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Recursive Algorithms

Design and Analysis of Algorithms

(CS3024)

28/02/2006

CS3024-FAZ

Example 1

Algorithm F(n)

// compute n! recursively

// input: a nonnegative integer n

// output: the value of n!

if n = 0 return 1

else return F(n-1)*n

CS3024-FAZ

Input size = n

Formula:

F(n) = F(n-1) * n; n>0

F(0) = 1

+ 1; n>0

if n = 0 return 1

The call stops when n = 0

M(0) = 0 initial condition

CS3024-FAZ

Solving recurrence relations: Method of

backward substitution

M(n) = M(n-1) + 1

= [M(n-2)+1] + 1 = M(n-2) + 2

= [M(n-3)+1] + 2 = M(n-3) + 3

General formula pattern: M(n)=M(n-i) + i

Initial condition, n=0 i = n:

M(n)= M(n-1)+1 = M(n-2)+2 == M(n-n)+n = n

CS3024-FAZ

Analyzing Efficiency of

Recursive Algorithms (1)

1. Decide on a parameter(s) indicating an inputs

size

2. Identify the algorithms basic operation

(typically, it is located in its inner most loop)

3. Check whether the number of times the basic

operation is executed depends only on the size

of an input. If it also depend on some

additional property, the worst-case, averagecase, and, if necessary, the best-case

efficiencies have to be investigated separately

CS3024-FAZ

Analyzing Efficiency of

Recursive Algorithms (2)

4. Set up a recurrence relation, with an

appropriate initial condition, for the

number of times the algorithms basic

operation is executed

5. Solve the recurrence or at the least

ascertain(memastikan) the order of

growth of its solution

CS3024-FAZ

n disks on different sizes and three pegs

Initially, all disks are on the first peg in

order of size. The largest on the bottom

and the smallest on top

The goal: move all disks to the third peg,

using the second one as an auxiliary

Move only one disk at a time

It is forbidden to place a larger disk on top

of a smaller one

CS3024-FAZ

Goal

Initial

CS3024-FAZ

Tower of Hanoi:

Recursive Solution (1)

CS3024-FAZ

To move n>1 disks from peg 1 to peg 3

(with peg 2 as an auxiliary(alat bantu)):

Move recursively n-1 disk(s) from peg 1 to

peg 2 (with peg 3 as an auxiluiary)

Move the largest disk from peg 1 to peg 3

Move recursively n-1 disk(s) from peg 2 to

peg 3 (with peg 1 as an auxiliary)

CS3024-FAZ

10

Inputs size = the number of disks = n

Basic operation = moving one disk

The number of moves M(n) depends on n

only: M(n) = M(n-1) + 1 + M(n-1) ; for n>1

Recurrence relation:

M(n) = 2M(n-1) + 1 ; for n>1

M(1) = 1 initial condition

CS3024-FAZ

11

Backward substitution:

M(n) = 2M(n-1) + 1

= 2[2M(n-2)+1]+1=22M(n-2)+2+1

= 22 [2M(n-3)+1]+2+1=23M(n-3)+22+2+1

= 24M(n-4)+23+22+2+1

The pattern, after i substitution:

M(n) = 2iM(n-i) + 2i-1 + 2i-2 +..+ 2 + 1

= 2iM(n-i) + 2i - 1

CS3024-FAZ

12

Initial condition, n=1 i=n-1:

M(n) = 2iM(n-i) + 2i - 1

= 2(n-1)M(n-(n-1)) + 2(n-1) -1

= 2(n-1)M(1) + 2(n-1) - 1

= 2(n-1) + 2(n-1) - 1 = 2n - 1

Exponential algorithm!

This is the most efficient algorithm

It is the problems intrinsic difficulty that

makes it so computationally difficult

CS3024-FAZ

13

Example 3

Algorithm BinRec(n)

//input: a positive decimal integer n

//output: the number of binary digits in ns binary

// representation

if n = 1 return 1

else return BinRec(n/2) + 1

CS3024-FAZ

14

The number of additions

A(n) = A(n/2) + 1 ; for n>1

Recursive calls end n=1, initial condition:

A(1) = 0

The presence of n/2 backward substitution

stumble on values of n that are not powers of 2

<!---Why?--->

CS3024-FAZ

15

Use smoothness rule: under the very broad

assumptions the order of growth for n=2k the

order of growth for all values of n

n = 2k :

A(20) = 0

CS3024-FAZ

16

Use backward substitution:

A(2k) = A(2k-1) + 1

= [A(2k-2) + 1] + 1 = A(2k-2) + 2

= [A(2k-3) + 1] + 2 = A(2k-3) + 3

= A(2k-i) + i

= A(2k-k) + k = A(1) + k = k

CS3024-FAZ

17

A(2k) = A(1) + k = k

n = 2k, k = log2 n

A(n) = log2 n (log n)

The exact solution (more refined formula)

A(n) = log2 n

CS3024-FAZ

18

Exercises

Solve the following recurrence relations:

x(n)=x(n-1)+5 for n>1, x(1)=0

x(n)=3x(n-1)+5 for n>1, x(1)=4

x(n)=x(n-1)+n for n>0, x(0)=0

x(n)=x(n/2)+n for n>1, x(1)=1 (solve for n=2k)

x(n)=x(n/3)+1 for n>1, x(1)=1 (solve for n=3k)

CS3024-FAZ

19

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