


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