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# Symmetrical Components

## Symmetrical Component Analysis

Synthesis of Unsymmetrical
Phases from Their Symmetrical
Components
The Symmetrical Components of
Unsymmetrical Phasors
Phase Shift of Symmetrical
Components in Y or Y
Transformer Banks
Power in Terms of Symmetrical
Components

Symmetrical Components

Unsymmetrical Series
Impedance
Sequence Impedance and
Sequence Network
Sequence Networks of
Sequence Network
Zero-Sequence Network

## Symmetrical Component Analysis

Goal :
Symmetrical component analysis is a very useful tool
for dealing with unbalanced three-phase faults.

## Synthesis of Unsymmetrical Phases from

Their Symmetrical Components
1
An unbalanced system of n related phasors can be resolved into

## of the original phasors. The n phasors of each set of components

are equal in lengths , and the angles between adjacent phasors of
the set are equal.
by C.L Fortescue , 1918

## Synthesis of Unsymmetrical Phases from

Their Symmetrical Components
2

a1

b1

c1

c2
a2

b2

## 1. For positive- sequence

2. For negative-sequence

components

components

## Synthesis of Unsymmetrical Phases from

Their Symmetrical Components
3
(3) Zero-sequence components

Va 0

Vb 0
Vc 0
0 For zero-sequence components

## Synthesis of Unsymmetrical Phases from

Their Symmetrical Components
4

Va

Va 0

Va Va1 Va 2 Va 0
Va 2

Vc 2

Vc1
Vc 0

Vc
Vb

Vb 0

Va 1

Vb 2

Vb1

Vb Vb1 Vb 2 Vb 0
Vc Vc1 Vc 2 Vc 0

## Synthesis of Unsymmetrical Phases from

Their Symmetrical Components
5
Use a to designate the operator that causes a rotation of 1200 in the
counterclockwise direction ,
a

a2

## a 11200 0.5 j 0.866

a 1240 0.5 j 0.866
2

1, a 3
1, a 3

a 3 13600 1
a2

## The Symmetrical Components of

Unsymmetrical Phasors
1
Vb1 a 2Va1 , Vc1 aVa1
Vb 2 a Va 2 , Vc 2 a 2Va 2
Vb 0 Va 0 , Vc 0 Va 0

c2
b1

a1

c1

a2
b2

## The Symmetrical Components of

Unsymmetrical Phasors
2
Va Va1 Va 2 Va 0
Vb Vb1 Vb 2 Vb 0 a 2Va1 aVa 2 Va 0
Vc Vc1 Vc 2 Vc 0 a Va1 a 2Va 2 Va 0

Va 1
V 1
b
Vc 1

1
a2
a

1 Va 0
a Va1
a 2 Va 2

## The Symmetrical Components of

Unsymmetrical Phasors
3
1
A 1
1
Va 0
1
V 1 1
a1 3
Va 2
1

1
a2
a
1
a
a2

1
a
a 2

A1

1
1
1
3
1

1
a
a2

1 Va
a 2 Vb
a Vc

## * When three phase phasors are balanced , only the

positive-sequence component exists .

1
a 2
a

## The Symmetrical Components of

Unsymmetrical Phasors
4
1.Sequence component representation of L-L voltage

Vab 0
1
V 1 1
ab1 3
Vab 2
1

1
a
a2

1 Vab
a 2 Vbc

a Vca

I a0
1
I 1 1
a1 3
I a 2
1

1
a
a2

1 I a
a 2 I b
a I c

## The Symmetrical Components of

Unsymmetrical Phasors
5
1
(Va Vb Vc )
3
1
Vab 0 (Vab Vbc Vca )
3
1
I a0 (I a Ib Ic )
3
Va 0

phasors is zero.

## The Symmetrical Components of

Unsymmetrical Phasors
6
Va 0

1
(Va Vb Vc )
3

Va 0 0

When 3 is balanced

Va 0 0

When

* If

(Va Vb Vc ) 0

Va 0 0 then 3 is unbalanced.

* Unbalanced

Va 0 0 .

