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Mathematical Analysis of

Recursive Algorithms
Design and Analysis of Algorithms
(CS3024)
28/02/2006

CS3024-FAZ

Example 1
Algorithm F(n)
// compute n! recursively
// input: a nonnegative integer n
// output: the value of n!
if n = 0 return 1
else return F(n-1)*n

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Exp1: Analysis (1)


Input size = n
Formula:
F(n) = F(n-1) * n; n>0
F(0) = 1

The number of multiplication M(n) = M(n-1)


+ 1; n>0
if n = 0 return 1
The call stops when n = 0
M(0) = 0 initial condition
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Exp1: Analysis (2)


Solving recurrence relations: Method of
backward substitution
M(n) = M(n-1) + 1
= [M(n-2)+1] + 1 = M(n-2) + 2
= [M(n-3)+1] + 2 = M(n-3) + 3
General formula pattern: M(n)=M(n-i) + i
Initial condition, n=0 i = n:
M(n)= M(n-1)+1 = M(n-2)+2 == M(n-n)+n = n
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Analyzing Efficiency of
Recursive Algorithms (1)
1. Decide on a parameter(s) indicating an inputs
size
2. Identify the algorithms basic operation
(typically, it is located in its inner most loop)
3. Check whether the number of times the basic
operation is executed depends only on the size
of an input. If it also depend on some
additional property, the worst-case, averagecase, and, if necessary, the best-case
efficiencies have to be investigated separately
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Analyzing Efficiency of
Recursive Algorithms (2)
4. Set up a recurrence relation, with an
appropriate initial condition, for the
number of times the algorithms basic
operation is executed
5. Solve the recurrence or at the least
ascertain(memastikan) the order of
growth of its solution

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Example 2: Tower of Hanoi (1)


n disks on different sizes and three pegs
Initially, all disks are on the first peg in
order of size. The largest on the bottom
and the smallest on top
The goal: move all disks to the third peg,
using the second one as an auxiliary
Move only one disk at a time
It is forbidden to place a larger disk on top
of a smaller one
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Goal

Initial

Example 2: Tower of Hanoi (2)

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Tower of Hanoi:
Recursive Solution (1)

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ToH: Recursive Solution (2)


To move n>1 disks from peg 1 to peg 3
(with peg 2 as an auxiliary(alat bantu)):
Move recursively n-1 disk(s) from peg 1 to
peg 2 (with peg 3 as an auxiluiary)
Move the largest disk from peg 1 to peg 3
Move recursively n-1 disk(s) from peg 2 to
peg 3 (with peg 1 as an auxiliary)

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Exp2: Analysis (1)


Inputs size = the number of disks = n
Basic operation = moving one disk
The number of moves M(n) depends on n
only: M(n) = M(n-1) + 1 + M(n-1) ; for n>1
Recurrence relation:
M(n) = 2M(n-1) + 1 ; for n>1
M(1) = 1 initial condition

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Exp2: Analysis (2)


Backward substitution:
M(n) = 2M(n-1) + 1
= 2[2M(n-2)+1]+1=22M(n-2)+2+1
= 22 [2M(n-3)+1]+2+1=23M(n-3)+22+2+1
= 24M(n-4)+23+22+2+1
The pattern, after i substitution:
M(n) = 2iM(n-i) + 2i-1 + 2i-2 +..+ 2 + 1
= 2iM(n-i) + 2i - 1
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Exp2: Analysis (3)


Initial condition, n=1 i=n-1:
M(n) = 2iM(n-i) + 2i - 1
= 2(n-1)M(n-(n-1)) + 2(n-1) -1
= 2(n-1)M(1) + 2(n-1) - 1
= 2(n-1) + 2(n-1) - 1 = 2n - 1
Exponential algorithm!
This is the most efficient algorithm
It is the problems intrinsic difficulty that
makes it so computationally difficult
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Example 3
Algorithm BinRec(n)
//input: a positive decimal integer n
//output: the number of binary digits in ns binary
// representation
if n = 1 return 1
else return BinRec(n/2) + 1

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Exp3: Analysis (1)


The number of additions
A(n) = A(n/2) + 1 ; for n>1
Recursive calls end n=1, initial condition:
A(1) = 0
The presence of n/2 backward substitution
stumble on values of n that are not powers of 2
<!---Why?--->
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Exp3: Analysis (2)


Use smoothness rule: under the very broad
assumptions the order of growth for n=2k the
order of growth for all values of n
n = 2k :

A(2k) = A(2k-1) + 1 ; for n>1


A(20) = 0

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Exp3: Analysis (3)


Use backward substitution:
A(2k) = A(2k-1) + 1
= [A(2k-2) + 1] + 1 = A(2k-2) + 2
= [A(2k-3) + 1] + 2 = A(2k-3) + 3

= A(2k-i) + i

= A(2k-k) + k = A(1) + k = k
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Exp3: Analysis (4)


A(2k) = A(1) + k = k
n = 2k, k = log2 n
A(n) = log2 n (log n)
The exact solution (more refined formula)
A(n) = log2 n

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Exercises
Solve the following recurrence relations:
x(n)=x(n-1)+5 for n>1, x(1)=0
x(n)=3x(n-1)+5 for n>1, x(1)=4
x(n)=x(n-1)+n for n>0, x(0)=0
x(n)=x(n/2)+n for n>1, x(1)=1 (solve for n=2k)
x(n)=x(n/3)+1 for n>1, x(1)=1 (solve for n=3k)

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