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Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

Emily LevinDongxu Huang


Wisaruth Maethasith
Woochul Shin
Scott Dunaisky

Background

-Utilization of renewable energy such as solar cells


in place of carbon-based fuel
- Assuming constant consumption rate, carbonbased fuel will run out in 2088 (2050 for oil).
-Possible renewable energy: Solar energy
-the supply of energy from the sun to the earth is
31024 J a year, or about 10,000 times more than that the
global population currently consumes.

-Highest efficiency at 44.7% by Fraunhofer


- A stack of Multiple III-V three-junction solar cells
- Inhibitively expensive. Used by NASA.

CIA Fact Book

Fraunhofer ISE, 2013

Background

-Most present solar cells are based on inorganic


materials
-High cost of materials and manufacturing cost.
-Alternative: Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC)
-Discovered in 1991 by Gratzel et al.
- the functional element, which is responsible for light
absorption (the dye), is separated from the charge
carrier transport. Low-to-medium quality of materials
can be used and thus lower the cost.
-Highest record at 15% (using perovskite as light
harvesting materials) with the overall of around 11%

Structure
-Electrode
-glass plate coated in a TCO
- Semiconductor nanoparticles (typically TiO2 or ZnO)
-applied as a thin film to electrode, on top of TCO Layer
-Natural Dye (typically anthocyanin)
-adsorbed to the layer of semiconductor nanoparticles
-Iodide electrolyte
-in liquid form; placed between two electrodes
-Counter-electrode
-glass plate coated in TCO
-Catalyst
-typically platinum or carbon; coated onto counter-electrode to speed up electrolyte redox reaction

Mechanism

1) Light strikes dye, exciting electrons in the dye to the


excited state
2) Excited electrons are injected into conduction band of
TiO2 electrode, resulting in oxidation of dye
3) Electrons in conduction band travel via diffusion
through TiO2 nanoparticles to transparent electrode,
and travel through external circuit before reaching
counter electrode
4) Oxidized dye requires electron to avoid
decomposition. Electrolyte donates an electron to the
dye
5) Electrolyte electrons are replenished by electrons
from the counter electrode

Experiment (preparation)
* Working Electrode
TiO2 powder (0.5g), 1% acetyl acetone, Polyethylene Glycol, Water
* Electrolyte
Mixture of KI and I in ethylene glycole
* Dye
Blueberries, pomegranate, Kimchi liquid
* Counter electrode
Carbon materials (using pencil, candle)

Experiment (TiO2paste)
a. Put 0.5g TiO2 powder into the mortar
b. Add 210ml acetyl acetone
c. Grind the powder gently (slow, more than 15min) until it looks quite
sticky
d. Add 2ml water for 2 or 3 times
e. Add 0.12g polyethylene oxide and grind (not to aerate, more than
15min)

Experiment (deposition)

* Use Scotch Magic tape


- 50um thick, be easily
removed w/o glue trace,
manipulate the thickness
* Apply the paste onto
the top edge

Experiment (deposition)

* Slide the paste with


clean glass
* Even surface
* Easily deposit a layer
of TiO2 paste

Experiment

* Remove tapes and


sinter at 500C for 30min
* Check cracks (less
water may cause this)
* Cool down and scratch
away the layer on the
other two ends

Experiment

Experiment

* Place electrodes
together
* Hold with paper
binders
* Fill electrolyte
* Capillary effect, filling
holes inside

Experiment (cell test)

* Area of TiO2 electrode


* Measure OCV, current,
efficiency, power data
* Compare with other
data from different paste
making method and dye

Natural Dyes

Synthetic dyes are more expensive and


contain heavy metals
Cost efficiency, non-toxicity, and complete
biodegradation
Weak binding energy with TiO2 thin film
Low charge transfer absorption in the whole
visible region range
Low Voc and decrease in photocurrent from
degradation of dye
Inject electrons into TiO2

hybrid sp
orbitals from
carbon atoms form
bond
pz and py
orbitals can
overlap to form
bonds, creating
triple bonds

Natural Dye

Anthocyanins - water-soluble flavonoid


pigments present in fruits such as
raspberries, blueberries, and
blackberries
Responsible for purple, red, and/or blue
color to the fruit. Also found in other
parts of many flowers and leaves
Absorb blue, green, and ultraviolet light
which protects plant tissues from
excessive photoinhibition or excessive
light stress
Variants of anthocyanin molecules
absorb around 530-560 nm.

