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Water and Water supply

Kalule Charles.M

Learning objectives
By the end of the session participants will be
able to;
1. List common sources of water
2. List the basic uses of water
3. Mention water related diseases

4. Describe the safe water chain and its benefits


5. Describe prevention of water contamination

Water
Much of ill health in the developing countries is traced to
lack of safe and wholesome water supply.
In 1980 the UN General Assembly launched the
International drinking water and sanitation decade; aim
of providing adequate safe drinking water to all.
In 1981, the 34th WHA in a resolution emphasized that
safe drinking water is a basic element of PHC.
Water is also an essential part of health education, food
and nutrition and maternal and child health (MCH)

Water
Water should be easily accessible, adequate in
quantity, free from contamination, safe and
readily available throughout the year.
Water intended for human consumption should
be both safe and wholesome;
Free from pathogenic agents
Free from harmful chemical substances
Pleasant to taste i.e., free from colour and odour
and
Usable for domestic purpose.

Water uses i
Agricultural
Fishing
Irrigation
Pesticide and fertilizer application

Industrial
Power generation
Cooling
Heating
Processing

Water uses ii
Transportation
Public purposes
Recreation, Swimming, fountains, ornamental
ponds, beatification, water racing
Cleaning streets
Fire protection

Water uses iii


Domestic

Cooking
Drinking
Hygiene and sanitation
Gardening

In general, water is useful in carrying away wastes


from all establishment and institution.
It is an important factor in the social, economic, and
cultural development.
It is helpful in disease elimination, promote
development and improve quality of life.

Classification of water sources


Ground water springs, deep wells , shallow
wells, Gravity flow schemes, springs.
Surface water i.e oceans, tanks, lakes, rivers,
streams, ponds.
Rain water

Ground water
Advantages
It is likely to be free from pathogenic agents
It usually requires no treatment
The supply is likely to be certain even in dry season.
It is less subject to contamination
Disadvantages
usually high in mineral content
Requires pumping or some arrangement to lift the
water.

Surface water
Advantages
Commonly available
Disadvantages
Subject to continuous or intermittent pollution,
never safe for human consumption and must
be subjected to sanitary protection and
purification.
The cost of purification is high.

Rain water
Is the prime source of all water
A part of the water sinks into the ground to form
ground water, part of it evaporates back onto the
atmosphere and some of it runs off to form surface
water.
Characteristics
Is the purest in nature
Physically clear, bright and sparkling.
Chemically very soft
Tends to be impure as it passes through the
atmosphere.

Rain water
What are the advantages and disadvantages
of rain water?

Hydrologic cycle
Also known as the water cycle, is the journey water
takes as it circulates from the land to the sky and
back again.
The sun's heat provides energy to evaporate water
from the earth's surface (oceans, lakes, etc.).
Plants also lose water to the air - this is called
transpiration. The water vapour eventually
condenses, forming tiny droplets in clouds.
When the clouds meet cool air over land,
precipitation (rain, sleet, or snow) is triggered, and
water returns to the land (or sea).

Hydrologic cycle
-Some of the precipitation soaks into the ground
(Percolation).
-Some of the underground water is trapped
between rock or clay layers - this is called
groundwater.
-But most of the water flows downhill as runoff
(above ground or underground), eventually
returning to the seas as slightly salty water.

Hydrologic cycle

Hydrologic cycle

Ground Water
Flowing
artesian well
Precipitation
Well requiring a pump

Evaporation and transpiration


Evaporation

Confined
Recharge Area

Runoff

Aquifer
Infiltration

Stream

Water table
Infiltration

Lake

Unconfined aquifer

Less permeable material


such as clay

Confined aquifer
Confirming permeable rock layer

Fig. 15-3 p. 308

The stages of the hydrologic cycle

Evaporation
Transport
Condensation
Precipitation
Groundwater
Run-off

ASSIGNMENT-2
Using a diagrammatic illustration, show how each stage above plays
a role in the hydrologic cycle

Sand dams
A sand dam is a reinforced concrete wall (or a
similarly robust and impermeable surface) built
1-5 metres high across a seasonal sand river.
When it rains the dam captures soil laden water
behind it the sand in the water sinks to the
bottom, whilst the silt remains suspended in the
water.
Research shows that only 1 to 3% of rainwater is
retained behind any individual dam; the
remainder continues its natural flow towards
the ocean.