## The Symmetrical Components of

Unsymmetrical Phasors
7
Vab 0

1
(Vab Vbc Vca )
3

## whether the three phase system

is balanced or not.

b
a
c

## The Symmetrical Components of

Unsymmetrical Phasors
8
Ia

1
I a0 (I a Ib Ic ) 0
3

Ib

( ungrounded Y )

Ic
Ia
Ib
Ic
Ia
Ib
Ic

In

1
I a0 (I a Ib Ic ) 0
3
( I a I b I c ) 3I a 0 I n
Y with a path to neutral

1
I a0 (I a Ib Ic ) 0
3
connected

VECTOR
SOFTWARE

## The Symmetrical Components of

Unsymmetrical Phasors
9
One conductor of a three-phase line is open. The current flowing to the

example :

## -connected load through line a is 10 A. With the current in line a as

reference and assuming that line c is open, find the symmetrical components
of the line currents

I a 100 0 amp

I b 10180 amp
0

b
c

I a 100 0 A

I b 10180 0 A
Ic 0 A

Z
Ic 0

## The Symmetrical Components of

Unsymmetrical Phasors
10
I a0

1
(1000 101800 0) 0 Since there no neutral current involved , I a 0
3
should be zero .

1
(1000 101800 1200 0)
3
5 j 2.89 5.78 30 0 A
1
(1000 101800 2400 0)
3

I a1

I a2

5 j 2.89 5.78 30 0 A
I b1 5.78 150 0 A

I c1 5.78 90 0 A

I b 2 5.78 150 0 A

I c 2 5.78 90 0 A

I b0 0

I c0 0

## Phase Shift of Symmetrical Components

in Y or Y Transformers Banks
1
The American standard for designating terminal H1 and X 1 on Y or Y

## transformer requires that the positive-sequence voltage drop from H1 to

neutral leads the positive-sequence voltage drop from X 1 to neutral by 300 ,
regardless of whether the Y or winding is on the high tension side .
Similarly, the positive-sequence voltage drop from H 2 to neutral leads the
voltage drop from X 2 to neutral by

300

neutral by

300

## Phase Shift of Symmetrical Components

in Y or Y Transformers Banks
2
Example :

H1

X1

H1

X1

H2

X2

H3

B
C

H2

X2
X3

H3

X3

## Phase Shift of Symmetrical Components

in Y or Y Transformers Banks
3
The American standard for designating terminal H1 and X 1 on Y or Y
transformer requires that the negative-sequence voltage drop from H1 to
neutral lags the negative-sequence voltage drop from X 1 to neutral by 300 ,

## regardless of whether the Y or winding is on the high tension side .

Similarly, the negative-sequence voltage drop from H 2 to neutral lags
the voltage drop from X 2 to neutral by 300 and the negative-sequence

voltage drop from H 3 to neutral lags the voltage drop from X 3 to neutral
by

300

## Phase Shift of Symmetrical Components

in Y or Y Transformers Banks
4
Example :

H1

X1

H1

X1

H2

X2

H3

B
C

H2

X2
X3

H3

X3

(a)

VA2 lags Vb 2 by 30

## Phase Shift of Symmetrical Components

in Y or Y Transformers Banks
5
A

H1

X1

H2

H3

X2
X3

Y
B1

b1

c1

A1

C1

a2

C2
A2

a1

b2

B2

c2

## Phase Shift of Symmetrical Components

in Y or Y Transformers Banks
6
Example 11.7. The resistive Y-connected load bank of Example 11.2 is supplied from the low-voltage

Y-side of a Y- transformer. The voltages at the load are the same as in that example. Find the line
voltages and currents in per unit on the high-voltage side of the transformer.

## I (1) a 0.9857 43 .60 per unit

I ( 2 ) a 0.2346 250 .30 per unit

## V (1) an 0.985743.60 per unit(line to neutral voltage base)

V ( 2 ) an 0.2346 250 .30 per unit(line to neutral voltage base)
V (1) A 0.9857 43 .60 30 0 0.9857 73 .60 0.2785 j 0.9456
V ( 2 ) A 0.2346 250 .30 30 0 0.2346 220 .30 0.1789 j 0.1517
VA V (1) A V ( 2 ) A 0.0994 j 0.7939 0.882 .80 per unit
V (1) B a 2V (1) A 0.9857 46 .40 0.6798 j 0.7138

## Phase Shift of Symmetrical Components

in Y or Y Transformers Banks
7
V ( 2 ) B a 2V ( 2 ) A 0.2346 19 .70 0.2209 j 0.0791

## VB V (1) B V ( 2 ) B 0.9007 j 0.7929 1.20 41 .40 per unit

V (1)C a 2V (1) A 0.9857 193 .60 0.9581 j 0.2318
V ( 2 )C a 2V ( 2 ) A 0.2346 100 .30 0.0419 j 0.2318