What makes a good dye?

solar spectrum is different from


terrestrial spectrum as certain
wavelengths get absorbed by
the atmosphere

Absorbance

Photosynthesis

Chloroplasts in plants
absorb light and use
excited electrons in a
process to create
chemically stored
energy
Anthocyanins absorb
in 530-560nm range
Chlorophyll absorbs
over larger range

Study of Henna, Sumacs, and Turmeric

Henna contains Lawsome, a strong UV absorber


Turmeric contains Curcumin (i.e. Natural Yellow 3)
In DSSCs with carbon counter electrodes Sumacs
showed an extremely high efficiency

Spinach Vs Ipomoea Extracts

Efficiency of ipomoea leaf extract fluid is higher than efficiency of spinach extract fluid
Absorption intensity is higher
Absorption wavelength range is broader
Better interaction between TiO2 nanoparticles and the chlorophyll in ipomoea leaf DSSCs
better charge-transfer

Individual Results Group #1


cell #
BH0520_1_1
BH0520_1_2
BH0520_1_3
BH0520_1_4
BH0520_1_5

Area[sqcm]
1
1
1.21
1.32
1.69

Pm[W]
1.362E-05
3.922E-06
5.747E-06
1.516E-05
5.661E-05

Eff[%]
0.014
0.004
0.005
0.011
0.033

FF[%]
43.477
41.616
41.780
51.425
53.065

Dye
blueberry
blackberry
blackbery
blueberry
blackberry

Dye comparison

TiO2
student
student
student
student
TA

48.000

0.000003

47.000

0.000002

46.000
0.000001

45.000
44.000

0
blackberry
FF[%]

I-V # 1_1
6.00E-05

Isc = 5.59E-5 A
Rsh ~ 1.67E5 ohm*cm2

Pm = 1.36E-5
Vm = 0.358 V
Im = 3.8E-5 A
Rch = 9421 ohm

5.00E-05

blueberry
normalized Eff[%]

Power 1_1
0.000016
0.000014

4.00E-05

0.000012
3.00E-05

0.00001
0.000008

2.00E-05

0.000006
A = 1 cm^2
Dye: blueberry
Prepared by: Student

1.00E-05

0.000004
0.000002

Voc = 0.56V
Rs = 3333 ohm*cm2

0.00E+00
0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

-0.2

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

Individual Results Group #1

normalized Eff% and FF% vs A[cm2]

Eff[%] vs A[cm2]

60

0.000006

50

0.000005

40

0.000004

30

0.000003

20

0.000002

10

0.000001

0.04
0.035
0.03
0.025
0.02
0.015
0.01
0.005
0
0.95

0
1

1.15

1.35

1.55

1.75

1.21
FF[%]

1.32
normalized Eff[%]

1.69

Individual Results Group #2


cell #
Area[sqcm]
BH0520_2_5
0.5
BH0520_2_1
0.54
BH0520_2_2
0.81
BH0520_2_2
0.81
BH0520_2_3
1.32
BH0520_2_4
2.55
BH0520_2_4
2.55