Sand dam
Eventually the dams fill with sand - sometimes
after only one rainfall or over 1 3 seasons.
25 to 40% of the volume of the sand held is
actually water.
A mature sand dam can store millions of litres of
water refilling after each rainfall providing a
year round supply of clean water to over 1,000
people.

Sand dams
The highest concentration of sand dams with
the strongest track record are found in Kenya.
Although examples are found throughout
worlds semi-arid regions from Angola to
Zimbabwe.

Further examples are recorded in Japan, India,


Thailand, SW USA and Brazil.

Sand dams

Sand dam

Sand dam

Sand dam

Sand dams
There are two simple ways:
Scooping a hole in the sand. The water will
naturally emerge to the surface. Scope holes
used for domestic water should be protected
from contamination by livestock by fencing.
A slotted pipe buried in the sand that either
passes through the dam wall or is connected to a
simple hand pump situated on the river bank

Sand dams

Reference
Environmental engineering by Joseph A.
SALVATO, Nelson L. Nemerow and Franklin J.
Argardy.
http://www.google.co.ug/images?hl=en&clien
t=firefox-a&rls=org.
Parks Text book of preventive and social
medicine by K. Park.

WATER RELATED DISEASES

Kalule Charles.M

Water Related Diseases


Are those diseases that affect humans as a result
of drinking, use for personal hygiene and
recreation purposes or getting into contact with
water contaminated with and or infested with
disease causing agents.
The disease causing agents may be organic as in
germs or inorganic as in chemical contaminants.

Burden of Water related diseases


Poor water quality pose a major threat to human health.
Diarrheal diseases account for 4.1% of the total DALYS
global burden of disease & are responsible for the
deaths of 1.8M people every year.
It was estimated that 88% of that burden is attributable
to unsafe WASH & 90% are U5 children mostly in
developing countries (WHO 2004).

It is estimated that 80% of that burden is attributable to


unsafe water supply, sanitation and hygiene (MOH,
2005).

BURDEN OF WATER RELATED DISEASES


Although water related diseases have largely been
eliminated in wealthier nations, they are a major
challenge in developing world.
1.1bn (17%) of the global population lack access
to safe water supply (WHO 2002).

2.4bn people around the world do not have


access to basic sanitation.(2/3 of these are in the
developing countries (UNIS 2004).

BURDEN OF WATER RELATED DISEASES

42% of the sub Saharan population do not have


access to improved water sources.
While sanitation coverage in sub Saharan Africa
is 36% (64% lack access to sanitation facilities),
(WHO 2004).
78% of the Ugandan population has access to
safe water supply while 69.7% have access to
sanitation facilities (DWD 2010).

WATER FOR LIFE DECADE 2005-2015


The human right to water entitles every one to
sufficient, safe, acceptable, physically accessible
and affordable water for personal and domestic
uses.

We shall not finally defeat AIDS, TB, malaria or


any other infectious diseases that plague the
developing world until we have won the battle
for safe drinking water, sanitation and basic
health care.

Classification of water related diseases


Water borne diseases
Water Washed diseases

Water Contact diseases


Water Insect/vector borne diseases
Water-dispersed diseases

Water Borne diseases


Are contracted as result of ingestion of causative
organisms in drinking water.
Pathogens are transmitted from excreta to water
and then to humans.
These include most of the enteric & diarrheal
diseases caused by
viruses, bacteria and
parasites e.g cholera, typhoid, Hepatitis A & E,
dysenteries and Guinea worm.

Water Borne Diseases


Most water borne diseases are prevalent in countries
where;
Excreta is poorly isolated from the environment
Sewage treatment is inadequate.
Water borne diseases can spread rapidly where there is
no proper sanitation and excreta; leachate is washed
into water sources.
The extent to which disease occurs depends on the load
of disease causing agent.

