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Original Title: Symmetrical components

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Synthesis of Unsymmetrical

Phases from Their Symmetrical

Components

The Symmetrical Components of

Unsymmetrical Phasors

Phase Shift of Symmetrical

Components in Y or Y

Transformer Banks

Power in Terms of Symmetrical

Components

Symmetrical Components

Unsymmetrical Series

Impedance

Sequence Impedance and

Sequence Network

Sequence Networks of

Unloaded generators

Sequence Network

Zero-Sequence Network

Goal :

Symmetrical component analysis is a very useful tool

for dealing with unbalanced three-phase faults.

Their Symmetrical Components

1

An unbalanced system of n related phasors can be resolved into

are equal in lengths , and the angles between adjacent phasors of

the set are equal.

by C.L Fortescue , 1918

Their Symmetrical Components

2

a1

b1

c1

c2

a2

b2

2. For negative-sequence

components

components

Their Symmetrical Components

3

(3) Zero-sequence components

Va 0

Vb 0

Vc 0

0 For zero-sequence components

Their Symmetrical Components

4

Va

Va 0

Va Va1 Va 2 Va 0

Va 2

Vc 2

Vc1

Vc 0

Vc

Vb

Vb 0

Va 1

Vb 2

Vb1

Vb Vb1 Vb 2 Vb 0

Vc Vc1 Vc 2 Vc 0

Their Symmetrical Components

5

Use a to designate the operator that causes a rotation of 1200 in the

counterclockwise direction ,

a

a2

a 1240 0.5 j 0.866

2

1, a 3

1, a 3

a 3 13600 1

a2

Unsymmetrical Phasors

1

Vb1 a 2Va1 , Vc1 aVa1

Vb 2 a Va 2 , Vc 2 a 2Va 2

Vb 0 Va 0 , Vc 0 Va 0

c2

b1

a1

c1

a2

b2

Unsymmetrical Phasors

2

Va Va1 Va 2 Va 0

Vb Vb1 Vb 2 Vb 0 a 2Va1 aVa 2 Va 0

Vc Vc1 Vc 2 Vc 0 a Va1 a 2Va 2 Va 0

Va 1

V 1

b

Vc 1

1

a2

a

1 Va 0

a Va1

a 2 Va 2

Unsymmetrical Phasors

3

1

A 1

1

Va 0

1

V 1 1

a1 3

Va 2

1

1

a2

a

1

a

a2

1

a

a 2

A1

1

1

1

3

1

1

a

a2

1 Va

a 2 Vb

a Vc

positive-sequence component exists .

1

a 2

a

Unsymmetrical Phasors

4

1.Sequence component representation of L-L voltage

Vab 0

1

V 1 1

ab1 3

Vab 2

1

1

a

a2

1 Vab

a 2 Vbc

a Vca

I a0

1

I 1 1

a1 3

I a 2

1

1

a

a2

1 I a

a 2 I b

a I c

Unsymmetrical Phasors

5

1

(Va Vb Vc )

3

1

Vab 0 (Vab Vbc Vca )

3

1

I a0 (I a Ib Ic )

3

Va 0

phasors is zero.

Unsymmetrical Phasors

6

Va 0

1

(Va Vb Vc )

3

Va 0 0

When 3 is balanced

Va 0 0

When

* If

(Va Vb Vc ) 0

Va 0 0 then 3 is unbalanced.

* Unbalanced

Va 0 0 .

Unsymmetrical Phasors

7

Vab 0

1

(Vab Vbc Vca )

3

is balanced or not.

b

a

c

Unsymmetrical Phasors

8

Ia

1

I a0 (I a Ib Ic ) 0

3

Ib

( ungrounded Y )

Ic

Ia

Ib

Ic

Ia

Ib

Ic

In

1

I a0 (I a Ib Ic ) 0

3

( I a I b I c ) 3I a 0 I n

Y with a path to neutral

1

I a0 (I a Ib Ic ) 0

3

connected

VECTOR

SOFTWARE

Unsymmetrical Phasors

9

One conductor of a three-phase line is open. The current flowing to the

example :

reference and assuming that line c is open, find the symmetrical components

of the line currents

I a 100 0 amp

I b 10180 amp

0

b

c

I a 100 0 A

I b 10180 0 A

Ic 0 A

Z

Ic 0

Unsymmetrical Phasors

10

I a0

1

(1000 101800 0) 0 Since there no neutral current involved , I a 0

3

should be zero .

1

(1000 101800 1200 0)

3

5 j 2.89 5.78 30 0 A

1

(1000 101800 2400 0)

3

I a1

I a2

5 j 2.89 5.78 30 0 A

I b1 5.78 150 0 A

I c1 5.78 90 0 A

I b 2 5.78 150 0 A

I c 2 5.78 90 0 A

I b0 0

I c0 0

in Y or Y Transformers Banks

1

The American standard for designating terminal H1 and X 1 on Y or Y

neutral leads the positive-sequence voltage drop from X 1 to neutral by 300 ,

regardless of whether the Y or winding is on the high tension side .