Pm[W]
1.81E-05
1.9E-05
2.88E-05
3.15E-05
5.42E-05
0.000115
0.000121

Eff[%]
0.036246
0.035099
0.03556
0.038836
0.041033
0.045264
0.047575

FF[%]
49.08639
50.13606
35.30068
50.57554
52.11437
29.97646
47.94563

Dye
blueberry
blueberry
blueberry
blueberry
blueberry
blueberry
blueberry

TiO2
student
student
student
student
TA
student
student

TiO2 Prep Comparison


Pm [W]
0.00006
0.00005
0.00004
0.00003
0.00002
0.00001
0
BH0520_2_student

I-V 2_2_13
1.40E-04 Isc = 1.18E-4 A
Rsh ~ 2.7E5 ohm*cm2
1.20E-04
1.00E-04

BH0520_2_TA

Power 2_2_13

Pmax = 3.14E-5 W
Im = 8.76 E-5 A
V = 0.35 V
Rch = 3995 ohm

0.000035
0.00003
0.000025

8.00E-05

0.00002
6.00E-05

0.000015

4.00E-05

0.00001

A = 0.81 cm^2
Dye: blueberry
Prepared by: Student

2.00E-05

0.00E+00
0

0.1

0.2

0.000005

Voc = 0.52 V
Rs = 810 ohm*cm2
0.3

0.4

0.5

0
0.6

-0.2

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

Individual Results Group #2

Normalized Eff% and FF% vs A[cm2]

Eff[%] vs A[cm2]
0.05
0.048
0.046
0.044

60

0.000014

50

0.000012
0.00001

40

0.000008

0.042
30

0.04

0.000006

0.038

20

0.000004

0.036
0.034

10

0.032

0.03

0.000002
0
0.5

0.5

1.5

2.5

0.54

0.81

0.81

1.32

2.55

3
FF[%]

normalized Eff[%]

2.55

Individual Results Group #3


TiO2 Prep Comparison
cell #
Area[sqcm]
BH0520_3_1
1
BH0520_3_2
1.1
BH0520_3_3
0.36
BH0520_3_4
0.9
BH0520_3_5
1

Pm[W]
1.03E-05
1.05E-05
3.27E-06
9.08E-06
5.51E-05

Eff[%]
0.010
0.010
0.009
0.010
0.055

FF[%]
48.672
42.552
35.282
41.815
49.837

Dye
blueberry
blueberry
blueberry
blueberry
blueberry

TiO2
student
student
student
student
TA

0.00006

52
50
48
46
44
42
40
38
36

0.00005
0.00004
0.00003
0.00002
0.00001
0
BH0520_3_1

I-V 3_1

BH0520_3_4 BH0520_3_TA

Pm[W]

6.00E-05

Isc = 5.06E-6A
Rsh ~ 3.33E5 ohm*cm2

Pmax = 1.03E-5 W
Im = 3.65 E-5 A
V = 0.28 V
Rch = 7671 ohm

5.00E-05

FF[%]

Power 3_1
0.000012

4.00E-05

0.00001
3.00E-05

0.000008
0.000006

2.00E-05

0.000004

A = 1 cm^2
Dye: blueberry
Prepared by: Student

1.00E-05

0.000002

Voc = 0.42 V
Rs = 2500 ohm*cm2

0.00E+00
0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

-0.2

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

Individual Results Group #3

Normalized Eff% and FF% vs A[cm2]

Eff[%] vs A[cm2]
0.06

60

0.000006

50

0.000005

40

0.000004

30

0.000003

20

0.000002

10

0.000001

0.05
0.04
0.03
0.02
0.01

0
0.36

0.9

0
0.3

0.5

0.7

0.9

1.1

1.3

FF[%]

normalized Eff[%]

1.1

Individual Results Group #4

Dye comparison
cell #
Area[sqcm]
BH0520_4_1
0.49
BH0520_4_2
0.72
BH0520_4_3
0.595
BH0520_4_4
0.56
BH0520_4_5
0.72