## VC V (1) C V ( 2 )C 1.0 j 0 1.0180 0 per unit

VAB VA V B 0.0994 j 0.7939 0.9007 j 0.7929 0.8013 j1.5868

## 1.78 116 .80 per unit(line neutral voltagae base)

1.78
116 .80 per unit(line to line voltagae base)
3

## Phase Shift of Symmetrical Components

in Y or Y Transformers Banks
8
VBC VB V C 0.9007 j 0.7939 1.0 1.9007 j 0.7939

## 2.06 22 .70 per unit(line neutral voltagae base)

2.06
22 .70 1.19 22 .70 per unit(line to line voltagae base)
3

## 1.356 215 .80 per unit(line neutral voltagae base)

1.356
215 .80 0.783 215 .80 per unit(line to line voltagae base)
3
I A 0.80 82 .80 per unit
I B 1.20 41 .40 per unit
I C 1.0180 0 per unit

## Phase Shift of Symmetrical Components

in Y or Y Transformers Banks
9

H1

X1

H1

X1

H2

X2

H3

B
C

H2

X2
X3

H3

X3

(a)

(1)
V (1) A leads V a

by 300

## (b) V (1) A leads V (1) a by 300

Figure 11.23
labeling of lines connected to a three-phase Y- transformer.

## Power in terms of Symmetrical Components

S P jQ Va I * a Vb I *b Vc I * c

Va
S Vb

Vc

Ia
*
I AV T AI

012
012
b

Ic

## V012 AT A* I 012 3V012 I 012

T

3Va 0

Va1

I a0

Va 2
I
a
1

I a2

3(Va 0 I * a 0 Va1 I * a1 Va 2 I * a 2 )

, AT A* 3I

a

Za
Ia

b
c

Ib

Zb

a'
Z ab

Z ca
Z c Z ac

Ic
Vaa '

Vbb '
V '
cc

Za

ba

Z ca

Z ab
Zb
Z cb

b'

c'
Z ac I a
I
Z bc
b
Zc

Ic

Vaa ' 0 Z a

AVbb' 1 Z ba

V ' Z ca
cc 2

Z ab

Vaa ' 0
Za

1
V

A
Z
bb ' 1
ba
V '
Z ca
cc 2

Z ab

Zb
Z cb

Zb
Z cb

Z ac I a 0
Z bc A I a1

Z c I a 2
Z ac I a 0
Z bc A I a1
Z c I a 2

## Unsymmetrical Series Impedance 3

Z 012 A1ZA
( Z s 0 2 Z M 0 )
( Z s1 2 Z M 1 )
( Z s 2 2 Z M 2 )

( Z s 2 2Z M 2 )
( Z s 0 2Z M 0 )
( Z s1 2 Z M 1 )

( Z s1 2 Z M 1 )
( Z s 2 2 Z M 2 )
( Z s 0 2 Z M 0 )

Where

1
Z s0 (Z a Zb Z c )
3
1
Z s1 ( Z a aZ b a 2 Z c )
3
1
Z s 2 ( Z a a 2 Z b aZ c )
3

1
( Z bc Z ca Z ab )
3
1
Z M 1 ( Z bc aZ ca a 2 Z ab )
3
1
Z M 2 ( Z bc a 2 Z ca aZ ab )
3
ZM 0

## Unsymmetrical Series Impedance 4

Vaa ' 0 ( Z s 0 2 Z M 0 ) I a 0 ( Z s 2 2 Z M 2 ) I a1 ( Z s1 2 Z M 1 ) I a 2

Vaa ' 1 ( Z s1 2 Z M 1 ) I a 0 ( Z s 0 2 Z M 0 ) I a1 ( Z s 2 2 Z M 2 ) I a 2
Vaa ' 2 ( Z s 2 2 Z M 2 ) I a 0 ( Z s1 2 Z M 1 ) I a1 ( Z s 0 2 Z M 0 ) I a 2

## Unsymmetrical Series Impedance 5

Case 1. If no coupling , Z ij ( i j ) 0

then

ZM 0 ZM1 ZM 2 0

Vaa ' 0 Z s 0 I a 0 Z s 2 I a1 Z s1 I a 2
1
1
1
I a 0 (Z a Z b Z c ) I a1 (Z a a 2 Z b aZc ) I a 2 (Z a aZb a 2 Z c )
3
3
3
Vaa ' 1 Z s1 I a 0 Z s 0 I a1 Z s 2 I a 2
1
1
1
I a 0 ( Z a aZb a 2 Z c ) I a1 ( Z a Z b Z c ) I a 2 ( Z a a 2 Z b Z c )
3
3
3

Vaa ' 2 Z s 2 I a 0 Z s1 I a1 Z s 0 I a 2

1
1
1
I a 0 ( Z a a 2 Z b aZc ) I a1 ( Z a aZb a 2 Z c ) I a 2 ( Z a Z b Z c )
3
3
3

Case 2 . If

1.