Similarly, the positive-sequence voltage drop from H 2 to neutral leads the

voltage drop from X 2 to neutral by

300

neutral by

300

in Y or Y Transformers Banks

2

Example :

H1

X1

H1

X1

H2

X2

H3

B

C

H2

X2

X3

H3

X3

in Y or Y Transformers Banks

3

The American standard for designating terminal H1 and X 1 on Y or Y

transformer requires that the negative-sequence voltage drop from H1 to

neutral lags the negative-sequence voltage drop from X 1 to neutral by 300 ,

Similarly, the negative-sequence voltage drop from H 2 to neutral lags

the voltage drop from X 2 to neutral by 300 and the negative-sequence

voltage drop from H 3 to neutral lags the voltage drop from X 3 to neutral

by

300

in Y or Y Transformers Banks

4

Example :

H1

X1

H1

X1

H2

X2

H3

B

C

H2

X2

X3

H3

X3

(a)

VA2 lags Vb 2 by 30

in Y or Y Transformers Banks

5

A

H1

X1

H2

H3

X2

X3

Y

B1

b1

c1

A1

C1

a2

C2

A2

a1

b2

B2

c2

in Y or Y Transformers Banks

6

Example 11.7. The resistive Y-connected load bank of Example 11.2 is supplied from the low-voltage

Y-side of a Y- transformer. The voltages at the load are the same as in that example. Find the line

voltages and currents in per unit on the high-voltage side of the transformer.

I ( 2 ) a 0.2346 250 .30 per unit

V ( 2 ) an 0.2346 250 .30 per unit(line to neutral voltage base)

V (1) A 0.9857 43 .60 30 0 0.9857 73 .60 0.2785 j 0.9456

V ( 2 ) A 0.2346 250 .30 30 0 0.2346 220 .30 0.1789 j 0.1517

VA V (1) A V ( 2 ) A 0.0994 j 0.7939 0.882 .80 per unit

V (1) B a 2V (1) A 0.9857 46 .40 0.6798 j 0.7138

in Y or Y Transformers Banks

7

V ( 2 ) B a 2V ( 2 ) A 0.2346 19 .70 0.2209 j 0.0791

V (1)C a 2V (1) A 0.9857 193 .60 0.9581 j 0.2318

V ( 2 )C a 2V ( 2 ) A 0.2346 100 .30 0.0419 j 0.2318

VAB VA V B 0.0994 j 0.7939 0.9007 j 0.7929 0.8013 j1.5868

1.78

116 .80 per unit(line to line voltagae base)

3

in Y or Y Transformers Banks

8

VBC VB V C 0.9007 j 0.7939 1.0 1.9007 j 0.7939

2.06

22 .70 1.19 22 .70 per unit(line to line voltagae base)

3

1.356

215 .80 0.783 215 .80 per unit(line to line voltagae base)

3

I A 0.80 82 .80 per unit

I B 1.20 41 .40 per unit

I C 1.0180 0 per unit

in Y or Y Transformers Banks

9

H1

X1

H1

X1

H2

X2

H3

B

C

H2

X2

X3

H3

X3

(a)

(1)

V (1) A leads V a

by 300

Figure 11.23

labeling of lines connected to a three-phase Y- transformer.

S P jQ Va I * a Vb I *b Vc I * c

Va

S Vb

Vc

Ia

*

I AV T AI

012

012

b

Ic

T

3Va 0

Va1

I a0

Va 2

I

a

1

I a2

3(Va 0 I * a 0 Va1 I * a1 Va 2 I * a 2 )

, AT A* 3I

a

Za

Ia

b

c

Ib

Zb

a'

Z ab

Z ca

Z c Z ac

Ic

Vaa '

Vbb '

V '

cc

Za

ba

Z ca

Z ab

Zb

Z cb

b'

c'

Z ac I a

I

Z bc

b

Zc

Ic

Vaa ' 0 Z a

AVbb' 1 Z ba

V ' Z ca

cc 2

Z ab

Vaa ' 0

Za

1

V

A

Z

bb ' 1

ba

V '

Z ca

cc 2

Z ab

Zb

Z cb

Zb

Z cb

Z ac I a 0

Z bc A I a1

Z c I a 2

Z ac I a 0

Z bc A I a1

Z c I a 2

Z 012 A1ZA

( Z s 0 2 Z M 0 )

( Z s1 2 Z M 1 )

( Z s 2 2 Z M 2 )

( Z s 2 2Z M 2 )

( Z s 0 2Z M 0 )

( Z s1 2 Z M 1 )

( Z s1 2 Z M 1 )

( Z s 2 2 Z M 2 )