Pm[W]
1.97E-05
2.74E-05
1.16E-05
8.98E-06
7.52E-06

Eff[%]
0.040
0.038
0.020
0.016
0.010

FF[%]
46.043
50.106
44.902
45.416
47.628

Dye
blueberry
blueberry
Kimchi
Kimchi
Kimchi

TiO2
TA
student
student
student
student

0.0000025

48.500
48.000
47.500
47.000
46.500
46.000
45.500
45.000
44.500

0.000002

0.0000015
0.000001
0.0000005

I-V 4_2
6.00E-05

Isc = 5.69E-6A
Rsh ~ 24000 ohm*cm2

blueberry
Pmax = 2.74E-5 W
Im = 7.41 E-5 A
V = 0.369 V
Rch = 4979ohm

5.00E-05

kimchi juice

normalized Eff[%]

FF[%]

Power 4_2

4.00E-05
0.000014
3.00E-05

0.000012

2.00E-05

0.000008

0.00001
0.000006
1.00E-05

0.000004

A = 0.72 cm^2
Dye: blueberry
Prepared by: Student

0.00E+00
0

0.1

Voc = 0.456 V
Rs = 1200 ohm*cm2
0.2

0.3

0.4

0.000002
0
0.5

-0.2

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

Individual Results Group #4

Normalized Eff% and FF% vs A[cm2]

Eff[%] vs A[cm2]
51

0.045

0.000003

50
0.04
0.035

48

0.03

47

0.025

46

0.02

45

0.000002
0.0000015
0.000001

44

0.015

0.0000005

43

0.01

42

0.005
0
0.48

0.0000025

49

0
0.49

0.56

0.595
FF[%]

0.53

0.58

0.63

0.68

0.73

0.78

0.72
normalized Eff[%]

0.72

Individual Results Group #5


sample comparison
cell #
BH0520_5_1_31
BH0520_5_5

Area[sqcm]
0.765
0.85

Pm[W]
4E-05
2.06E-05

Eff[%]
0.052
0.024

FF[%]
58.141
52.085

Dye
pomegranate
blueberry

5_1_31: pomegranate, TA TiO2


5_5: blueberry, student TiO2

60.000

TiO2
TA
student

58.000
56.000
54.000

I-V 5_5
Isc = 7.38E-5 A
8.00E-05
Rsh ~ 3.33E5 ohm*cm2

52.000
50.000

Pmax = 2.06E-5 W
Im = 5.52 E-5 A
V = 0.54 V
Rch = 9782 ohm

7.00E-05
6.00E-05

48.000
BH0520_5_1_31
FF[%]

0.0000045
0.000004
0.0000035
0.000003
0.0000025
0.000002
0.0000015
0.000001
0.0000005
0

BH0520_5_5
normalized Eff[%]

5.00E-05
4.00E-05

Power 5_5

3.00E-05
0.00003

2.00E-05
A = 0.85 cm^2
Dye: blueberry
Prepared by: Student

1.00E-05
0.00E+00
0

0.1

0.00002

Voc = 0.53 V
Rs = 1416 ohm*cm2
0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.00001
0

0.6
-0.2

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

Individual Results Group #5


5_1_31: TA sample, pomegranate, A = 0.765 cm2
5_5: student sample, blueberry, A = 0.85 cm2

FF[%] and normalized Eff[%]

Pm[W]
0.000045
0.00004
0.000035

59.000

0.0000045

58.000

0.000004

57.000

0.0000035

56.000

0.00003

0.000003

55.000

0.0000025

0.000025

54.000

0.00002

53.000

0.000015

52.000

0.00001

51.000

0.000001

50.000

0.0000005

0.000005

0.000002

0.0000015

49.000

0
BH0520_5_1_31

BH0520_5_5

0
BH0520_5_1_31
FF[%]

BH0520_5_5
normalized Eff[%]

Individual Results Group #5


Condition

cell #
Area[sqcm]
BH0520_5_1_3
GOOD
0.765
0
BH0520_5_2
0.9
NGOOD
BH0520_5_3
0.855

Voc[V]

Isc[A]

Jsc[mA/sqcm]

Pm[W]

Vm[V]

Im[A]

Eff[%]