Prevention and control


Improvements in quality directly reduces incidence of
diseases.
Maintain safe the water chain.
Improvements in sanitation facilities.
Promotion of hygiene practices.

Identification and treatment of cases.


Treatment of waste water/sewage.

Water Washed Diseases


Diseases resulting from poor personal hygiene
due to inadequate amounts of water supply for
washing and bathing.
These include skin diseases- scabies, lice (typhus
& relapsing fevers) and fungal infectionsringworms.
Eye infections- Trachoma and conjunctivitis.
Parasitic infection like jiggers, ring worm.

Prevention and control


Increase quantity of water supply.
Improve personal Hygiene.
Disrupt the route of transmission.

Identify and treat cases.

Water Contact/based Diseases


Are transmitted from/by hosts which either live in
water or require water for part of their developmental
stage e.g. Schistosomiasis and Guinea Worm.
They are passed on to humans when they are ingested
or when one gets in contact with water.
Transmission is more likely due to human activities like
fishing, swimming, farming- rice.

Prevention and control


Reduce surface water contamination.

Control direct contact of human being with water


sources.
Prevent human contact with infected or
suspicious water bodies.
Control intermediate vector population.
Provide protective wear.
Identification and treatment of cases.

Water insect/vector based Diseases


Diseases that are spread by insects which either
breed or bite near water e.g malaria,
onchocerciasis, trypanosomiasis, yellow fever
filariasis.

They are not attributed to water quality but often


spread by large scale development of systems
provide conducive conditions

Prevention and Control


Improving environmental sanitation.

Reducing man insect contact.


Destroy breeding sites.
Improving on housing conditions.
Decrease the need for visiting infected areas.
Identify and treat cases.

Water dispersed diseases


Avery rare and uncommon disease called
legionnaires disease or legionellosis.
It is a type of pneumonia caused by bacteria
caused by breathing in mist from water that
contains the bacteria.

The mist may come from hot tubs, showers or


air-conditioning units for large buildings.

Water dispersed diseases


The bacteria don't spread from person to
person.
The bacteria is dispersed as aerosols from the air
conditioning system.
Prevention
Clean and disinfect air conditioning systems
regularly.

CONSEQUENCES
Poor water and sanitation drain the economy in
terms of treatment and drugs.
Over burden the already constrained health
facilities.
Individual families spend their hard earned
incomes on treatment.
Work-time is lost in looking after the sick.

SAFE WATER CHAIN


Safe water chain is the process of keeping water
safe from the time it is drawn from a safe water
source up to the time of its consumption (i.e.
water source containers used - drawing
technique transportation storage usage).

OBJECTIVES OF SAFE WATER CHAIN


According to the World Health Organization,
the objectives are to ensure safe drinking water
throughout the chain.
1. Preventing contamination of source waters;
2. Treating the water to reduce or remove
contamination that could be present to the
extent necessary to meet the water quality
targets; and
3. Preventing re-contamination during storage,
distribution, and handling of drinking water.

Benefits of safe water chain


The safe water chain is a proven source of some
short-term and long-term benefits. Here are
three benefits.
1. Reduce water related diseases
2. Increases productivity, thereby improving socio
economic status.
3. Improves performance at school and at work place

Safe water chain


With relevant examples discuss how a safe
water chain can be maintained.

PREVENTION OF WATER CONTAMINATION


1. Protection of water source
Water catchment area
Zoning
Avoid stepping in water

2. Improvement in handling of water


Use of clean containers

3. Treatment of water

REFERENCES
http://www.monitor.co.ug/artman/ publish/ features safe
water plans in Uganda 2008

http://www.aquamedia.at/templates/_printversion.cmf/id/14
232.
.
http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/disease/guinea
/en/print.html 2008
http://wwww.unis.unvienna.org/unis/pressrels/2004/envdev
768.html.

K Park 2001;Preventive and social medicine.


Moeller,Dade, W: environmental health, Havard University
press.

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