( Z s 0 2 Z M 0 )

Where

1

Z s0 (Z a Zb Z c )

3

1

Z s1 ( Z a aZ b a 2 Z c )

3

1

Z s 2 ( Z a a 2 Z b aZ c )

3

1

( Z bc Z ca Z ab )

3

1

Z M 1 ( Z bc aZ ca a 2 Z ab )

3

1

Z M 2 ( Z bc a 2 Z ca aZ ab )

3

ZM 0

Vaa ' 0 ( Z s 0 2 Z M 0 ) I a 0 ( Z s 2 2 Z M 2 ) I a1 ( Z s1 2 Z M 1 ) I a 2

Vaa ' 1 ( Z s1 2 Z M 1 ) I a 0 ( Z s 0 2 Z M 0 ) I a1 ( Z s 2 2 Z M 2 ) I a 2

Vaa ' 2 ( Z s 2 2 Z M 2 ) I a 0 ( Z s1 2 Z M 1 ) I a1 ( Z s 0 2 Z M 0 ) I a 2

Case 1. If no coupling , Z ij ( i j ) 0

then

ZM 0 ZM1 ZM 2 0

Vaa ' 0 Z s 0 I a 0 Z s 2 I a1 Z s1 I a 2

1

1

1

I a 0 (Z a Z b Z c ) I a1 (Z a a 2 Z b aZc ) I a 2 (Z a aZb a 2 Z c )

3

3

3

Vaa ' 1 Z s1 I a 0 Z s 0 I a1 Z s 2 I a 2

1

1

1

I a 0 ( Z a aZb a 2 Z c ) I a1 ( Z a Z b Z c ) I a 2 ( Z a a 2 Z b Z c )

3

3

3

Vaa ' 2 Z s 2 I a 0 Z s1 I a1 Z s 0 I a 2

1

1

1

I a 0 ( Z a a 2 Z b aZc ) I a1 ( Z a aZb a 2 Z c ) I a 2 ( Z a Z b Z c )

3

3

3

Case 2 . If

1.

Z a Zb Zc

2.

Z ij ( i j ) 0

Vaa ' 1 I a1 Z a

Vaa ' 2 I a 2 Z a

Vaa ' 0 I a 0 Z a

load

provided no coupling exists between phases.

If the impedances are unequal, the voltage drop of any one sequence is dependent on the

current of all three sequences.

If coupling such as mutual inductance exists among the three impedances, then the

formula will become more complicated.

Assume:

1. No coupling

2.

Z a Zb Zc

impedance.

The impedance of circuit when negative-sequence

currents alone are flowing is called negative

sequence impedance.

impedance is called zero sequence impedance.

The single-phase equivalent circuit composed of the impedance to

current of any one sequence only is called the sequence network.

Positive-sequence network contains positive sequence current and

positive sequence impedance only.

Negative-sequence network contains negative sequence current

and negative sequence impedance only.

zero sequence impedance only.

and I a 0 are interconnected to represent various

unbalanced fault condition.

I a1 , I a 2

Sequence Impedance of Various Devices

Positive

Negative

Zero

Line

same

same

different

Transformer

same

same

same

Machine

different *

different *

different

a

Ia

Zn

In

- +

Ec

Ea

Eb

+

Ib

Ic

voltage.

a

Reference

I a1

- Ea

- - Eb

+ Ec +

Z1

Z1

Ea

Z1

Va1 Ea I a1 Z1

Va 1

Z1

I b1

I a1

Ia

Positive-sequence

network

Reference

Z2

Z2

c

Z2

Ia2

Ib2

b I

c2

Va 2 I a 2 Z 2

Va 2

Z2

Ia2

Negative-sequence

network

I c1

Zn

3I a 0

Z g0

Z g0

I a0

Z g0

c

Reference

I a0

3Z n

Z g0

I a0

Zero-sequence

network

network

I a 0 ( Z g 0 3Z n )

Va 0

Z0

b I

a0

Va 0 I a 0 Z 0

3I a 0 I n

Example 11.6. A salient-pole generator without dampers is rated 20 MVA, 13.8kV and has a

direct=axis subtransient reactance of 0.25 per unit. The negative-and-zero-sequence reactance

are, respectively, 0.35 and 0.10 per unit. The neutral of the generator is solidly grounded. With

0

the generator operating unloaded at rated voltage with Ean 1.00 per unit , a single line-to-

ground fault occurs at the machine terminals, which then have per-unit voltages to ground,

Va 0

Determine the subtransient current in the generator and the line-t0-line voltages for subtransient

conditions due to the fault.

a

Ia

Zn

Ia In

- n

- + Ecn

Ean

Figure 11.15

Ebn

+

b

Ib 0

Ic 0

Figure 11.15 shows the line-to-ground fault of phase a of the machine.