FF[%]

normalized Eff[%]

0.755

1.44E-04

0.188

3.96E-05

0.366

9999
0.015

8.06E-07
4.86E-05

0.001
0.057

1.45E-07
5.85E-08

0.362
0.008

1.08E-04

5.18E-02

36.455

3.96E-06

4.00E-07
7.04E-06

8.95E+02
6.84E-05

9999
8.043

8.06E-02
5.85E-09

Dye
pomegranate

Power
Efficiency
100.000
90.000
80.000
70.000
60.000
50.000
40.000
30.000
20.000
10.000
0.000

0.000045

9999

36.455
8.043

9.00E-02
8.00E-02
7.00E-02
6.00E-02
5.00E-02
4.00E-02
3.00E-02
2.00E-02
1.00E-02
0.00E+00

0.3832, 3.91E-05

0.00004
0.000035
0.00003
Power 5_2_33

0.000025

Power 5_1

0.00002

Power 5_3

0.000015
0.00001

0.000005
FF[%]

normalized Eff[%]

0
-0.2

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

Individual Results Group #5

Condition
cell #
Area[sqcm]
NGOOD BH0520_5_4
0.85
GOOD
BH0520_5_5
0.85

Voc[V]
0.005
0.535

Isc[A]
6.81E-05
7.39E-05

Jsc[mA/sqcm]
0.080
0.087

Pm[W]
1.64E-08
2.06E-05

Vm[V]
0.003
0.373

Im[A]
6.47E-06
5.52E-05

Eff[%]
1.93E-05
2.42E-02

FF[%]
5.234
52.085

normalized Eff[%]
1.64E-09
2.06E-06

Dye
blueberry

Power
0.000025

Efficiency
60.000

52.085

50.000

2.50E-06
0.00002
2.00E-06

40.000

1.50E-06

0.000015

30.000

Power 5_5
1.00E-06

20.000
10.000

5.00E-07

5.234

0.000

0.00E+00
BH0520_5_4

FF[%]

Power 5_4

0.00001

0.000005

BH0520_5_5
0

normalized Eff[%]
-0.2

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

Comparison of results I: by TiO2 power

Pm[W]
cell #
Area[sqcm]
BH0520_1_5
1.690
BH0520_2_3
1.320
BH0520_3_5
1.000
BH0520_4_1
0.490
BH0520_5_1
0.765
Average blueberry

cell #
BH0520_1_4
BH0520_2_2
BH0520_3_1
BH0520_4_2
BH0520_5_5
Average

Area[sqcm]
1.320
0.810
1.000
0.720
0.850
blueberry

TA cell
Pm[W]
5.66E-05
5.42E-05
5.51E-05
1.97E-05
4.00E-05
4.51E-05

Eff[%]
0.033
0.041
0.055
0.040
0.052

student cell
Pm[W]
Eff[%]
1.52E-05
0.011
3.15E-05
0.039
1.03E-05
0.010
2.74E-05
0.038
2.06E-05
0.024
2.10E-05

FF[%]
53.065
52.114
49.837
46.043
58.141
51.840

FF[%]
51.425
50.576
48.672
50.106
52.085
50.573

5.00E-05
4.50E-05
4.00E-05
3.50E-05
3.00E-05
2.50E-05
2.00E-05
1.50E-05
1.00E-05
5.00E-06
0.00E+00

Dye
blackberry
blueberry
blueberry
blueberry
pomegranate

Dye
blueberry
blueberry
blueberry
blueberry
blueberry

4.51E-05

2.10E-05

TA TiO2

FF[%]
52.000

51.840

51.500
51.000
50.573
50.500
50.000
49.500
TA TiO2

student TiO2

student TiO2

Comparison of results II: by dye


Dye
blackberry
blueberry
pomegranate
Kimchi juice

Isc[A]
9.453E-05
8.144E-05
4.671E-01
4.533E-05

Voc[V]
0.398
0.499
0.000
0.451

Pm[W] normalized Eff[%]