Z a Zb Zc

2.

Z ij ( i j ) 0

Vaa ' 1 I a1 Z a

## Complete transportation assumed

Vaa ' 2 I a 2 Z a

Vaa ' 0 I a 0 Z a

## or in balanced series impedances produce voltage drops of the same sequence ,

provided no coupling exists between phases.
If the impedances are unequal, the voltage drop of any one sequence is dependent on the
current of all three sequences.
If coupling such as mutual inductance exists among the three impedances, then the
formula will become more complicated.

Assume:
1. No coupling
2.

Z a Zb Zc

## current alone are flowing is called positive-sequence

impedance.
The impedance of circuit when negative-sequence
currents alone are flowing is called negative
sequence impedance.

## When only zero-sequence currents are present, the

impedance is called zero sequence impedance.

## Sequence Impedance and Sequence Network 2

The single-phase equivalent circuit composed of the impedance to
current of any one sequence only is called the sequence network.
Positive-sequence network contains positive sequence current and
positive sequence impedance only.
Negative-sequence network contains negative sequence current
and negative sequence impedance only.

## Zero-sequence network contains zero sequence current and

zero sequence impedance only.

## Sequence network carrying the individual currents

and I a 0 are interconnected to represent various
unbalanced fault condition.

I a1 , I a 2

## Sequence Impedance and Sequence Network 4

Sequence Impedance of Various Devices
Positive

Negative

Zero

Line

same

same

different

Transformer

same

same

same

Machine

different *

different *

different

a
Ia
Zn

In

- +

Ec

Ea

Eb
+

Ib
Ic

voltage.

## Sequence Networks of Unloaded Generators 2

a

Reference

I a1

- Ea
- - Eb

+ Ec +

Z1

Z1

Ea

Z1

Va1 Ea I a1 Z1

Va 1

Z1

I b1

I a1

Ia

Positive-sequence
network
Reference

Z2
Z2
c

Z2

Ia2
Ib2

b I
c2

Va 2 I a 2 Z 2

Va 2

Z2

Ia2

Negative-sequence
network

I c1

Zn
3I a 0
Z g0

Z g0

I a0

Z g0
c

Reference

I a0

3Z n
Z g0

I a0
Zero-sequence
network

## Z n only appears in the zero-sequence

network

I a 0 ( Z g 0 3Z n )

Va 0

Z0

b I
a0

Va 0 I a 0 Z 0

3I a 0 I n

## Sequence Networks of Unloaded Generators 4

Example 11.6. A salient-pole generator without dampers is rated 20 MVA, 13.8kV and has a
direct=axis subtransient reactance of 0.25 per unit. The negative-and-zero-sequence reactance
are, respectively, 0.35 and 0.10 per unit. The neutral of the generator is solidly grounded. With
0
the generator operating unloaded at rated voltage with Ean 1.00 per unit , a single line-to-

ground fault occurs at the machine terminals, which then have per-unit voltages to ground,

Va 0

## Vb 1.013 102 .25 0

Determine the subtransient current in the generator and the line-t0-line voltages for subtransient
conditions due to the fault.

a
Ia

Zn

Ia In

- n
- + Ecn

Ean

Figure 11.15

Ebn
+

b
Ib 0
Ic 0

## Sequence Networks of Unloaded Generators 5

Figure 11.15 shows the line-to-ground fault of phase a of the machine.

## Vb 0.215 j 0.990 per unit

Vc 0.215 j 0.990 per unit
Va ( 0)
1 1
( 0) 1
Vb 3 1 a
V ( 0)
1 a 2
c

( 0)

1
0
0.143 j 0
a 2 0.215 j 0.990 0.643 j 0 per unit
a 0.215 j 0.990 0.500 j 0

V ( 0) a
( 0.143 j 0)

Z go
j 0.10

## Sequence Networks of Unloaded Generators 6

(1)

( 2)

Ean V (1) a
(1.0 j 0) (0.643 j 0)

Z1
j 0.25
V ( 2)a
( 0.500 j 0)

Z2
j 0.35

## There, the fault current into the ground is

I a I ( 0 ) a I (1) a I ( 2 ) a 3I ( 0 ) a j 4.29

The base current is 20 ,000 ( 3 13 .8) 837 A and so the subtransient current in line a is
I a j 4.29 837 j 3,590 A