Vc 0.215 j 0.990 per unit

Va ( 0)

1 1

( 0) 1

Vb 3 1 a

V ( 0)

1 a 2

c

( 0)

1

0

0.143 j 0

a 2 0.215 j 0.990 0.643 j 0 per unit

a 0.215 j 0.990 0.500 j 0

V ( 0) a

( 0.143 j 0)

Z go

j 0.10

(1)

( 2)

Ean V (1) a

(1.0 j 0) (0.643 j 0)

Z1

j 0.25

V ( 2)a

( 0.500 j 0)

Z2

j 0.35

I a I ( 0 ) a I (1) a I ( 2 ) a 3I ( 0 ) a j 4.29

The base current is 20 ,000 ( 3 13 .8) 837 A and so the subtransient current in line a is

I a j 4.29 837 j 3,590 A

Line-to-line voltage during the fault are

Vab Va Vb 0.215 j 0.990 1.0177 .70 per unit

Vbc Vb Vc 0 j1.980 1.980 270 0 per unit

Vca Vc Va 0.215 j 0.990 1.0177 .70 per unit

Vab 1.01

13 .8

77 .70 8.0577 .70 kV

3

Vbc 1.980

Vca 1.01

13 .8

270 0 15 .78 270 0 kV

3

13 .8

102 .30 8.05102 .30 kV

3

Before the fault the line voltages were balanced and equal to 13.8kV. For comparison with the line

voltages after the fault occurs, the prefault voltages, with Van Ean as reference, are given as

Vab 13 .830 0 kV

Vbc 13 .8270 0 kV

Vca 13 .8150 0 kV

b

Vab

a

Van

Vab

a

n

Vbc

Vca

Vbc

Vca

c

(a) Prefault

(b) Postfault

Figure 11.6

The positive-sequence diagram of a generator is

composed of an emf in series with the positive-sequence

impedance of the generator.

The negative and zero-sequence diagrams contain no

emfs but include the negative and zero-sequence

impedances of the generator respectively.

Sequence Networks

or synchronous reactance, depending of whether subtransient , transient, or

steady- state condition are being studied.

The reference bus for the positive and negative sequence networks is the neutral

of the generator. So for as positive and negative sequence components are

connection between neutral and ground.

The reference bus for the zero sequence network is the ground (not necessary

the neutral of the generator).

Sequence Networks

network by changing, if necessary, only the impedance

that represent rotating machine , and by omitting the emf.

The normal one-line impedance diagram plus the induced emf is the

positive sequence network.

Three-phase generators and motors have internal voltage of positive

sequence only.

negative-sequence reactance of each machine is

equal to its subtransient reactance .Omit resistance.

T1

T

l

M1

n

r

M2

j 0.0815

j 0.0857

m

k

l

j 0.02

j 0.0915

n

j 0.2745

j 0.5490

+

Eg

E m1

(Positive)

Em 2

Reference bus

j 0.02

k

j 0.0857

j 0.5490

j 0.2745

p

l

j 0.0815

n

j 0.0915

(Negative)

2 . The reference bus of the zero-sequence network is the ground.

Reference

R

Z

I n 3I a 0

Nn

3Z n

N

I a0

R

Z

p

p

Zero-Sequence

Equivalent Circuit

Connection Diagrams

Symbols

Q

Z0

Reference bus

p

Q

Z0

Reference bus

Symbols

4

Zero-Sequence

Equivalent Circuit

Connection Diagrams

p

Q

p

Z0

Reference bus

p

p

Q

p

Q

Z0

Reference bus

Symbols

Zero-Sequence

Equivalent Circuit

Connection Diagrams

p

p

Z0

Reference bus

Example:

Zn

3Z n

Q

Z g0

M

P

(Zero-Sequence)

Q

Z g1

E g1

SEQUENCE

Zg2

NETWORK

E g1

SOFTWARE

(Positive-Sequence)

M

N

P

Q

S

(Negative-Sequence)

Example 11.9. Draw the zero-sequence network for the system described in Example 6.1. Assume

zero-sequence network for the generator and motors of 0.05 per unit. A current-limiting reactor of

0.4

is in each of the each of the neutrals of the generator and the large motor. The zero-sequence

Generator:

300 13.2 2

)(

) 0.0686 per unit

200 13.8

Motor 1:

X 0 0.05(

Motor 2:

X 0 0.05(

300 13.2 2

)(

) 0.1372 per unit

100 13.8

( 20 ) 2

Base Z

1.333

300

(13 .8) 2

Base Z

0.635

300

3Z n 3(

0.4

) 0.900 per unit

1.333

3Z n 3(

Z0

0.4

) 1.890 per unit

0.635

1.5 64

0.5445 per unit

176.3

k

j0.5445

j0.0857

j0.0915

n

j 0.05

j0.0686

j0.1372

j 0.900

j1.890

reference

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