4.83E-06
2.21E-06
2.10E-05
2.10E-06
4.00E-05
4.00E-06
9.38E-06
9.38E-07

Normalized Eff[%] + FF[%}

Pm[W]
4.50E-05

70.000

4.00E-05

4.00E-05

58.141

60.000

3.50E-05

50.000

3.00E-05

47.451

50.573

45.982

40.000

2.50E-05

2.10E-05
30.000

2.00E-05
1.50E-05
1.00E-05

FF[%]
47.451
50.573
58.141
45.982

9.38E-06

20.000
10.000

4.83E-06

5.00E-06

0.000

0.00E+00
blackberry

blueberry

pomegranate

Kimchi juice

blackberry

blueberry pomegranate Kimchi juice

FF[%]

normalized Eff[%]

4.50E-06
4.00E-06
3.50E-06
3.00E-06
2.50E-06
2.00E-06
1.50E-06
1.00E-06
5.00E-07
0.00E+00

Comparison of results II: by dye (2)

Isc[A]
1.600E-04

Voc[V]
0.600

1.472E-04

0.499

1.400E-04

0.500

1.200E-04
1.000E-04

0.467

0.451

pomegranate

Kimchi juice

0.398
0.400

9.453E-05
8.144E-05

8.000E-05

0.300

6.000E-05

4.533E-05

0.200

4.000E-05
0.100

2.000E-05
0.000E+00

blackberry

blueberry

pomegranate

Kimchi juice

0.000
blackberry

blueberry

Comparison of results II: by dye (3)

dye
blackberry
blueberry
pomegranate
Kimchi juice

spectrum
300-600
300-650
300-620
n/a

peak
539
560
539
n/a

absorbancy
0.546
0.22
0.35
n/a

Reference: http://teachers.usd497.org/agleue/Gratzel_solar_cell%20assets/data%20and%20results%20and%20UV-Vis%20spectroscopy%20of%20the%20dyes.htm

Comparison of results III: by fabrication technique


Pm[W]
3.50E-05

Efficiency

3.14E-05

53
52
51
50
49
48
47
46

2.74E-05

3.00E-05
2.50E-05

2.06E-05

2.00E-05
1.50E-05

1.36E-05
1.03E-05

1.00E-05
5.00E-06

50.57

1_4
Area[cm2]
1
0.81
1
0.72
0.85

2_2

3_1

Pm[W]
1.36E-05
3.14E-5
1.03E-05
2.74E-05
2.06E-05

4_2

2_2
FF[%]

5_5

normalized Eff[%]
1.52E-06
3.15E-06
1.03E-06
2.74E-06
2.06E-06

50.106
48.672

1_4

0.00E+00

cell #
1_4
2_2
3_1
4_2
5_5

52.085
51.425

FF[%]
51.425
50.57
48.672
50.106
52.085

Rch[ohm]
9421
3995
7671
4979
9782

3_1

4_2

3.50E-06
3.00E-06
2.50E-06
2.00E-06
1.50E-06
1.00E-06
5.00E-07
0.00E+00

5_5

normalized Eff[%]

Rs[ohm*cm2] Rsh[ohm*cm2]
3333
1.67E+05
810
2.70E+05
2500
3.33E+05
1200
2.40E+05
1416
3.33E+05

Isc[A]
5.96E-05
1.18E-04
5.07E-05
1.05E-04
7.39E-05

Voc[V]
0.494
0.525
0.416
0.522
0.535

Dye

blueberry

cell #
1_4
2_2
3_1
4_2
5_5

Comparison of results III : by fabrication technique (2)

Rsh[ohm*cm2]