## Sequence Networks of Unloaded Generators 7

Line-to-line voltage during the fault are
Vab Va Vb 0.215 j 0.990 1.0177 .70 per unit
Vbc Vb Vc 0 j1.980 1.980 270 0 per unit
Vca Vc Va 0.215 j 0.990 1.0177 .70 per unit

Vab 1.01

13 .8
77 .70 8.0577 .70 kV
3

Vbc 1.980
Vca 1.01

13 .8
270 0 15 .78 270 0 kV
3

13 .8
102 .30 8.05102 .30 kV
3

## Sequence Networks of Unloaded Generators 8

Before the fault the line voltages were balanced and equal to 13.8kV. For comparison with the line
voltages after the fault occurs, the prefault voltages, with Van Ean as reference, are given as

Vab 13 .830 0 kV

Vbc 13 .8270 0 kV

Vca 13 .8150 0 kV

b
Vab
a

Van

Vab
a
n

Vbc

Vca

Vbc

Vca
c

(a) Prefault

(b) Postfault
Figure 11.6

## Sequence Networks of Unloaded Generators 9

The positive-sequence diagram of a generator is
composed of an emf in series with the positive-sequence
impedance of the generator.
The negative and zero-sequence diagrams contain no
emfs but include the negative and zero-sequence
impedances of the generator respectively.

Sequence Networks

## The matching reactance in positive-sequence network is the subtransient ,transient,

or synchronous reactance, depending of whether subtransient , transient, or
steady- state condition are being studied.
The reference bus for the positive and negative sequence networks is the neutral
of the generator. So for as positive and negative sequence components are

## concerned , the neutral of the generator is at ground potential even if these is Z n

connection between neutral and ground.
The reference bus for the zero sequence network is the ground (not necessary
the neutral of the generator).

Sequence Networks

## Convert a positive sequence network to a negative sequence

network by changing, if necessary, only the impedance
that represent rotating machine , and by omitting the emf.
The normal one-line impedance diagram plus the induced emf is the
positive sequence network.
Three-phase generators and motors have internal voltage of positive
sequence only.

## for the system described as below . Assume that the

negative-sequence reactance of each machine is
equal to its subtransient reactance .Omit resistance.

T1

T
l

M1

n
r

M2

j 0.0815
j 0.0857
m
k
l
j 0.02

j 0.0915
n

j 0.2745

j 0.5490
+

Eg

E m1

(Positive)

Em 2

Reference bus

j 0.02

k
j 0.0857

j 0.5490

j 0.2745

p
l

j 0.0815

n
j 0.0915

(Negative)

## 1 . Zero-sequence network currents will flow only if a return path exists.

2 . The reference bus of the zero-sequence network is the ground.

Reference

R
Z

I n 3I a 0

Nn

3Z n

N
I a0

R
Z

## Zero-sequence equivalent circuit of three phase transform banks.

p
p

Zero-Sequence
Equivalent Circuit

Connection Diagrams

Symbols

Q
Z0

Reference bus
p

Q
Z0

Reference bus

## Zero sequence Network

Symbols

4
Zero-Sequence
Equivalent Circuit

Connection Diagrams
p

Q
p

Z0

Reference bus
p
p

Q
p

Q
Z0

Reference bus

## Zero sequence Network

Symbols

Zero-Sequence
Equivalent Circuit

Connection Diagrams
p

p
Z0

Reference bus

Example:

Zn

3Z n
Q

Z g0

M
P

(Zero-Sequence)

## Zero sequence Network

Q

Z g1
E g1

SEQUENCE

Zg2

NETWORK

E g1

SOFTWARE

(Positive-Sequence)

M
N

P
Q

S
(Negative-Sequence)

## Zero sequence Network

Example 11.9. Draw the zero-sequence network for the system described in Example 6.1. Assume
zero-sequence network for the generator and motors of 0.05 per unit. A current-limiting reactor of
0.4

is in each of the each of the neutrals of the generator and the large motor. The zero-sequence

Generator:

## X 0 0.05 per unit

300 13.2 2
)(
) 0.0686 per unit
200 13.8

Motor 1:

X 0 0.05(

Motor 2:

X 0 0.05(

300 13.2 2
)(
) 0.1372 per unit
100 13.8

( 20 ) 2
Base Z
1.333
300
(13 .8) 2
Base Z
0.635
300

3Z n 3(

0.4
) 0.900 per unit
1.333

3Z n 3(
Z0

0.4
) 1.890 per unit
0.635

1.5 64
0.5445 per unit
176.3

k

j0.5445

j0.0857

j0.0915
n

j 0.05

j0.0686
j0.1372

j 0.900

j1.890

reference