Rs[ohm*cm2]
3500

3333

3.33E+05

3.50E+05
3.00E+05

3000
2500
2500

2.50E+05

2000

2.00E+05
1416

1500

1200

5.00E+04

0.00E+00
2_2

2.70E+05
2.40E+05
1.67E+05

1.50E+05

500

1_4

3.33E+05

1.00E+05

810

1000

Area[cm2]
1
0.81
1
0.72
0.85

3_1

4_2

5_5

1_4

Rch[ohm*cm2] avg
1851.80

2_2

3_1

Rs[ohm*cm2] avg
69708.68

4_2

rs
0.71

5_5

rsh
26.82

Comparison of results III : by fabrication technique (3)


I-V overlay
0.00014

cell #

Area[cm2]

1_4

0.0001

2_2

0.81

0.00008

3_1

4_2

0.72

5_5

0.85

Dye

Current 5_5 [A]

I [A]

blueberry

0.00012

Current 4_2 [A]


0.00006

Current 3_1 [A]


Current 2_2 [A]

0.00004

Current 1_1 [A]

0.00002
0

0.1

0.2

0.3

V [V]

0.4

0.5

0.6

Comparison of results III : by fabrication technique (4)

Reference: http://www.pveducation.org/

Comparison of results: conclusion


By fabrication
Group #2 has overall best performance
Largest Pm, normalized Eff, smallest series resistance

Indicates best fabrication results (fewer defects, better powder preparation etc)

By dye
Pomegranate has best performance
Pm = 4E-5 W, FF = 58%, Normalized efficiency = 4E-6%
Isc = 1.47E-5 A Voc = 0.47 V
Blueberry has moderate performance

By TiO2 powder
TA made TiO2 has better power performance than student made TiO2
Yet similar average FF ~ 50% -> FF reflects ideality of solar cell -> fabrication technique matters

Future of DSSCs and Professor Changs research

Current cells cannot compete


Advantage of DSSCs Cheap
Disadvantage less efficient, shorter lifetime

Cheap, Durable, and Eco-friendly cells


Carbon electrode replacing Pt
Solid electrolyte increases lifetime
Potential of perovskite

All Carbon Counter Electrode

Uniform dense coverage of


large-effective-surface-area
polyaromatic hydrocarbon
(LPAH) by use of a
surfactant
Displays similar properties to
Pt
Reduce internal resistance
10 nm
45% enhanced pore
diameter, 3 fold increase in
surface area compared to
carbon black (CB)

Surfactants

Increasing Lifetime

Prevent degradation from


leakage of electrolyte
CsSnI3 has perovskite
structure
High hole mobility
(585 cm2/Vs)
Band gap (1.3eV)
enhances red absorption
Dope with Fluorine

What I did on the SEM for 5 hours yesterday

Perovskite to replace electrolyte


and photosensitizer
Extremely high hole mobility
Effects of temperature on crystals

References

B. Lee, D. B. Buchholz and R. P. H. Chang, An all carbon counter electrode for dye sensitized solar cells. Energy Environ. Sci., 2012, 5, 69416952.
H. Chang, H.M. Wu, T.L. Chen, K.D. Huang, C.S. Jwo, Y.J. Lo, Dye-sensitized solar cell using natural dyes extracted from spinach and ipomoea. Journal of
Alloys and Compounds. Vol 495, 2010, 606-610.
I. Chung, B. Lee, J. He, R. P. H. Chang, M. G. Kanatzidis, All-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells with high efficiency. Nature 485, 486 (2012).
M. Alhamed, A. S. Issa, A. Wael Doubal, Studying of natural dyes properties as a photo-sensitizer for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Journal of Electron
Devices Vol 16, 2012, 1370-1383. <http://www.jeldev.org/16_Mounir.pdf>

M. Sokolsky, M. Kusko, M. Kaiser, J. Cirak, Fabrication and characterization of dye-sensitized solar cells based on natural organic dyes. Elektroenergetika
Vol. 4, 2011.
S. Al-Bathi, I. Alaei, I. Sopyan. Natural photosensitizers for dye sensitized solar cells. International Journal of renewable energy research, Vol. 3, 2013.